In India, Nuclear power holds the fourth position among the different resources of electricity, Thermal, hydro and renewable resources being first, second and third respectively.
Since the beginning of 1990s, Russia has always been a chief supplier of nuclear fuel to the country of India. Presently India aims at increasing the input of nuclear energy to the total electricity production from 4.2% to 9% by the next 25 years. India envisages a significant growth of its nuclear power industry in the recent future as according to the Indo-US nuclear agreement, India is allowed to carry out international trade of nuclear power and technologies so as to develop its capacity of power generation. Apart from using imported enhanced uranium and being within the safeguards of International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), India has developed several nuclear fuel cycle aspects for supporting its reactors. India has a flourishing and largely indigenous nuclear power programme and expects to have 14,600 MWe nuclear capacity on line by 2024.
Because India is outside the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty due to its weapons programme, it was for 34 years largely excluded from trade in nuclear plant or materials, which has hampered its development of civil nuclear energy until 2009. Due to earlier trade bans and lack of indigenous uranium, India has uniquely been developing a nuclear fuel cycle to exploit its reserves of thorium.
Since 2010, a fundamental incompatibility between India’s civil liability law and international conventions limits foreign technology provision. India has a vision of becoming a world leader in nuclear technology due to its expertise in fast reactors and thorium fuel cycle.
India’s primary energy consumption more than doubled between 1990 and 2011 to nearly 25,000 PJ.
The 2015 edition of BP’s Energy Outlook projected India’s energy production rising by 117% to 2035, while consumption grows by 128%. Electricity demand in India is increasing rapidly, and the 1128 billion kilowatt hours (TWh) gross produced in 2012 was more than triple the 1990 output, though still represented only some 750 kWh per capita for the year.
NPCIL supplied 35 TWh of India's electricity in 2013-14 from 5.3 GWe nuclear capacity, with overall capacity factor of 83% and availability of 88%.
The target since about 2004 was for nuclear power to provide 20 GWe by 2020, but in 2007 the Prime Minister referred to this as "modest" and capable of being "doubled with the opening up of international cooperation." However, it is evident that even the 20 GWe target would require substantial uranium imports. In July 2014 the new Prime Minister urged DAE to triple the nuclear capacity to 17 GWe by 2024. Longer term, the Atomic Energy Commission however envisages some 500 GWe nuclear on line by 2060, and has since speculated that the amount might be higher still: 600-700 GWe by 2050, providing half of all electricity.
As a result, India's nuclear power program has proceeded largely without fuel or technological assistance from other countries (but see later section). India's nuclear energy self-sufficiency extended from uranium exploration and mining through fuel fabrication, heavy water production, reactor design and construction, to reprocessing and waste management. The Nuclear Power Corporation of India Ltd (NPCIL) is responsible for design, construction, commissioning and operation of thermal nuclear power plants. In December 2014 the 40% of nuclear capacity under safeguards was operating on imported uranium at rated capacity. The two Tarapur150 MWe Boiling Water Reactors (BWRs) built by GE on a turnkey contract before the advent of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty were originally 200 MWe.
The two small Canadian (Candu) PHWRs at Rajasthan nuclear power plant started up in 1972 & 1980, and are also under safeguards. The 220 MWe PHWRs (202 MWe net) were indigenously designed and constructed by NPCIL, based on a Canadian design. Following the Fukushima accident in March 2011, four NPCIL taskforces evaluated the situation in India and in an interim report in July made recommendations for safety improvements of the Tarapur BWRs and each PHWR type. The Tarapur 3&4 reactors of 540 MWe gross (490 MWe net) were developed indigenously from the 220 MWe (gross) model PHWR and were built by NPCIL. Russia is supplying all the enriched fuel through the life of the plant, though India will reprocess it and keep the plutonium*. In mid-2008 Indian nuclear power plants were running at about half of capacity due to a chronic shortage of fuel. In April 2015 the government gave in principle approval for new nuclear plants at ten sites in nine states. Following the Nuclear Suppliers Group agreement which was achieved in September 2008, the scope for supply of both reactors and fuel from suppliers in other countries opened up.
On the basis of the 2010 cooperation agreement with Canada, in April 2013 a bilateral safeguards agreement was signed between the Department of Atomic Energy (DAE) and the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC), allowing trade in nuclear materials and technology for facilities which are under IAEA safeguards.
