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Author: admin | Category: Auto Rate Calculator | Date: 24.02.2016

Following up on my articles on the history of solar power science, history of solar power policy, history of solar power manufacturing, history of wind turbines, and history of trains, here’s a piece on the history of electric cars. Most people mean “electric car” when they say “electric vehicle.” Electric vehicles could also be electric trains, trams, bicycles, skateboards, and so on, but that’s not what most people think about when they think about electric vehicles.
If you’re fairly new to electric cars, you might think their history goes back just a few years. 1828: Hungarian inventor Anyos Jedlik, who had invented an early electric motor, builds a small, model car powered by this motor. 1834: Vermont blacksmith Thomas Davenport and his wife Emily build a small, model electric car that runs on a circular, electrified track.
1835: In the Netherlands, Professor Sibrandus Stratingh of Groningen and his assistant, Christopher Becker, build a small electric car powered by primary cells (nonrechargeable batteries).
1859: French physicist Gaston Plante invents the lead-acid battery, which actually makes practical electric cars a possibility. 1881: French scientist Camille Alphonse Faure greatly improves the design of lead-acid batteries, increasing their capacity substantially.
1881: An electric tricycle built by Gaston Plante is displayed at the International Exhibition of Electricity in Paris. 1881: Parisian engineer and carriage builder Charles Jeantaud, with the help of Camille Alphonse Faure, builds an electric car using a Tilbury-style buggy, a Gramme motor, and the Fulmen battery. 1884: English inventor Thomas Parker builds in first practical production electric car in London. 1884: College dropout Andrew Riker, while living in his parents’ basement, develops an electric trike using lead-sulfuric acid batteries that has 25 miles of range. 1888: Andrew Riker forms the Riker Electric Vehicle Company, which is based in Elizabeth Port, New Jersey. 1888: Elwell-Parker Company and rivals merge in England to form the Electric Construction Corporation.
1890-1891: The first American electric car is built by William Morrison of Des Moines, Iowa. 1896: Morris and Salom build a 2-seat “Electric Road Wagon” and form the “Electric Carriage and Wagon Company,” apparently the first electric car company in the US.
1896: To overcome range limitations and lack of charging infrastructure, a battery exchange (aka battery swap) service is proposed.
1899: Riker Electric Vehicle Company, Electric Carriage and Wagon Company, Electric Storage Battery, and Samuel’s Electric Carriage and Wagon Company merge to form the “Electric Vehicle Company,” attempting to create a monopoly in the US electric vehicle market.
1900: 38% of US automobiles, 33,842 cars, are powered by electricity (40% by steam, and 22% by gasoline). 1907: Detroit Electric, an electric car produced by the Anderson Electric Car Company, is born. 1908: Henry Ford starts producing the Model T, but he also buys his wife, Clara, a Detroit Electric Model C coupe (since she preferred electric cars). 1911: The first gasoline-electric hybrid car is released by Woods Motor Vehicle Company, which is based out of Chicago.
1913: Mass production of the Ford Model T on the first modern assembly line deals a strong blow to early-era electric cars, as it brings down the cost of gasoline cars considerably (making electric cars two or even three times more expensive in the coming years).
1923: Milburn, one of few remaining electric vehicle companies, sells out to main body client General Motors. 1959-1961: The Henney Kilowatt, a small electric car, is produced by Henney Coachworks and the National Union Electric Company.
1976: The US Congress passes the Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Research, Development, and Demonstration Act, which increases research and development of electric motors, batteries, and other components of electric and hybrid vehicles.
1985: Saied Motai drives an electric vehicle 230 miles (370 kilometers) on a single charge. 1990: General Motors (GM) introduces the GM Impact, an electric concept car, at the Los Angeles Auto Show. 1994: The REVA Electric Car Company is formed in India, a joint venture between the Maini Group India and AEV of California. 1996: The first 660 EV1s produced are built with GM lead-acid batteries with an advertised range of 70–100 miles (but closer to 60).
2001: REVA Electric Car Company releases the REVAi (aka “G-Wiz” in the UK), an electric microcar powered by lead-acid batteries (pictured above).
