There are numerous important revolutions that have dramatically changed the world that we live in. The decline of feudalism, the emergence of the Renaissance and the Reformation, the expansion of trade with other distant countries and continents, and the discovery and exploration of new cultures awakened a desire to explore the nature and workings of the universe that surrounds mankind. And so, appearing on the scene in Europe at the same time the explorers were searching for new routes to the Spice Islands, to China and India, others were engaged in new scientific studies. In 1491, Nicholas enrolled at the University of Cracow (Poland), where he took an interest in astronomy. Copernicus is the first to propose a new view of the solar system--the heliocentric view of the solar system in contradiction to the traditional geocentric view. Because Copernicus merely stated his ideas as a hypothesis, he was not considered dangerous to the Roman Church, as Galileo was a generation later.
Even though Copernicus made sense to some, the traditional geocentric scheme simply would not disappear. Kepler was a German mathematician, astronomer and astrologer, and, although a student of Brahe, disagreed with his teacher.
He was also one of the first to say that Ptolemy was wrong (Ptolemy taught the traditional geocentric view of the solar system) and maintained that Copernicus was correct--the earth did revolve round the sun, and not vice versa. These announcements, published in his work, Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems, brought Galileo (1564-1642) into conflict with the Roman Church. In 1992, 350 years later, Pope John Paul II stated that errors were made in condemning Galileo. The case of Galileo is perhaps the best-known illustration of the tension between science and religion.
Bacon is considered by many historians to be the a€?founder of modern science,a€?A  although by training and vocation he was not a practicing scientist.
Empiricism -- the theory that reality is discovered through the senses, through experimentation and testing. Induction -- drawing conclusions from onea€™s observations and testing and from that developing general principles.
By Bacona€™s rejection of ancient authorities, namely Aristotle and Ptolemy, a new science exploded on the scene, producing a plethora of discoveries and inventions that has continued nonstop to this day.A Under Ptolemy, there would likely not be television, iPhones, or space shuttles.
What Bacon attacked was medieval scholasticism--the idea that everything we need to know has already discovered in the past. Scholasticism denied the very idea of experimentation and taught that the only thing left for the learned mind to do was to clarify was had already been discovered in the past! Sir Francis believed that, in fulfillment of Daniela€™s prophecy, man would increase in knowledge in the last days by casting off unbiblical authorities like Aristotle and investigating Goda€™s natural revelation (creation) with minds that had been created in His image.
His major works were The Advancement of Learning (1605), Novum Organum (1620) [the New Order], and New Atlantis (1627). Harvey was a physician in England and was a lecturer at the Royal College of Physicians in London and a Christian. Following his death on April 1727, Isaac Newtona€™s body lay in state in great honor n Westminster Abbey for an entire week.
He developed the answer, he believed, and published his work in his masterpiece, Principia, published in 1687.
Among the greatest scientific geniuses of all times, Isaac Newton made major contributions to mathematics, optics, physics, and astronomy. To Newton, the very orderliness and design of the universe spoke of God's awesome majesty and wisdom. Seeking to further understand God's methods, Newton studied and developed formulas for specific phenomena such as ocean tides, paths of comets, and the succession of the equinoxes. Newton spent a tremendous amount of time studying the Bible, especially the prophetic portions of Scripture.
Though he outwardly conformed to the church of England, Newton privately was an Arian Christian.
List and explain what new social and political conditions existed in Europe to make possible the scientific revolution. Explain why the Copernican hypothesis was so startling to the populace and so threatening to the Vatican and to Luther and Calvin.
Explain how the relationship of Galileo to Copernicus was so similar to that between Hubble and Einstein in the 20th century and how they had similar impacts on the thinking of their generations. Describe how the scientific discoveries impacted the world of politics and urged men like Hobbes to pursue a new course of reasoning. The dissatisfaction by many with patterns of government and the practices of absolute monarchies in Europe and Asia created a hunger to find (1) new and better ways to govern, (2) ways that would better cultivate tolerance for diversity in religion and thought, (3) ways that would promote and value progress rather than tradition for traditiona€™s sake, and (4) where processes of social justice would acknowledge and protect natural rights of the individual. In simpler terms revolutionary thinking emerged especially in France, England, Scotland, and Germany which generally sought the following: (1) eliminate absolutism in government, (2) toleration for faith and thought, (3) openness to progress, and (4) freedom for the the individual. Major events in the late 17th century set the conditions in Europe for a revolution in thought. The New Attitude: By the 1700s Europeans were quite certain that they could make the world a better, more comfortable place to live. The New Question: If there are natural laws that govern the physical universe, certainly then must there not also be natural laws that govern the spheres of religion and rationality? The new conclusion: If we must use mathematics and the scientific method to discern the natural laws of the physical universe, we must use the same tools to discover the natural laws of the spiritual world. In other words, what can be known about God, eternity, spiritual laws and commandments, and other related items, can be discovered through human reason using the tools of the scientific method. And if we can discover the natural laws of the spiritual world, we can also discover the natural laws of how to live with each other in this world, including how to govern and to be governed.