The initial two Russian PWR types at the Kudankulam site were apart from India's three-stage plan for nuclear power and were simply to increase generating capacity more rapidly. Between 2010 and 2020, further nuclear plant construction is expected to take total gross capacity to 21,180 MWe. In late 2008 NPCIL announced that as part of the Eleventh Five Year Plan (2007-12), it would start site work for 12 reactors including the rest of the eight 700 MWe PHWRs, three or four fast breeder reactors and one 300 MWe advanced heavy water reactor (AHWR) in 2009. In mid-2015 NPCIL confirmed plans for Kaiga 5&6 as 700 MWe PHWR units, costing about Rs 6,000 crore. The EIA report for Chutka Madhya Pradesh power plant was released in March 2013, the expected cost for two units is Rs 16550 crores ($2.78 billion).
NPCIL is also planning to build an indigenous 900 MWe PWR, the Indian Pressurised Water Reactor (IPWR), designed by BARC in connection with its work on submarine power plants.
In line with past practice such as at the eight-unit Rajasthan nuclear plant, NPCIL intends to set up five further "Nuclear Energy Parks", each with a capacity for up to eight new-generation reactors of 1,000 MWe, six reactors of 1600 MWe or simply 10,000 MWe at a single location.
Gorakhpur Haryana Anu Vidyut Pariyojana (GHAVP) in the Fatehabad district of Haryana is a project with four indigenous 700 MWe PHWR units in two phases, and the AEC has approved the state's proposal for the 2800 MWe plant. Chutka (CNPP) in inland Madhya Pradesh is also designated for two indigenous 700 MWe PHWR units. In 2014 the Chinese president initiated discussions with his Indian counterpart about building nuclear power plants, raising he possibility that China could compete with France, Russia, Japan and the USA.
India's largest power company, National Thermal Power Corporation (NTPC) in 2007 proposed building a 2000 MWe nuclear power plant to be in operation by 2017. NTPC said it aimed by 2014 to have demonstrated progress in "setting up nuclear power generation capacity", and that the initial "planned nuclear portfolio of 2000 MWe by 2017" may be greater. NTPC is reported to be establishing a joint venture with NPCIL and BHEL to sell India's largely indigenous 220 MWe heavy water power reactor units abroad, possibly in contra deals involving uranium supply from countries such as Namibia and Mongolia. The 87% state-owned National Aluminium Company (Nalco) has signed an agreement with NPCIL relevant to its hopes of building a 1400 MWe nuclear power plant on the east coast, in Orissa's Ganjam district. India's national oil company, Indian Oil Corporation Ltd (IOC), in November 2009 joined with NPCIL in an agreement "for partnership in setting up nuclear power plants in India." The initial plant envisaged was to be at least 1000 MWe, and NPCIL would be the operator and at least 51% owner. The cash-rich Oil and Natural Gas Corporation (ONGC), which (upstream of IOC) provides some 80% of the country's crude oil and natural gas and is 84% government-owned, is having formal talks with AEC about becoming a minority partner with NPCIL on present or planned 700 MWe PHWR projects. Indian Railways, with power requirement of 3000 MWe now and rising to 5000 MWe about 2022, has also approached NPCIL to set up a joint venture to build two 500 MWe PHWR nuclear plants on railway land or existing nuclear sites for its own power requirements.
The Steel Authority of India Ltd (SAIL) and NPCIL are discussing a joint venture to build a 700 MWe PHWR plant.
The government has announced that it intends to amend the law to allow private companies to be involved in nuclear power generation and possibly other aspects of the fuel cycle, but without direct foreign investment. In September 2009 the AEC announced a version of its planned Advanced Heavy Water Reactor (the AHWR-300 LEU) designed for export. As described above, there have been a succession of agreements with Russia's Atomstroyexport to build further VVER reactors. In March 2009 GE Hitachi Nuclear Energy signed agreements with NPCIL and Bharat Heavy Electricals Ltd (BHEL) to begin planning to build a multi-unit power plant using 1350 MWe Advanced Boiling Water Reactors (ABWR). After a break of three decades, Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd (AECL) was keen to resume technical cooperation, especially in relation to servicing India's PHWRs (though this would now be undertaken by Candu Energy), and there were preliminary discussions regarding the sale of an ACR-1000. In August 2009 NPCIL signed agreements with Korea Electric Power Co (KEPCO) to study the prospects for building Korean APR-1400 reactors in India. Longer term, the AEC envisages its fast reactor program being 30 to 40 times bigger than the PHWR program, and initially at least, largely in the military sphere until its "synchronised working" with the reprocessing plant is proven on an 18- to 24-month cycle.
