23.02.2015

Ways of pregnancy prevention

The type of contraceptive method that a woman uses influences her chances of avoiding pregnancy. At the global level, the reasons for failing to use contraception are just as varied, and the health impacts of unintended pregnancies are even more dire.
Finally, two of the most important niches for the contraceptive development agenda include male methods and multipurpose prevention technologies (MPTs) that prevent both pregnancy and STIs, including HIV. To prevent pregnancy naturally using CycleBeads, a woman should avoid having unprotected intercourse on days 8-19 of her cycle, where the start of her cycle, Day 1, is the first day of her period. CycleBeads is based on the Standard Days Method of family planning, a family planning method that has been proven more than 95% effective at preventing pregnancy. Numerous studies have shown that the Standard Days Method using CycleBeads is the most effective way to prevent pregnancy naturally in terms of typical use.
Efficacy studies have shown CycleBeads to be the most effective way to prevent pregnancy naturally.
In efficacy studies conducted in several countries, researchers found that when used correctly the Standard Days Method is more than 95% effective in helping women avoid pregnancy . The research also found that women who do not keep careful track of their cycle days or have unprotected intercourse on Days 8 through 19 of their cycles, are much more likely to get pregnant. Researchers at the Institute for Reproductive Health identified the potential fertile window in a woman’s menstrual cycle during any given cycle using a computer simulation that took into account the probability of pregnancy, probability of ovulation occurring on different cycle days, and variability in cycle length from woman to woman and from cycle to cycle. Women with menstrual cycles between 26 and 32 days long can use CycleBeads and the Standard Days Method to prevent pregnancy by avoiding unprotected intercourse during the 12 fertile days identified by the method.
If a woman doesn't want to get pregnant, she should use a back-up method of birth control or not have sex on Days 8 through 19 of her menstrual cycle. In fact, two-thirds of women in the United States at risk of unintended pregnancy—those who are sexually active and able to become pregnant, but not seeking a pregnancy—use contraceptives consistently and correctly, and thereby only account for 5% of all unintended pregnancies.1 Rather, it is the 16% of women at risk who do not practice contraception at all who experience the majority (52%) of all unintended pregnancies.


Among women of reproductive age in developing countries who are in need of contraception, 18% are not using any method at all—but they account for two-thirds (66%) of all unintended pregnancies.6 Another 13% of unintended pregnancies occur to the 8% of women who are using traditional methods.
Weiss K, A promising technology to prevent HIV and unwanted pregnancy, Los Angeles Times, Dec. This means that fewer than 5 of every 100 women who keep track of their cycle days and do not have unprotected intercourse on Days 8 through 19 of their cycles became pregnant during the first year of using the Standard Days Method. When women sometimes used the method correctly, but sometimes had unprotected intercourse on Days 8 through 19, 12 out of 100 got pregnant during their first year of use.
A woman's fertile window (the days in the menstrual cycle when she can get pregnant) begins approximately five days prior to ovulation and lasts up to 24 hours after ovulation. Their analysis found that avoiding unprotected sex on days 8 through 19 of the cycle provided maximum protection from pregnancy while minimizing the number of days to avoid unprotected intercourse.
On the other hand, if a woman does want to get pregnant, these are the days when pregnancy is most likely. At the same time, there is an ongoing and serious problem of high unintended pregnancy rates in the United States and around the globe. Behind these startling statistics are real public health consequences from unintended pregnancies for maternal and child health, including foregone prenatal care, premature births, low birth weight, decreased likelihood of breastfeeding and increased likelihood of maternal depression and anxiety (see “The Case for Insurance Coverage of Contraceptive Services and Supplies Without Cost-Sharing,” Winter 2011). And the remaining 19% of women at risk who use contraceptives inconsistently or incorrectly make up the remaining 43% of all unintended pregnancies. Other common reasons for gaps in use include infrequent sexual activity, ambivalence about becoming pregnant and misperceptions about pregnancy risk. The remaining 20% of unintended pregnancies are experienced by women who use reversible modern methods of contraception.
Addressing these concerns through a variety of methods more specifically suited to their particular preferences and needs could reduce unintended pregnancy in these regions by up to 59%.


A recently developed novel technology is a nanofabric that can be electrically spun to function in numerous ways, including by physically blocking sperm or by dissolving in the body and releasing drugs, such as contraceptives or antiretrovirals.19 The availability of a new method that meets multiple sexual and reproductive health needs would represent a real game-changer in the field of contraceptive development. It is the most effective way to prevent pregnancy naturally in terms of typical use effectiveness. Women using this family planning method know easily how to avoid pregnancy naturally without needing significant training or months of practice before they can begin using it. If she has more than one cycle in a year outside this range, it is recommended that she uses a different contraceptive option to prevent pregnancy.
The fact is that it is difficult for women to use most contraceptive methods correctly and consistently over the several decades of their reproductive lives that they wish to avoid unintended pregnancy. Of the 80 million unintended pregnancies that occurred in the developing world last year, half ended in abortions, the majority of which were unsafe.
In a similar vein, the only options for dual protection against unwanted pregnancies and any STI are the male and female condoms. For all of these reasons, new investments in contraceptive research and development are critical to achieving consistent and correct contraceptive use and lowering unintended pregnancy rates. There is particular urgency for the development of a multipurpose prevention method in light of the AIDS crisis in many developing countries.



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