20.03.2014

Whats the chances of getting pregnant after just having a baby

Having made the exciting decision to start your own family you are sure to be wondering how long it will take to get pregnant.
Like many women, you may have put off having children until the time felt right, and now find yourself in your 30s, wondering how fertile you are.
You may find it encouraging knowing that the number of women over the age of 30 having babies has risen in recent decades (ONS 2010) . Most women will be able to conceive naturally and give birth to a healthy baby if they get pregnant at 35 years old. The average age at which women have in vitro fertilisation (IVF) treatment in the UK is rising.
While many men remain fertile into their 50s and beyond, the proportion of men with sperm disorders increases with age (RCOG 2011).
In fact, the older you are, the more likely you are to conceive non-identical twins (Beemsterboer et al 2006, NHS 2010b, Utting and Bewley 2011).
Over 80 per cent of couples will conceive within a year if they stop using contraception and have regular sex (CKS 2007, NCCWCH 2013:64).
About half of the women who don't get pregnant in the first year conceive during the following year, giving a pregnancy rate of 92 per cent within two years.
The two most common causes of female infertility are ovulation problems and blockages to the fallopian tubes as a result of infection (CKS 2007).
Age aside, there are some steps you can take to give yourself the best possible chance of conceiving and having a healthy pregnancy. Learn more about getting pregnant in your 20s, 30s or 40s, or get tips, advice and support in our friendly community of mums and mums-to-be. The views expressed are those of the author and are not necessarily those of Scientific American.
Welcome to the Scientific American Blog Network, a forum for a diverse and independent set of voices to share news and opinions and discuss issues related to science. Typical use: This is the norm, reflecting the effectiveness of each method for the average couple who do not always use it correctly or consistently. Perfect use: A measure of the technical effectiveness of each method, but only when used exactly as specified and consistently followed. Assuming typical male condom use by a heterosexual couple, the number of women projected to experience an unplanned pregnancy over a period of ten years is about 86 out of 100.
For male condoms used on a ten-year timeline, the difference between pregnancy rates during perfect use (18%) and typical use (86%) is almost 70%.
Used correctly and consistently, these contraceptive methods are projected to result in an unplanned pregnancy in just 3% of women over a ten year period. Over the same time period, that's lower than the projected rate of unplanned pregnancy in women who have been sterilized.
Number 3 is that these estimates have been corrected for underreporting of abortion and over-reporting of contraceptive use, both of which occur, and neither of which is very well understood. You know the most fertile years are in your 20s, but want to get a better idea of how age affects your fertility. Fertility starts to decline for women from about the age of 30, dropping down more steeply from the age of 35 (CKS 2007, NCCWCH 2013:65). After 35 years, the proportion of women who experience infertility, miscarriage or a problem with their baby increases. It's thought that your body has to produce more of the hormone that makes you ovulate as you get older. For some women having a multiple pregnancy brings them their dream family in one pregnancy.
But if you are over 35, and finding that positive pregnancy test elusive, it is important to seek help sooner rather than later (NCCWCH 2013:6).
Kate Clancy, Assistant Professor of Anthropology at the University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign. Send me a free issue of Scientific American with no obligation to continue the subscription.
The prescription will run out on your birth control and you'll miss a couple of days, lowering your body's guard against unwanted pregnancy. We forget, misremember, and misuse, and so we see a projected rate of pregnancy (again, over 10 years) of not 3%, but 61%.
Probabilities of pregnancy for most of the reviewed contraceptive methods were estimated based on data collected in the 1995 and 2002 National Surveys of Family Growth (NSFG), a nationally representative sample of users.