Following these will be a 1000 MWe fast reactor using metallic fuel, and construction of the first is expected to start about 2020. In the context of India's trade isolation over three decades L&T has produced heavy components for 17 of India's pressurized heavy water reactors (PHWRs) and has also secured contracts for 80% of the components for the fast breeder reactor at Kalpakkam. Following the 2008 removal of trade restrictions, Indian companies led by Reliance Power (RPower), NPCIL, and Bharat Heavy Electricals Ltd (BHEL) said that they plan to invest over US$ 50 billion in the next five years to expand their manufacturing base in the nuclear energy sector.
Two contracts awarded by NPCIL to a consortium of BHEL and Alstom cover the supply and installation of turbogenerator packages for Kakrapar 3&4, the first indigenously designed 700 MWe pressurised heavy water reactors.
HCC (Hindustan Construction Co.) has built more than half of India's nuclear power capacity, notably all 6 units of the Rajasthan Atomic Power Project and also Kudankulam. Areva signed an agreement with Bharat Forge in January 2009 to set up a joint venture in casting and forging nuclear components for both export and the domestic market, by 2012. In August 2010 GE Hitachi Nuclear Energy (GEH) signed a preliminary agreement with India’s Tata Consulting Engineers, Ltd. In April 2012 Atomenergomash was negotiating with potential Indian partners on localization of some productions and design of equipment for nuclear power plants being built to the Russian technology both in India and other Asian countries such as Bangladesh and Vietnam. In Telengana, the new northern inland state subdivided from Andhra Pradesh in 2013, the Lambapur-Peddagattu project in Nalgonda district 110 km southeast of Hyderabad has environmental clearance for one open cut and three small underground mines (based on some 6000 tU resources at about 0.1%U) but faces local opposition. In Karnataka, UCIL is planning a small underground uranium mine in the Bhima basin at Gogi in Gulbarga area from 2014, after undertaking a feasibility study, and getting central government approval in mid-2011, state approval in November 2011 and explicit state support in June 2012.


However, India has reasonably assured resouirces of 319,000 tonnes of thorium – about 13% of the world total, and these are intended to fuel its nuclear power program longer-term (see below). AMD claims almost 12 million tonnes of monazite which might contain 700,000 tonnes of thorium.
Following an IAEA safeguards agreement, an NSG resolution and finally US Congress approval of a bilateral trade agreement in October 2008, two months later Russia's Rosatom and Areva from France had contracted to supply uranium for power generation, while Kazakhstan, Brazil and South Africa were preparing to do so. In January 2009 NPCIL signed a memorandum of understanding with Kazatomprom for supply of 2100 tonnes of uranium concentrate over six years and a feasibility study on building Indian PHWR reactors in Kazakhstan. In September 2009 India signed uranium supply and nuclear cooperation agreements with Namibia and Mongolia. India is a member of IAEA, and has a bilateral agreement with US on peaceful nuclear cooperation. Adequate resources of uranium have been identified by the Uranium Corporation of India Ltd. India turned to Canada-a country with extensive experience in building and operating experimental heavy-water reactors-for assistance in developing its commercial nuclear industry. BARC has developed comprehensive technology for industrial operations in fuel reprocessing and waste management. In 1995, India had an installed electrical generating capacity of 81 gigawatts (GW), of which 73 percent was thermal. Presently 19 nuclear power plants in India are there, which generates 4,560 MW (2.9% of total installed base) and 4 such power plants are in the pipeline and would be generating around 2,720 MW.
The deterioration of domestic uranium resources caused the decline of electricity production from nuclear energy in India by 12.83% during 2006 to 2008.
During the operational phase of this deal, the country is expected to improve its total nuclear power production to 45,000 MW by generating an additional nuclear power of 25,000 MW by 2020.
India's dependence on imported energy resources and the inconsistent reform of the energy sector are challenges to satisfying rising demand. With large transmission losses – 193 TWh (17%) in 2012, this resulted in only about 869 billion kWh consumption.