2002: GM and DaimlerChrysler finally sue CARB over the ZEV Mandate, and are joined in the suit by the Bush Administration. 2004: Tesla Motors begins work on the Tesla Roadster, a 100% electric sports car based on the design of the popular and stylish Lotus Elise. 2006: Tesla Motors unveils the Tesla Roadster (pictured above) at the San Francisco International Auto Show. 2008: The Tesla Roadster becomes the first production electric vehicle to use lithium-ion battery cells as well as the first production electric vehicle to have a range of over 200 miles on a single charge.
2008: While campaigning for the presidency, Barack Obama states that he would push for 1 million plug-in hybrid and electric vehicles on US roadways by 2015 if elected president.


2009: BYD releases the world’s first plug-in hybrid compact sedan, the F3DM (pictured above). 2009: REVA Electric Car Company releases the REVA L-ion, an updated version of its electric microcar this time powered by lithium-ion batteries. 2009: $2 billion goes toward the development of electric vehicle batteries and related technologies under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009, and another $400 million goes toward the development of plug-in vehicle charging infrastructure.
2009: The US Department of Energy awards $8 billion in fuel-efficient vehicle loans to Ford, Tesla Motors, and Nissan, part of $25 billion dedicated for such a purpose under the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007.
2009: Tesla unveils the Model S electric sedan (pictured above), which quickly gets top ratings from leading auto journalists and consumer technology review company Consumer Reports. 2010: Mass production of the 100% electric Nissan Leaf (pictured above) begins in Japan, and the car is sold in Japan and the US.
2010: Production of the BYD e6 (pictured above) begins in China, initially just for fleet customers.
2010: Mass production of the Chevy Volt (pictured above), an extended-range electric vehicle (also referred to as a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle), begins in the US. 2010: ~25,000 electric cars are on the roads globally (fewer than were on US roads in 1912, but many more than just a few years prior).
2011: The Bollore Bluecar is released in France, initially just used in Paris’ Autolib’ carsharing program. 2011: ~80,000 electric cars are on the roads globally, more than three times the number from the year before.
2012: Tesla begins building a North American Supercharger network, which Tesla owners can use for free.
2013: The Nissan Leaf gets a $6,000 price cut in the US thanks to the start of production in the US (Tennessee).
2013: For certain months, the Nissan Leaf and the Tesla Model S each become the top-selling car of any type in Norway.
2013: The Renault–Nissan Alliance passes 100,000 plug-in electric vehicle sales globally, the first company to do so.
2013: ~405,000 electric cars are on the roads globally, more than twice the number from the year before.
2014: Tesla announces plans to build a battery “gigafactory” in order to ensure it has enough batteries for its current and upcoming vehicles.
2014: Tesla announces that its 3rd-generation, much more affordable vehicle will be called Tesla Model III.
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Toyota sells the most cars worldwide than any other car company, but does that make them the most popular car company in the United States? Interestingly, the results of this study differ from Google’s own Trends report, which gathered search data from January to December 2014 and showed that the most searched car brand in the U.S. Looking at the map, it’s hard not to notice that the country is essentially divided between Toyota and Ford, with a few other brands scattered about.
Toyota dominates a U-shaped area from Washington down the west coast, along the south and up to New England. The only Midwest state to lean Toyota is Illinois, which makes sense as Chicagoland buyers are more likely to by cars, despite there being a lot of farmland in the state. Another interesting anomaly is the appearance of Subaru in areas of the Rockies and New England. The only other carmaker to hang with Ford and Toyota in any state is Hyundai, who tied Toyota in Florida. Two observations of little value: No state is a GM or Chrysler state and all of the car emblems are ovals.
To keep things simple, I’m mostly just delving into the history of “electric cars” in this article. However, there have actually been a few eras of electric cars, dating back to the early 1800s.
Powered by galvanic cells, the larger one, built in 1841, can pull 6 tons at 4 miles per hour for about 1? miles. The Electric Construction Corporation thus gains a monopoly on the production of electric cars in the coming decade.
They use regenerative braking, with the captured energy stored in a battery and later used to help power the motor. Implemented by Hartford Electric Light Company, the service is initially available for electric trucks. This earns him the nickname “Electric Count.” Incidentally, the world record lasts for just a few days before being beaten by another electric vehicle. Ironically, this harms the electric car market, as gasoline-powered cars can now be easily and quickly started (without having to use a hand crank). GM President Roger Smith also announces that GM will produce electric cars for the consumer market (which finally happens in 1997, but the car is only available to lease).