These numbers can't tell you with any certainty what your likelihood of an unwanted pregnancy is, because the only person who can say how consistent you are with your chosen method of birth control is you. Pregnancy rates based on the NSFG alone would tend to be too low because induced abortions (and contraceptive failures leading to induced abortions) are underreported but would tend to be too high because contraceptive failures leading to live births are overreported. In the NSFG and in most clinical trials, a woman is 'using' a contraceptive method if she considers herself to be using that method. As women grow older the likelihood of getting pregnant falls while the likelihood of infertility rises. By the age of 40 only two in five of those who wish to have a baby will be able to do so (RCOG 2011). However, the success rates of IVF treatment for women over 40 using their own eggs are low, and have not increased much over the past decade (RCOG 2011).
The decline in male fertility can affect the health of the children they may go on to have (Utting and Bewley 2011). More than one egg fertilised and more than one baby (Beemsterboer et al 2006, Utting and Bewley 2011)!
But it is also worth bearing in mind that caring for twins is more demanding of your time, emotions and finances than caring for one baby. This could prevent fertilisation altogether or increase the likelihood of an ectopic pregnancy (CKS 2007, NCCWCH 2013:129, Utting and Bewley 2011). The paradox of declining fertility but increasing twinning rates with advancing maternal age. I didn’t like turning my Laser Beam Eyes of Ladybusiness Justice on my Twitter feed today, which was a constant stream of information, reaction to, and anger about Akin and his baseless, stupid comments. With the exception of the ovulation method (perfect use 26%, typical use 94%), that's a bigger difference than any other contraceptive method. Unintended pregnancy rates of other methods were based on surveys and clinical investigations. So, typical use of the condom could include actually using a condom only occasionally, and a woman could report that she is 'using' the pill even though her supplies ran out several months ago. Your body produces more FSH because there are fewer viable eggs left in your ovaries (Utting and Bewley 2011).
Losing weight may also help you to conceive if you have the ovulatory disorder PCOS (CKS 2007, NCCWCH 2013:180).
You load one bullet into the cylinder, give it a spin, snap it in place and pull the trigger. In other words: The longer you use a given contraceptive, the more opportunities there are for you to use it improperly or inconsistently. The reason is that the least adherent users become pregnant, leaving behind a group that over time is less and less likely to fail. But they also help to show us that biology is not immutable, that it does not define us from the moment of our birth. Sometimes I look at my life, and see what I’ve built, and how I’ve tried to protect myself.
I encouraged him to instead use the attached chart that would have made the same point just as effectively (and correctly). And I wonder what measures other women have taken for the same reasons, measures that ultimately mean little in the face of cultural conditioning to make men happy, of sexual dimorphism in musculature, of a powerful rape culture.Some legitimate contextUnfortunately, it is rather normal to be a survivor of sexual assault if you are female. But, as humans make our environments, we have the ability to change the very things that change us.
One out of six women in the United States have been the victim of rape or attempted rape, and that is using a rather tight definition that does not include many kinds of assault victims can experience. In one sample of college-aged men, one in sixteen men admitted to raping women they either knew were too intoxicated to give consent, or they used physical force. Among these men who readily admitted to rape but had never been arrested or convicted, they committed an average of six rapes each and proudly described their sexual exploits to the interviewer (Lisak and Miller 2002).Think of all the illnesses and conditions that make the news regularly. The incidence for gluten intolerance is somewhere around 1% (more or less, depending on how you define it). There are so many more of us out there who have been affected by sexual assault, unwanted sexual touching, sexual violence, rape and abuse that the number is likely greater than this. And though I display my gluten intolerance every time I ask an annoying, pointed question about a menu item at a restaurant, other ways I and other women identify are not exactly the subject of normal conversation.And so, you know survivors of sexual assault.
It is not only normal to know multiple sexual assault survivors, it is normal in our culture for women to be afraid of rape and on the defensive around men for gigantic portions of their lives.


