26.01.2015

Effects of teenage pregnancy on the child

The problem with these ads besides the fact that they are egregious, shame and blame driven is that they will not reach their target audience and stop teens from having sex. And to all the people that say "truth hurts" please know that you can not tell me-as a teen mom- and all of my teenage parent peers our truth. That the NYC Healthy Teen Act-which is proven sex education that reduces the risk of teenage pregnancy- has not been voted on by New York Senate in at least fours years. Unintended pregnancy is a widespread problem with far-reaching implications: almost half of all pregnancies in the United States are unintended, and the women and children involved in these pregnancies are disproportionately likely to experience a range of negative outcomes. Nearly half of all pregnancies in the United States are unintended, and the parents and children involved in these pregnancies tend to be disadvantaged in a number of ways.
In addition, unintended pregnancy has important implications for public sector balance sheets.
In light of these considerations, policymakers have become increasingly interested in devising strategies for encouraging teens and young adults to take the steps necessary to avoid becoming pregnant until they are prepared to assume the responsibilities of parenthood. Since President Obama took office, lawmakers have made a number of sensible investments in evidence-based pregnancy prevention strategies.
The reasons behind the high rate of unintended pregnancy can be organized into three broad categories. A second factor that contributes to unintended pregnancy is that some individuals who are motivated to avoid pregnancy are handicapped by a limited understanding of how to realize their good intentions. Insufficient knowledge about how to avoid unintended pregnancy is most commonly addressed via pregnancy prevention programs targeted on teens. Turning to the third reason for the high incidence of unintended pregnancy, there is strong evidence that expansions in access to publicly subsidized family planning services can affect rates of contraceptive use and unintended childbearing. The bottom line is that the research community has produced solid evidence that public policies can reduce rates of unintended pregnancy.
The research findings reviewed above were incorporated into a series of benefit-cost simulations of a nationally implemented mass media campaign, a nationwide teen pregnancy prevention program geared towards at-risk youth, and expansions in Medicaid-funded family planning services within states that were not granted family planning waivers by the federal government. The bottom portion of the table presents estimates of the cost of each program and of the taxpayer savings that each one would produce. Even given the relatively conservative approach taken here, the three programs’ estimated benefits substantially exceed their estimated costs. The key message of these results is that each program would generate a substantial net savings for taxpayers at the same time that it helps to reduce child poverty and avert teen and unintended pregnancies. Policymakers have begun to make prudent investments in effective strategies for reducing unintended pregnancy.
Separate provisions in the ACA also provide $75 million in annual funding for evidence-based interventions to reduce teen pregnancy and restore $50 million in annual funding for abstinenceonly programs. Unfortunately, there have been no major publicly financed media campaigns discouraging unprotected sex in recent years (there is an ongoing federally funded campaign to highlight the prevalence of AIDS, but it does not place great emphasis on the importance of avoiding risky sexual behavior). The research reviewed in this brief shows that evidence-based pregnancy prevention interventions are public policy trifectas: they generate taxpayer savings, they improve the lives of children and families, and they reduce the incidence of abortion. Placing a greater focus on these policies also has the potential to steer the public debate in a more productive direction.
MANILA, Philippines – A 12-year-old Norwegian girl is set to walk down the aisle to marry a man thrice her age today, October 11. Thea, Norway’s first child bride, shares on her blog her wedding preparations she’d undertaken with her husband-to-be, 37-year-old Geir. The blog, originally written in the country’s national language, did not sit well with readers from around the globe. Fortunately, International children’s welfare organization Plan International Norway revealed that everything was just a social media campaign and all photos were staged. Thea’s wedding, although made-up, is reflective of the disturbing reality that more than 39,000 underage girls get married each day – mostly against their will – and stripped off their rights to enjoy their childhood. Child marriage is just one of the numerous challenges and problems adolescent girls all over the world face each day. Although child marriages in the country may not be rampant, Plan Philippines said that poverty and teenage pregnancy have hindered the positive growth of Filipino adolescent girls.