The Renaissance questioned traditional thoughts and principles and sought to discover better principles by studying the ancient Greek and Roman philosophers. The Enlightenment, likewise, questioned the traditional ideas about how to discover truth and how to live together on earth. If we are to discover the natural laws governing the spiritual world, how will we discover them?
If human reason with the scientific method as its tool can discover the natural laws of the physical universe, why not the same for the spiritual world? They met to discuss and debate, in the spirit of the scientific revolution, what the natural laws were that were to govern all people in their personal, social, and community lives.
There were the common people who knew and cared little about those philosophers fortunate enough to sit around and debate natural laws!
The printing press that had aided the Protestant Reformation now became the instrument to spread the ideas of the Philosphes. The Philosphes and their disciples tended to occupy seats in the faculties of the universities. They also tended to arrive at a new conclusion about religion: If we must use mathematics and the scientific method to discover the natural laws of the physical universe, then we must use the same tools to discover through human reason the natural laws of the spiritual world. The Renaissance questioned traditional beliefs and principles and sought to discover better principles by studying the ancient Greek and Roman philosophers. If we are to discover the natural governing the spiritual world, how will we discover them? While the leaders the scientific revolution were for the most part orthodox Christians (and believed that they were discovering evidences of Goda€™s intelligent design expressed through the laws they discovered and described), many of those who became leaders in the revolution in thought were deists. However, as we shall see, the new thinkers in the Age of Reason were not the only people in town. In France the philosophes (a€?the philosophersa€?) gathered often in private homes (salons) hosted by wealthy women to read their latest essays. Although they dealt with a variety of topics, for our discussion we will concentrate primarily on their views dealing with politics and government.
He viewed government to be ideally a function of free and rational men -- not simple-minded men who lived as serfs within feudalism or blindly obeyed the dictates of a prince or king.
Obviously, his ideas were a direct threat to Roman authority and to the absolutism of Louis XIII and Louis XIV.
Baron de Montesquieu was a member of nobility in France, a judge in a French court, and one of the most influential political thinkers of the 18th century. In his major work, The Spirit of the Laws (1748), (French, De la€™esprit des lois) he concluded that when all power rests with one leader or even several leaders, despotism inevitably develops and human freedoms disappear. Yet, Montesquieua€™s political thought was one of several basic ideas that was used to found the Constitution of the United States of America. His openness to ideas and toleration was exemplified in his marriage in 1715 as a Roman Catholic to a French Huguenot woman.
Montesquieu believed that if natural laws were found that could best explain the natural world, then certainly there are laws that can teach us how to live with one another in peace and harmony in the world of culture and society. He also believed that educated persons best discover what these natural laws are that produce harmony, and, therefore, educated people govern best. Governments are best shaped by the people and their surroundings, the climate, the environment. Voltaire was an opponent of Roman Catholic religious dogma and spoke strongly against blind obedience to the pope. One of his major and most important works was A Treatise on Toleration (1782) that raised havoc when it was circulated within the last days of the reign of King Louis XVI.
After returning to France in 1734 he had to again flee imprisonment due to comments made about the absolutists French government in Letters to the English. These personal examples created in him a hatred for oppression of any kind, whether by a despotic king or a democratic mob rule.
Concerning politics, if Voltaire could choose one best form of government, it would be an enlightened monarchy. He opposed war of any kind and called it a€?sophisticated murder.a€? This did not sit well with many in France who basked in the glory of Francea€™s hegemony under Louis XIV, which was achieved in large measure through warfare. Perhaps his best known work was the novel, Candide (1758), in which the central character, Candide, is a joyful, optimistic world traveler. Organized religion is led by charlatans who exploit the weak and who foist ignorance on the uneducated.