In June 2009 NPCIL said it aimed for 60 GWe nuclear by 2032, including 40 GWe of PWR capacity and 7 GWe of new PHWR capacity, all fuelled by imported uranium. He praised “India's self-reliance in the nuclear fuel cycle and the commercial success of the indigenous reactors.” He also emphasized the importance of maintaining the commercial viability and competitiveness of nuclear energy compared with other clean energy sources. Since building the two small boiling water reactors at Tarapur in the 1960s, its civil nuclear strategy has been directed towards complete independence in the nuclear fuel cycle, necessary because it is excluded from the 1970 Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) due to it acquiring nuclear weapons capability after 1970.
Plans for building the first Pressurised Heavy Water Reactor (PHWR) were finalised in 1964, and this prototype – Rajasthan 1, which had Canada's Douglas Point reactor as a reference unit, was built as a collaborative venture between Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd (AECL) and NPCIL. The remainder, which relies on indigenous uranium, was operating below capacity, though the supply situation was said to be improving. The only accident to an Indian nuclear plant was due to a turbine hall fire in 1993 at Narora, which resulted in a 17-hour total station blackout. The report of a high-level committee appointed by the Atomic Energy Regulatory Board (AERB) was submitted at the end of August 2011, saying that the Tarapur and Madras plants needed some supplementary provisions to cope with major disasters.
The first unit was due to start supplying power in March 2008 and go into commercial operation late in 2008, but this schedule slipped by six years. Unit 4 started up in November 2010 and was grid-connected in January 2011, but is about 30 months behind original schedule due to shortage of uranium.
Average load factor for India’s power reactors dipped below 60% over 2006-2010, reaching only 40% in 2008. It was expected to start up about the end of 2010 and produce power in 2011, but this schedule is delayed significantly. These and future planned ones were 450 (now 490) MWe versions of the 202 MWe domestic products.
Two of the sites – Kakrapar and Rajasthan – would have 700 MWe indigenous PHWR units, Kudankulam would have imported 1000 MWe VVER light water reactors alongside the two being built there by Russia, and the fourth site was greenfield for two 1000 MWe LWR units – Jaitapur (Jaithalpur) in the Ratnagiri district of Maharashtra state, on the west coast. Now there are plans for eight 1000 MWe units at that site, and in January 2007 a memorandum of understanding was signed for Russia to build the next four there, as well as others elsewhere in India.
These resulted in more formal agreements with each reactor supplier early in 2009, as described in the Nuclear Energy Parks subsection below.
NPCIL said that "India is now focusing on capacity addition through indigenisation" with progressively higher local content for imported designs, up to 80%.
Construction start is planned for June and December 2015, with completion in December 2020 and June 2021. The approved project cost is Rs 39,849 crore ($6.25 billion), about double per MW that of established PHWR plants, but using the ruble as currency peg. Major industrial developments are planned in that area and Orissa was the first Indian state to privatise electricity generation and transmission.
It would be the utility's first nuclear plant and also the first conventional nuclear plant not built by the government-owned NPCIL.
A more specific agreement was signed in November 2011 to set up a joint venture with NPCIL – NPCIL Nalco Power Co Ltd – giving it 26 or 29% equity in Kakrapar 3&4 (total 1300 MWe net) under construction in Gujarat on the west coast for Rs 1700 crore ($285 million). The Railways already has a joint venture with NTPC – Bhartiya Rail Bijlee Company – to build a 1000 MWe coal-fired power plant at Nabi Nagar in Aurangabad district of Bihar, with the 250 MWe units coming on line 2014-15. In anticipation of this, Reliance Power Ltd, GVK Power & Infrastructure Ltd and GMR Energy Ltd are reported to be in discussion with overseas nuclear vendors including Areva, GE-Hitachi, Westinghouse and Atomstroyexport.
This followed the government signing a nuclear cooperation agreement with France in September 2008. Areva says that the EPR has achieved Design Acceptance Certification in India. This could proceed following bilateral nuclear cooperation agreements signed in October 2010 and July 2011.
It formed a 20 billion rupee (US$ 463 million) venture with NPCIL to build a new plant for domestic and export nuclear forgings at its Hazira, Surat coastal site in Gujarat state.
It is qualified by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers to fabricate nuclear-grade pressure vessels and core support structures, achieving this internationally recognised quality standard in 2007, and further ASME accreditation in 2010. BHEL planned to spend $7.5 billion in two years building plants to supply components for reactors of 1,600 MWe. In 2010 a Memorandum of Understanding with Walchandnagar Industries Ltd (India) was signed by Atomenergomash. Mining and processing of uranium is carried out by Uranium Corporation of India Ltd (UCIL), also a subsidiary of the Department of Atomic Energy (DAE), in Jharkhand near Calcutta.