Philippine Statistical Data in 2014 showed that 24 babies are born to teenage mothers every hour. Meanwhile, the latest Young Adult Fertility and Sexuality (YAFS) Study revealed that almost 14% of Filipino girls aged 15 to 19 are either currently pregnant or are first-time mothers. The National Youth Commission (NYC) is now advocating for better adolescent sexual and reproductive health (ASRH) education to control the “alarming” situation. Dr Tanjina Mirza of Plan International Canada believes giving access to education is the key to ending teenage pregnancy.
However, the poverty situation in the Philippines paved the way for adolescent girls to drop out of school.
According to Plan International Philippines’ country director Carin Van Der Hor, poverty has become the biggest discriminator in the Philippines. Those educated, she added, are least likely to get pregnant at a young age and have better access to sex education in educational institutions. The health of these girls is also at risk as being pregnant at an early age exposes them to life-threating scenarios. The latest national nutrition survey of the Food and Nutrition Research Institute (FNRI) showed one in every 3 Filipino mothers aged 20 years old and below is more nutritionally-at-risk.
Plan International Philippines, in partnership with Dubai Cares, launched the Real Assets Through Improved Skills and Education for Adolescent Girls or simply the RAISE project which aims to promote transformative education.
The project seeks to ensure marginalized children and adolescents, especially girls, are able to make the most of their lives to prepare for a better future. At least 10,000 people will benefit from the project’s various programs such as financial support through primary and secondary school, and even access to Alternative Learning System (ALS) for those who are already parents but want to continue their studies. The project’s target areas are Masbate and Northern Samar, two places falling behind because of extreme poverty.
Both areas also registered a drop-out rate in secondary school of 10%, way above the national average of 6%. The group target beneficiaries will comprise 70% girls because they are most likely to experience gender-based violence, traditional stereotypes, and unintended pregnancy.


By empowering girls from the poorest sectors of the country and giving them access to better life choices, the effects will be inter-generational.
The cycle of poverty they’ve grown accustomed to will end and better opportunities can lead to a hopeful future not just for the young women, but also their respective families.
The mission of this ad campaign will not reach these teen because these teens aren't thinking about daycare cost and how their hypothetical future children will fare in school before having sex.
I review research on the causes of unintended pregnancy and the impacts of various evidence-based pregnancy prevention policies. For example, Figure 1 shows that unintended pregnancies are disproportionately concentrated among women who are unmarried, teenaged, and poor. For instance, Emily Monea and I estimate that taxpayer spending on Medicaid-subsidized medical care related to unintended pregnancy totals more than $12 billion annually. This policy brief presents new research showing that several different evidence-based strategies have the potential to reduce unintended pregnancy.
First, many young women and men lack sufficient motivation to avoid becoming pregnant until they are ready to do so. For example, survey data consistently show that teens and young adults are woefully misinformed about how to use various methods of contraception, about how safe and effective those methods are if used correctly, and about the importance of using such methods consistently. Some highly effective and long-acting reversible contraceptive methods (such as intrauterine devices) are comparatively expensive and can only be used if a young woman has access to a health care provider. Regarding the lack of motivation to avoid unintended pregnancy, there is a growing body of evidence suggesting that well-designed mass media campaigns can persuade some young men and women to avoid unprotected sex. These programs assume any number of forms: some are classroom based, others incorporate a strong youth development component, and still others rely heavily on parent involvement.
The bulk of the high-quality research literature on these programs suggests that they have little effect on the behavior of the individuals who participate in them. Family planning services (including the provision of contraception) are made available to low-income women via Medicaid. These analyses were performed using a cutting-edge simulation model that was developed at the Brookings Institution for the purpose of simulating the impact of policy changes on family formation outcomes.
While the teen pregnancy prevention program is estimated to have the largest effect on the pregnancy rate among teenagers, the expansion in access to subsidized family planning services is estimated to have the largest effect on unintended pregnancy rates overall.
Because of limitations in the relevant data, taxpayer savings are measured only in terms of the amount that would be saved on publicly subsidized medical care for pregnant women and on a variety of means-tested benefits provided to children under the age of five.
The benefit-cost ratios listed in the final row of the table show that the three interventions would produce public savings of between two and six dollars for each tax dollar spent. All three policies are thus a win-win proposition for taxpayers and for the populations they serve. For example, the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) passed in 2010 contains a provision that gives most states the option of expanding eligibility for Medicaid family planning services without having to go through the cumbersome federal waivers process.