Religious leaders maintain power by oppressing anyone who disagrees with them on even the simplest theological matters. Material wealth provides some comforts and power but in the long run drifts away at he hands of corrupt government officials (taxes, bribery) and dishonest merchants. A great earthquake takes place in the story of Candide which was based on a real earthquake that hit Lisbon, Portugal in 1755 with great loss of life. Voltaire expressed in Candide the opinion that God is either indifferent towards, or lacks the power to prevent evil within human history. As a youth he was educated by Jesuits, and was not an atheist, as some maintain, but bitterly opposed religious oppression of individual rights, and who believed that what can be known about God comes not through revelation and church dogma but through human reason. It can probably be said that Voltaire was at best an agnostic, that the God who was championed by religion, as Voltaire experienced it, was at the core of a suppression of individual thought and freedom and therefore should be discarded. Voltaire maintained that the only places on earth where there was true freedom of religion and speech were in England, the Netherlands, Prussia, and Switzerland. Diderot was an atheist who believed that all mankind are born with a totally free will to live life as they wish, with no accountability to a divine being. His Encyclopedia was a critical attack on and mocking of Christianity and resulted in his flight from France to Russia where he was protected and supported by the a€?enlighteneda€? ruler, Catherine the Great.
Born in Geneva, Rousseau was orphaned while young and placed in the care of a strict uncle.
Rousseau was a brilliant thinker who is claimed by Geneva today as one of its most prominent sons. Probably as a result of the harsh upbringing he experienced while living under his strict uncle, Rousseau had much to say about education and how young children develop.
He promoted the idea that children develop through specific stages and should be raised and educated accordingly. The truly educated person is one who has been trained to be self-governing by making rationale choices. Rousseau was among the first of the French to promote the ideal family as being a nuclear family (father, mother, and children) with a mother serving at home as the manager of the family affairs. Rousseau promoted the concept of a democratic, Christian Republic where the rights of the individual were carefully protected and where the Christian faith was part of culture.
In his Social Contract (1762) Rousseau describes man as being inherently good, born both free and innocent, who is increasingly corrupted by culture and society.
He personally had deep religious roots, first as a boy who was born and lived in Calvinist Geneva, then as a Roman Catholic while living in France, and then returned to Calvinism when he moved back to Geneva in his later years. A great faith arose about the ability of human reason to think, weigh, argue, and conclude rather than mere faith on the one hand and the mere gathering of knowledge on the other. By observing human behavior we can discover natural laws that govern how we are to live together and then use these laws to draw up patterns for communities and patterns for governments that will produce harmony, order, and the preservation of individual rights and dignity. Once these natural laws are discovered and agreed upon, the common people are to be taught these newly found laws and trained in the use of reason. Once this system is at work, old institutions that rely upon traditions, unjust rules, and unreasonable patterns will be swept away for they keep the human race from progress.
A new world will be created, a new society will be built, governments will be reshaped, and there will follow unlimited human progress. Every person is (1) capable of reason and the human mind can discover any truth and the human spirit can achieve any ambition; (2) innately good, potentially virtuous, and every society can become perfect. While some rejected religion altogether (Descartes and Hume), most still held to the values and principles of traditional Christianity.
The printing press, which greatly promoted the ideas of the Reformation, now also greatly enabled the philosophes to spread their ideas quickly, inexpensively, and widely throughout Europe. Locke lived during the time of the restoration of the monarchy under Charles II and James II and was a strong supporter of the Glorious Revolution of 1688.
Locke taught that all people have innate, natural rights that no one has the right to diminish or deny. Locke transferred these observations about the nature of each person to how he or she is to be governed--each person is to be in charge of how he or she is governed and to participate in how society as a whole is governed. Lockea€™s ideas about government were contained in his work, Two Treatises of Civil Government. He also opposed the idea held by those who supported the divine right of kings, that men are not naturally born to be free. However, in order to preserve his life and his property a man has to choose to enter into society and to live happily with others in a government where the will of the majority rules. Government, therefore, is a social contract between those who govern and those who are governed. Because men tend to misuse one another, Locke saw the necessity for a government that contained (1) a written code of laws, (2) laws that exist for only one purpose -- to protect the good of the people, (3) legislative and judicial branches in government to enforce and define those laws, (4) no taxation without the consent of the people, and (5) no war or treaty powers are given to anyone without the consent of the people. Together with Montesquieu, Locke provided three of the foundational concepts that formed the new United States: (1) the necessity for a division of powers (Montesquieu and Locke), (2) the necessity of government to protect the natural rights and property of the individual (Locke), and (3) the formation of a commonwealth as a social contract where those who govern are selected by the people and remain in office so long as the people agree to such (Locke).