A portable mill is planned for Diggi or Saidpur nearby, using conventional alkaline leaching.
The latter was reaffirmed in May 2015, noting that Mongolian uranium “could help power India’s low-carbon growth.” In March 2010 Russia offered India a stake in the Elkon uranium mining development in its Sakha Republic, and agreed on a joint venture with ARMZ Uranium Holding Co. India has not signed the NPT and has generally resisted the imposition of safeguards by individual suppliers (this has led to difficulties with supply of enriched uranium, reactor equipment, and heavy water). As a result, 8 of the 10 currently operating nuclear plants employ CANDU-style heavy water reactors.
Among them, signed in mid-1990, agreements with Vietnam (pilot plant for monazite processing supplied by India) and Cuba (Cuban scientists being trained in nuclear power generation in India) for expanded cooperation in nuclear energy. At the beginning of 1995, total net nuclear generating capacity was 1,493 megawatts (MW), although actual utilization rates are estimated at under 30 percent. The current five-year development plan, in effect since 1992, called for adding 48 GW of electrical generating capacity to its then existing capacity of 75 GW.
India's contribution in fusion development is done through its involvement in the ITER project.
The country has signed contracts regarding nuclear power with countries like France, United Kingdom, United States, Canada, Mongolia, Namibia, Kazakhstan and Argentina after the Nuclear Suppliers Group declared a waiver in September 2008 to allow India to commence worldwide nuclear trade.
As per the report published in 2009, India holds the 9th position in regards to the count of operational nuclear energy reactors in the world and 9 are still under construction which includes 2 EPRs constructed by Areva in France. Gross generation comprised 801 TWh from coal, 94 TWh from gas, 23 TWh from oil, 33 TWh from nuclear, 126 TWh from hydro and 50 TWh from other renewables. The government's 12th five-year plan for 2012-17 is targeting the addition of 94 GWe over the period, costing $247 billion. All are run by the state-owned Power Grid Corporation of India Ltd (PGCI), which operates more than 95,000 circuit km of transmission lines. A 2010 estimate shows big differences among states, with some very high, and a national average of 27% T&D loss, well above the target 15% set in 2001 when the average figure was 34%.
The environment minister in September 2014 said it would be 30 years before India would be likely to see a decrease in CO2 emissions. India's fuel situation, with shortage of fossil fuels, is driving the nuclear investment for electricity, and 25% nuclear contribution is the ambition for 2050, when 1094 GWe of base-load capacity is expected to be required.
Its power reactors to the mid-1990s had some of the world's lowest capacity factors, reflecting the technical difficulties of the country's isolation, but rose impressively from 60% in 1995 to 85% in 2001-02.
It is also developing technology to utilise its abundant resources of thorium as a nuclear fuel.
It started up in 1972 and was duplicated Subsequent indigenous PHWR development has been based on these units, though several stages of evolution can be identified: PHWRs with dousing and single containment at Rajasthan 1-2, PHWRs with suppression pool and partial double containment at Madras, and later standardized PHWRs from Narora onwards having double containment, suppression pool, and calandria filled with heavy water, housed in a water-filled calandria vault. In the latter part of 2011 and into 2012 completion and fuel loading was delayed by public protests, but in March 2012 the state government approved the plant's commissioning and said it would deal with any obstruction.
A further such agreement was signed in December 2010, and Rosatom announced that it expected to build no less than 18 reactors in India. This planned increment includes those set out in the Table below including the initial 300 MWe Advanced Heavy Water Reactor (AHWR).


Looking further ahead its augmentation plan included construction of 25-30 light water reactors of at least 1000 MWe by 2030. In the event only four 700 MWe PHWR units started construction over 2007-12. NPCIL was hoping to be able to start work by 2012 on at least four new reactors at all four sites designated for imported plants, but this did not happen. In mid-2015 it was reported that an additional site could be assigned for a Japanese multi-unit plant.
Agreements intended for mid-2010 were delayed on account of supplier liability questions, with India wanting the units to come under its 2010 vendor liability law.