While the latter provision has little evidentiary support, the research discussed in this brief suggests that the former provision is smart public policy. The relevant evidence suggests that state and federal lawmakers would be wise to maintain or even increase their investments in proven pregnancy prevention strategies rather than reduce their efforts in this area. These cost saving policies are particularly well suited to the current fiscal climate, in which state lawmakers are struggling to balance their budgets and the federal government is grappling with a yawning debt that is projected to increase in the years to come. Much attention and energy has been devoted over the past decade to promoting marriage as a strategy for reducing the number of children growing up in single-parent families. In light of the prevalence of unintended pregnancy and the personal and societal costs that such pregnancies pose, policymakers would do well to invest further in these strategies. Adolescent girls are burdened with challenges that hinder their personal growth and a better future.
From cake tasting to trying her bridal gown, the girl consistently updates her online journal to give everyone a glimpse of her life. These prevent them from attaining their maximum potential in life due to the complications that come in their way.
In most cases, instead of studying, they resort to find ways to put food on the table and not be hungry when they go to sleep. They are least likely to put their education to the side in favor of domestic duties and other roles in the family. Some mothers have difficulties getting gainful employment, while also fulfilling their family duties.
Their babies, FNRI emphasized, are also at risk because they lack the proper nutrients needed for a healthy body. According to the Philippine Statistical Authority, the poverty incidence in the two areas are 42% and 43%, respectively.
I discuss the estimated effects of mass media campaigns discouraging unprotected sex, teen pregnancy prevention programs, and expansions in publicly funded family planning services, and then present new research showing that expansions in these policies would likely lead to reductions in teen and unintended pregnancy, out-of-wedlock childbearing, and child poverty. Some studies have used sophisticated statistical techniques in an attempt to determine the extent to which pregnancy intentions have a causal effect on maternal and child outcomes. This figure is substantially more than the federal government spends on the Head Start and Early Head Start programs each year.
The same research also shows that this goal can be attained in a cost-effective way: publicly financed mass media campaigns, comprehensive teen pregnancy prevention programs, and expansions in government subsidized family planning services are estimated to save taxpayers between two and six dollars for every dollar spent on them. The evidence reviewed here suggests that public officials would be wise instead to expand their investments in this area. This fact is partially the result of changes in cultural norms over time: attitudinal data show that there is now substantially less stigma surrounding premarital sex and out-of-wedlock childbearing than was the case a few decades ago.
Although surveys show that individuals tend not to list limited access or high cost as explanations for their failure to use effective contraceptive methods, I present evidence in the next section that increasing access to subsidized contraception has a notable effect on rates of unintended childbearing. Evaluations of these campaigns often compare a treatment city that was exposed to a given campaign with a control city that was not.
However, their common thread is that they all focus at least in part on providing participants with information about how to protect themselves from unplanned pregnancy. A partial exception to this rule can be found in a recent study conducted by John Jemmott, a professor at the University of Pennsylvania, and his colleagues. Eligibility for these services has historically been limited to women who are pregnant and to mothers whose incomes place them below a very low threshold.


The mass media campaign is estimated to have the largest effect on out-of-wedlock childbearing and on the number of children born into poverty. The prevention of unintended pregnancy would probably also reduce government expenditures on the criminal justice system, on means-tested benefits for older children and adults, and on a range of other spending programs not incorporated into this analysis.
Due in large part to the fact that the Medicaid expansion and mass media campaign have lower costs per member of their target populations than does the more intensive teen pregnancy intervention, the benefit-cost ratios for the former two programs are higher than for the latter one. This provision is relevant for states that do not have family planning waivers and for a subset of waiver states that could implement further expansions of their programs under the new option. The funding for evidencebased programs in the ACA complements an additional $110 million in discretionary funding for competitive grants to support both the replication of teen pregnancy prevention programs that have been shown to be effective and the implementation and evaluation of new interventions that have yet to be studied carefully. Meanwhile, a lot of people contacted police and Norway’s child welfare unit to prevent the exchange of “I dos” by the unlikely couple. The research also shows that each dollar spent on these policies would produce taxpayer savings of between two and six dollars. These studies generally suggest that unintended pregnancy and childbearing depress levels of educational attainment and labor force participation among mothers and lead to higher crime rates and poorer academic, economic, and health outcomes among children. Unintended pregnancies are also much more likely than intended pregnancies to be terminated. Motivation to avoid pregnancy is also reduced by the pervasive sense among young women in many low-income communities that there are few attractive alternatives to motherhood available to them.