Locke was not an atheist, but he resisted any religion that did not grant freedom of thought and belief, especially the Roman Church. He pictured in his work, Leviathan (1651), the all encompassing necessity of a strong central government that extended into every area of life.
And yet Hobbes also called for the preservation by government of the natural rights of all citizens, and viewed the monarchy as existing only at the will of the people through a social contract.
The absolute monarchies of Europe, and France in particular under Louis XIV, tended to practice mercantilism in the realm of economics and industry. Adam Smith took on the mercantilistic establishment with the publication of his work, The Wealth of Nations in 1776. In his work, Smith maintained that man is at heart selfish in the sense that if given the opportunity, he will use industry to further his own economic well-being. Smith maintained that mercantilism is contrary to human nature and is ultimately destructive to a nationa€™s economy.
Rather than the governmenta€™s hand, there would be an invisible hand to guide a free market, marked and fueled by competition. Competition among producers to acquire the best workers raises the level of salaries of workers.
Competition among producers increases not only their own wealth but that of the nation which taxes their profits.
Producers, if allowed to reinvest their profits back into increased machinery, workers, research and development, produce a better quality of goods, sell more of their products, and make a greater profit. Money should circulate freely among men as blood does in the human body, a concept he learned from the revolution in science. Colonies in North America where free enterprise was either allowed to occur, or occurred because the people were too remote to be controlled, tended to become more prosperous than the economies they left behind in Europe.
Adam Smitha€™s theory became the economic policy of the newly formed United States of America. Deism was a popular religious belief based on a God who created the universe, set it in motion with a set of specific, orderly, natural laws, then stepped back to let it operate itself. The Deists often compared their view of God to that of a clockmaker who, having once created a clock, then wound it up, moved off, and let it operate in an orderly fashion on its own, governed by natural laws. Deists believed that all religions could be reduced to the worship of an orderly, rational God who does not perform the miraculous in violation of or apart from his natural laws (hence, no virgin birth, no miracles, no resurrection), and a moral code that human reason and common sense can agree on.
While some of the philosophes rejected the notion of any kind of God at all and became atheists, most remained loyal to the Christian church.
To Diderot and the contributors to the Encyclopedia all religious dogma was absurd and the result of human imagination. Voltaire disagreed with the atheists and said their atheism had a religious dogma of its own.
If religion is either not important for good government or not important for good society, and if principles for living together in society is based upon a commonly accepted set of values derived from common sense, what happens to people who my their own free choice choose not to live by those principles or standards? The general conclusion was that if someone disobeys a€?reasona€? or what the majority decides is a€?natural law,a€? that person has to be either removed from the perfect society or be a€?re educateda€? so that they use more enlightened reason.
The Enlightenment thinking led not only to societies and governments where great, unheard of levels of human freedom were to be realized (which took place in Englanda€™s Glorious Revolution and which we will see in the American and French Revolutions), but in reality also produced some of the most cruel and totalitarian governments ever before realized in human history. The Enlightenment that helped to produce both the United States of America also led, as well, to Hitlera€™s Nazi Germany!! The Big Question: Was this really an a€?enlightenmenta€? or is it better called the age of deifying human reason? There was another side to the Age of Reason where Christian men and women lived and taught and where spiritual movements took place at the same time as Locke, Voltaire, and Rousseau. The outbreak of Christian revivals in England and America in the 18th century greatly impacted the social, moral, financial, spiritual, and political aspects of culture in Great Britain and America so that these cultures differed significantly from those of Italy and France.
The Great Awakening in America turned the colonies upside-down and prepared the way for independence from Great Britain.
The Baroque Age in Music broke with tradition, and produced a radical departure from the music of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. Spener was born in Alsace, whichat that time was a part of Germany, but is now a province in Eastern France.
Later posts in Berlin exposed Spener to much criticism from other Lutheran ministers because of his emphasis upon personal transformation and cleansing through a spiritual rebirth. Although he is called the a€?father of pietism,a€? he, himself, did not teach nor practice what the later pietists called for--an emotional experience of salvation as a proof of conversion and the separation of the Christian from all secular life.
Spener founded the University of Halle, a center of opposition to the ideas of the French philosophes.
Early in his career Spener became widely known as a vocal opponent of the philosophy of Thomas Hobbes (see Hobbes above). The Age of Reason had begun to infiltrate Lutheran Germany and presented a new threat to the Lutheran churches. Spener taught that the cure for the cold dogma in the Roman Church and the dogma increasingly developing in German Lutheranism was not rationalism or human reason, but a deeper, personal commitment to Christ.