The inland northern state of Haryana is one of the country's most industrialized and has a demand of 8900 MWe, but currently generates less than 2000 MWe and imports 4000 MWe. NTPC, now 89.5% government-owned, planned to increase its total installed capacity from 30 GWe in about 2007 to 50 GWe by 2012 (72% of it coal) and 75 GWe by 2017. The estimated project cost is Rs 12,320 crore (123 billion rupees, $2.1 billion), and the 26% will represent only 2% of IOC's capital budget in the 11th plan to 2012. The Railways also plans to set up another 2 x 660 MWe supercritical thermal power plant at Adra in Purulia district of West Bengal for traction supply at economical tariff. In April 2010 it was announced that the BHEL-NPCIL joint venture was still in discussion with an unnamed technology partner to build a 1400 MWe nuclear plant at Chutka in Madhya Pradesh state, with Madhya Pradesh Power Generating Company Limited (MPPGCL) the nodal agency to facilitate the execution of the project.
This 40 GWe of imported LWR capacity multiplied to 400 GWe via FBR would complement 200-250 GWe based on the indigenous three-stage program of PHWR-FBR-AHWR (see Thorium cycle section below). A fuel fabrication plant and a reprocessing plant for metal fuels are planned for Kalpakkam, as the Fast Reactor Fuel Cycle Facility approved for construction in 2013. This will produce 600-tonne ingots in its steel melt shop and have a very large forging press to supply finished forgings for nuclear reactors, pressurizers and steam generators, and also heavy forgings for critical equipment in the hydrocarbon sector and for thermal power plants. In 2015 Westinghouse said that it was equipped to produce reactor pressure vessels and other major components for AP1000 reactors. It also plans to set up a tripartite joint venture with NPCIL and Alstom to supply turbines for nuclear plants of 700 MWe, 1,000 MWe and 1,600 MWe. The project was opened in April and first commercial production was in June 2012, using an innovative pressurised alkaline leaching process (this being the first time alkaline leaching is used in India). However, federal environmental approval in December 2007 for a proposed uranium mine and processing plant here and for the Nongstin mine has been reported. In March 2013 both countries agreed to extend the civil nuclear cooperation agreement past 2014. Indian policy is to achieve self-sufficiency in CANDU-type and LWR fuel cycle--uranium mining and milling, conversion to UO2, fuel fabrication, reprocessing (in small plants adjacent to power stations).
The uranium fuel rods used in India's heavy-water nuclear power plants can be processed to extract plutonium that can be used in nuclear weapons.
In January 1996, India signed agreements with Brazil and Thailand to help those countries develop their nuclear energy programs. India even signed a $700 million agreement with Russia in February 2009 about 2000 tons nuclear fuel supply. Three quarters of this would be coal- or lignite-fired, and only 3.4 GWe nuclear, including two imported 1000 MWe units planned at one site and two indigenous 700 MWe units at another. In July 2012 the Northern grid failed with 35,669 MWe load in the early morning, and the following day it plus parts of two other grids failed again so that over 600 million people in 22 states were without power for up to a day. However, it is aiming to involve other public sector and private corporations in future nuclear power expansion, notably National Thermal Power Corporation (NTPC) – see subsection below.
However, late in 2004 Russia deferred to the Nuclear Suppliers' Group and declined to supply further uranium for them.
Its twin – unit 3 – was about a year behind it and was connected to the grid in June 2006 with commercial operation in August, five months ahead of schedule.
With construction completed, in June 2015 Bhavini was “awaiting clearance from the AERB for sodium charging, fuel loading, reactor criticality and then stepping up power generation." Criticality was expected in September, with full power about April 2016. Then in December 2014 another high-level nuclear cooperation agreement was signed with a view to Russia building 20 more reactors plus cooperation in building Russian-designed nuclear power plants in third countries, in uranium mining, production of nuclear fuel, and waste management.
An important aspect of all these agreements is that, as with Kudankulam, India will reprocess the used fuel to recover plutonium for its indigenous three-stage program, using a purpose-built and safeguarded Integrated Nuclear Recycle Plant. Compensation for land acquisition was being organised. However, with no change to the 2010 Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage Act, GEH in September 2015 said it would not proceed with any investment in India until the country’s liability regime was brought into line with the rest of the world.
In 2015 Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka had expressed interest in hosting further Russian plants. Associate company Atomenergomash (AEM) is setting up an office in India with a view to bidding for future work there and in Vietnam, and finalizing a partnership with an Indian heavy manufacturer, either L&T (see below) or another.