The most successful programs tend to emphasize sexual abstinence as the only foolproof option while also educating participants about how to use various methods of contraception.
Had sufficient data been available to allow for a more complete accounting of the taxpayer savings that would be generated by these policies, my estimates of the monetized benefits of these policies would be even larger. In other simulations whose results are documented in a longer paper but are not shown here, changes were made to some of the key assumptions underlying these analyses in order to test the sensitivity of their results. It is now up to individual states to determine whether to avail themselves of the option to raise their eligibility thresholds.
The Obama administration and Congress deserve credit for showing the foresight to allocate resources to these programs, which are rooted in a rich body of evidence demonstrating their efficacy and their cost-effectiveness. Over the past year, lawmakers at the federal level and in some states have attempted to eliminate public funding for Planned Parenthood. On the other hand, there is a wealth of evidence to suggest that meaningful reductions in single parenthood can be achieved via expansions in policies that curb unintended and out-of-wedlock childbearing. Over the last few years, prudent investments have been made in several proven pregnancy prevention policies.
Unintended pregnancies account for more than 90 percent of all abortions—and a substantial majority of Americans of all political stripes support the goal of reducing abortions. Qualitative studies have found that such women often believe their life prospects to be so limited that they anticipate facing few significant economic or social consequences as a result of becoming pregnant before they are married.
Taken as a whole, the evaluation literature on these campaigns suggests that they changed the behavior of somewhere between 3 and 6 percent of their target populations. Many of these programs have been evaluated using random assignment, which is the gold standard among the techniques available to policy researchers.
It should be noted, however, that this program was implemented only for children who were in their preteens or their very early teens. A recent and well-designed study by Economists Melissa Kearney of the University of Maryland and Phil Levine of Wellesley College used quasi-experimental methods to explore the effect of expanded eligibility for subsidized family planning services in waiver states on women’s contraceptive use. These estimates correspond with reductions of 23,000, 15,000, and 19,000 respectively under the three policies. Under most of these alternative specifications, the core finding persisted that these policies would produce more in taxpayer savings than would be required to fund them. The leaders of these efforts argue that taxpayer dollars should not be used to subsidize an organization that provides abortions.
Some of these investments, however, have recently come under attack at the state and federal levels. Although this may sound like a small effect, the results reviewed below show that a national media campaign has the potential to produce notable impacts on rates of unintended pregnancy and child poverty in a cost-effective way.
Although there is enormous diversity in the findings from these evaluations, some of the best designed interventions produced reductions of 15 percent or more in rates of sexual activity and increases of 25 percent or more in rates of contraceptive use. On the whole, there remains little compelling evidence to date that abstinence-only programs can affect the sexual behavior of most teens or of young adults.
The authors concluded that these expansions resulted in a reduction of about 5 percent in the number of sexually active adult women who fail to use contraception at a given act of intercourse.
With many states facing tight budgets and tough fiscal choices, governors and legislatures may be more inclined to reduce expenditures on social programs than to expand them.
The findings presented in this brief suggest that policymakers would be wise to expand these programs rather than pare them back.
They also found that the expanded family planning services produced reductions of about 4 percent in the number of births to teens and about 2 percent in the number of births to nonteens. But the evidence reviewed here suggests that this is precisely the right time for strapped states to implement expansions in their Medicaid family planning services, since such a move would likely generate budgetary savings in short order.
The public support that Planned Parenthood receives instead pays for its other activities—most importantly, its contraceptive services.
A handful of states have already succeeded in eliminating part or all of their funding for family planning services. The irony is that these efforts will likely lead to increases in the number of unintended pregnancies and therefore in the number of abortions.In addition, five states have thus far declined to accept federal funding for evidence-based teen pregnancy prevention programs.
Indeed, for reasons documented in this brief, these funds would likely generate taxpayer savings at both the federal and state levels even as they reduce teen pregnancy rates.




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Comments to «Effects of teenage pregnancy on the child»

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