However, current evidence suggests it is the same as the pregnancy rate for a single act of intercourse.
Ergo, pregnancy from rape occurs as frequently as pregnancy from consensual sex.A lot of people are citing the Holmes et al (1996) paper that found a 5% pregnancy rate among rape survivors from 12 to 45 years of age. This is a great study that performed several telephone interviews with 4008 participants over three years to determine rates of rape (413 individuals experienced 616 completed rapes, a lifetime incidence of over 13% in this sample) and rates of pregnancy from rape (20 were reported from 19 individuals, or 5%).In a separate study, Wilcox et al (2001) draw from their amazing prospective dataset from the 1980s where they asked women who were trying to conceive to collect urine every day. They were able to detect hormones, and thus pregnancies and fetal losses, because of these daily urine collections.
Work on this dataset from Wilcox, Baird, and others represents the gold standard for our understanding of early pregnancy, fetal loss, and the timing of implantation in the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle.
What Wilcox et al also does well is demonstrate first how the vulnerability to get pregnant varies across the cycle, but also how it is most certainly not zero at the times many of us assume we are not fertile.
I’m not sure I am convinced the difference in the rates in these two studies is meaningful, and instead I suspect it is just a result of natural variation based on participant sample.
Wilcox et al themselves suggest that the higher number for Holmes et al is a result of methodological differences. But only more studies will help us settle this.So, rape and consensual sex have the same pregnancy rate.
This means that of those 64,080 US rapes in 2004-2005, minus the 15% of rapes that are of children under the age of 12 which gets us to 54,468 rapes of almost all reproductively-aged women, somewhere between 1,689 (3.1%) to 2,723 (5%) pregnancies from rape could have occurred in that year alone.
Somewhere around half of those women were probably using some form of hormonal contraception, so let’s hope the numbers are even lower. 2000).Legitimate stressorsIt’s almost not worth discussing any mechanism that Akin may have dreamed up that allows women to “shut down” a potential conception from rape, now that we see the rates are the same.
And so it is irrational to link the stress of rape, while awful and severe, to fetal loss, when we understand the mechanism of the stress response and its relationship to pregnancy so poorly, and when we know next to nothing regarding how variation in stress reactivity is produced.A legitimate word on preeclampsiaAnd then the always-brilliant Jeremy Yoder and Scicurious pointed me to an older post of Jesse Bering’s that he retweeted today in response to the Akin mess.
The gist of the blog post’s argument is that preeclampsia is a mechanism to protect women from unwanted babies with men they don’t know – such as rapists.
Bering and others justify this claim with evidence that preeclampsia is more common in women who have not had long-term sexual relationships with the genetic father of the child (as in one night stands, shorter relationships, sperm donors).
In fact, preeclampsia is more common in any of those conditions than it is in women without those risk factors but with shorter sexual relationships with the genetic father.
Preeclampsia is a condition where implantation is not deep enough, possibly because the mother has some kind of immune reaction to the fetus. This makes sense with all of the risk factors described above, because all of them stimulate some sort of inflammatory response, which could disrupt implantation (Clancy 2012).Here’s the other problem. Preeclampsia is not early miscarriage, the only scenario I could imagine where this would become an adaptive mechanism. In industrialized populations this can be done fairly easily, provided the preeclampsia isn’t too severe or the pregnancy is far along before symptoms develop. Under ancestral conditions, women would either have a messy, horrible, late term miscarriage where the baby would die, or if they’re extra unlucky their placenta would abrupt and they too would bleed out and die.I struggle to see anything adaptive in this. I struggle to see any benefit that could outweigh this cost.Finally, most perpetrators today are men the victims know. The idea that preeclampsia could somehow be a pregnancy avoidance mechanism assumes that the rapist is not the woman’s partner, has not in fact had sex, consensual or not, with her for a number of years. It seems likely to me that the kinds of rape we have today are similar to the kinds of rape we had in the ancestral period.The science behind all of this is straightforward. Akin could have had some assistant or intern look it up in minutes via Google Scholar or PubMed, as a few paper abstracts would have been more illuminating than whatever he was reading.
But Akin wasn’t interested in the science, he was interested in how well he could use fear and false information to control women.In all that powerlessness, that is one thing women have to fight back. When women have the right information they do not have to withstand the claim that they can’t get pregnant from rape, or it must not have been that stressful if they are pregnant. Women and their children who have survived preeclampsia do not have to endure another man telling them that it is a mechanism to avoid rape, or that they could reduce their chances of preeclampsia next time if they’d only swallow. A clear picture of reality dispels the gloom of sexism better than any cleverly worded blog post ever could.ReferencesClancy KB. Rape-related pregnancy: Estimates and descriptive characteristics from a national sample of women.



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