Thus AEC is "talking about 500 to 600 GWe nuclear over the next 50 years or so" in India, plus export opportunities. In April it signed an agreement with Atomstroyexport primarily focused on components for the next four VVER reactors at Kudankulam, but extending beyond that to other Russian VVER plants in India and internationally. In September 2009 it formed a joint venture with UK-based engineering and project management firm AMEC PLC to undertake consulting services and nuclear power plant construction. In 2013 it was importing about 40% of uranium requirements. In July 2015 record annual domestic production of 1252 t U3O8 was reported. Normally for electrical power production the uranium fuel remains in the reactor for three to four years, which produces a plutonium of 60 percent or less Pu-239, 25 percent or more Pu-240, 10 percent or more Pu-241, and a few percent Pu-242. A comprehensive waste management technology for handling and safe disposal of all types of waste generated in the nuclear industries has been developed by the Center. In December 1995, Russia's Ministry for Atomic Energy agreed to provide technical assistance for India's nuclear program.
India's $717 million venture of swift breeder reactor is likely to operate before the end of 2010. While there is a limitation in the country's Uranium deposit, there are some greater treasuries of Thorium which can multiply the power with the equal mass of fuel by hundred times. By 2032 total installed capacity of 700 GWe is planned to meet 7-9% GDP growth, and this was to include 63 GWe nuclear. Unlike other Atomstroyexport projects such as in Iran, there have been only about 80 Russian supervisory staff on the job. Construction started in March 2002. It had reached full power in mid-year but then required turbine repairs, though it generated 2.8 TWh in its first year.
India was also to confirm a second location for a Russian plant – Haripur in West Bengal being in some doubt. In May a general framework agreement to build the plants was signed, and in December contracts with Rosatom for the supply of major components for the two units were signed, and in September 2015 Rosatom contracted Atomenergomash for the complete supply of the reactors. Then in May 2009 it signed an agreement with GE Hitachi to produce major components for ABWRs from its new Hazira JV plant. Another joint venture is with NPCIL and a foreign partner to make steam generators for 1000-1600 MWe plants. HCC has an order backlog worth 10.5 billion rupees ($220 million) for nuclear projects from NPCIL and expects six nuclear reactors to be tendered by the end of 2010. UCIL plans also to utilise the uranium deposits in the Bhima belt from Sedam in Gulbarga to Muddebihal in Bijapur.
India has declined to sign either the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty or the Comprehensive Test Ban (CTB) Treaty. India's Atomic Energy Commission projects an increase of 880-MW in the country's nuclear generating capacity by 1998.
The OECD’s International Energy Agency predicts that India will need some $1600 billion investment in power generation, transmission and distribution to 2035.
In December 2008 a $700 million contract with Rosatom was announced for continued uranium supply to them. In 2015 a further contract was signed with TVEL for pellets which will be incorporated into fuel assemblies at the Nuclear Fuel Complex in Hyderabad. The credit lines carry interest at 4% pa and would be repayable over 14 years and 4 years respectively, from one year after the start of power generation. Two more such 500 MWe fast reactors have been announced for construction at Kalpakkam, but slightly redesigned by the Indira Gandhi Centre to reduce capital cost. The two companies hope to utilize indigenous Indian capabilities for the complete construction of nuclear power plants including the supply of reactor equipment and systems, valves, electrical and instrumentation products for ABWR plants to be built in India. This will occur with the completion of the Kaiga-1 and -2 units and the Kata-3 and -4 plants, which are located in Karnataka and Rajasthan, respectively. At Kalpakkam Atomic Power Station located in Madras, a prototype reactor is still under construction which would be able to burn Uranium-Plutonium fuel whilst irradiating a Thorium layer. The 1962 Atomic Energy Act prohibits private control of nuclear power generation, though it allows minority investment.
For the production of weapons-grade plutonium with lower Pu-240 concentrations, the fuel rods in a reactor have to be changed frequently, about every four months or less. As of late 2010 the government had no intention of changing this to allow greater private equity in nuclear plants.
This is based on plans to start serial production of reactors for the Indian nuclear industry, with much of the equipment and components proposed to be manufactured in India, thereby bringing down costs. Early in 2010 L&T signed an agreement with Rolls Royce to produce technology and components for light water reactors in India and internationally. Consequently, India could be harvesting weapons-grade plutonium from its commercial power plants by changing some of the fuel rods often without producing readily visible indicators.



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