The main law is the Zero Emission Vehicle (ZEV) Mandate, which requires 2% of California’s vehicles to have 0 tailpipe emissions by 1998, and 10% by 2003. GM also began PrEView, a program whereby 50 handbuilt Impact electric cars would be lent to drivers for periods of 1–2 weeks.
They win the lawsuit and the California ZEV Mandate is changed to allow ZEV credits instead of ZEVs. The car changes the image of electric cars for many, and also spurs some major automakers to genuinely jump into the electric car market.
It uses lithium-iron-phosphate batteries, which have less energy density but are more stable than lithium-ion batteries used in the Tesla Roadster. It hits the European, Chinese, and Australian markets in 2010; and then the US and other markets in 2011. The instigation of this car and possibly all other modern plug-in cars was the Tesla Roadster.
It is supposed to have a range of about 200 miles (320 kilometers), be about 20% smaller than the Model S, have a base price of about $30,000, and go into production in 2017. Unsurprisingly, Toyota was at the top of many countries, including the United States, but diving deeper into the data – breaking it down by state – shows a more complex picture.
This area is dominated by large cities, whose occupants are more likely to buy cars than trucks, and Toyota’s dominance of the car market shows. This anomaly is a little harder to explain, and may have something to do with the demographics of the state.
He bought his first issue of Road & Track at age 12, and has wanted to be an automotive writer ever since.
No problem for ride sharing companies like Uber and Lyft.These companies are offering rentals, leases and financing deals aimed at getting more drivers on the road. It has a hub motor at each driving wheel and is reportedly the first front-wheel-drive car in the world.
Starting in 1999, 457 Gen2 EV1s had NiMh batteries, with a top range of 160 miles.) The EV1 is produced until 2003, but is only available for lease. Their all-wheel-drive capability fits perfectly with the outdoorsy car buyer, and with the plethora of ski areas and outdoor recreation opportunities in those areas, it’s no wonder Subarus are popular there. The company has a strong manufacturing presence in the state, and it looks like it helped their popularity. Florida is home to a lot of retirees, and perhaps with their fixed incomes more were drawn to the Korean company’s lower prices. He believes in the old adage that it’s more fun to drive a slow car fast than a fast car slow.
After all, the more drivers they sign up, the more rides are available and the more money they make.
Sadly, it is soon destroyed by railway workers who see it as a potential threat to their livelihood (even though electric cars were still far from economical, with the cost of using zinc in a battery being about 40 times higher than the cost of burning coal in a firebox). With backgrounds in the dwindling battery streetcar market, Morris and Salom develop the “Electrobat” like a small battery streetcar. He later builds an even more powerful vehicle, but he crashes into the crowd at Staten Island Speedway, killing two spectators, and never races again. However, the automakers don’t really get behind the idea, don’t market their electric vehicles well (if at all), and eventually sue CARB, resulting in a dropping of the ZEV Mandate.
And GM reclaims and destroys the electric cars, not allowing owners in love with the vehicle to buy them off of GM.
When not writing about cars, John is a professional computer geek and lives with his wife and dogs on the high plains of Wyoming. EV1s that were donated to engineering schools and museums are not reclaimed but are deactivated, except for the one donated to the Smithsonian. The California Public Utilities Commission is probing whether some of these leasing and renting arrangements run afoul of its requirement that ride share drivers use a "personal vehicle."Uber and Lyft say these programs serve people who are eager to work for a ride sharing company but do not have a vehicle or don't have one that qualifies.
Xchange provides unlimited miles, maintenance and allows drivers to get out of the lease after 30 days, with two-week's notice.Taylor pays $160 a week for a slightly used Ford Escape. That's well above what she would pay in a typical lease or loan, but Taylor says there's no way she would have qualified because of her credit score and lack of income. It now offers weekly rentals, flexible leases, traditional leases and purchase discounts through certain automakers. At the end of 2015, more than 50,000 people had used one of those services and Uber expects that number to double this year.Still, the program has had its issues. But after two weeks he was deactivated by Uber as a driver due to poor customer feedback.With no job or way to make payments, Abdoulaye says he could not get anyone at Uber or the dealership to help him give the car back.
Meanwhile, he began getting calls from a creditor for the payments due.Ultimately, with help from the state Office of Consumer Protection, he returned the car and terminated the contract.



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