His grandfather moved the family to Germany to avoid forced conversion to the state-religion, Catholicism. With wealth received from his family Zinzendorf purchased an estate in East Saxony, Germany (at the intersection of Saxony, Poland, and Czechoslovakia) where his intention was to create a community of people who desired to follow the teachings of Spener and to publish books which might awaken Lutheranism from what he felt was its stupor. Within months a request came from Moravia and Bohemia, now sections of present-day Czechoslovakia, from a group of Protestants who were the dominant group in Moravia and Bohemia before the Thirty Yearsa€™ War (1618-1648), but were now a persecuted minority.
Zinzendorf worked diligently to unite the various groups coming from a variety of cultures and Christian backgrounds into a unified Christian community. Zinzendorf continued to view the new community, not as a new reformation, but as a means to breath new life into the Lutheran churches.
When civil authorities grew suspicious and concerned about Zinzendorfa€™s community, they banished them from the estate. Zinzendorf is mentioned here because, like his godfather, Spener, he emphasized the necessity of the new birth and of an intimate, personal relationship with Christ as the cure for the cold dogmas of Rome and the increasing coldness of the Lutheran Churches.
Rather than an emphasis on human reason, Zinzendorf was faithful to biblical teachings and to cultivating the spirit and the new heart. Edwards is considered to be one of the most brilliant Amercian-born philosophers and theologians. Edwards was a Calvinist minister in Northampton, Massachussetts and preached during some of the first revivals connected with the Great Awakening in (c.
As with pietism in Europe, the Great Awakening emphasized an intensely personal relationship with Christ, brought the Christian faith to the common man, and was marked by prayer, bible study, intense introspection, and a personal commitment to a biblical standard of morality. The Great Awakening impacted the attitudes of the colonists towards authority and especially to the government of England. The impact of the Awakening produced a revolution in the American colonies that was totally distinct from the revolution in France that occurred about 15 years later. At Oxford he joined the Holy Club, a group of deeply committed Christian students who met regularly to pray and study the Bible. Because he was not assigned a pulpit by the Anglican Church, Whtiefield preached wherever people would gather, in parks, in public squares, in marketplaces.
One of Whitefielda€™s most ardent supporters was Benjamin Franklin, who published all of Whitefielda€™s sermons and tracts in his Gazette.
On one occasion in Philadelphia, Franklin walked from the outdoor pulpit area where Whitefield was preaching on Market Street down to the Delaware River, just to see how far his booming voice would carry. Although Franklin did not agree personally with Whtiefielda€™s message of repentance and faith, he nevertheless admired him as a friend. It is said that Whitefield preached to more people in his lifetime than another other person prior to Billy Graham, and all without the benefit of air conditioning, PA systems, and closed circuit TV! Whitefield crossed the Atlantic to the American colonies numerous times to conduct preaching campaigns from Massachusetts to Georgia. His preaching in Wales and England did much to prevent English society from being impacted by the humanism of the French philosophes. Earlier, the Wesleys had traveled to Georgia in the American colonies to do missionary work among the native Americans. It is understandable, therefore, that under the direction of the Wesleys many of their followers became leaders in major service projects and organizations, leading the way in prison, orphanage, hospital, and social reform.
The Wesleys were abolitionists and were friends of William Wilberforce and John Newton, other English leaders in the anti-slavery movement in England. It can be safely stated that the words of John Wesleya€™s hymns have been sung by millions around the world and are words memorized by millions.
List five major members of the Philosophes in France, England, and Scotland and explain their particular contributions to the Age of Reason.
Explain the roles that natural reason and the newly discovered laws of nature played on the thinking of the leaders of the Age of Reason. Discuss specific Christian thinkers of the 18th century who opposed the French philosophes. In a brief statement be able to summarize the impact of Montesquieu, Rousseau, and Locke on the framing of the American government. Explain how Hitlera€™s Nazism and Americas democracy could flow from the same fountain called the Age of Reason.
Explain why many of the philosophes had trouble accepting the claims of the Scriptures concerning the virgin birth, the resurrection, Jesus walking on water, etc.
And so, appearing on the scene in Europe at the same time the explorers were searching for new routes to the Spice Islands,A  to China and India, others were engaged in new scientific studies. No longer were men and women content to simply trust the traditional explanations for what seemed to drive the universe around them.
The magnetic compass and astrolabe and new maps were enabling ships captains to better navigate the uncharted waters of the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans.


He then continued his studies at the University of Bologna (Italy) where he met scholars who challenged Aristotle's traditional cosmologya€”that the earth was at the center of the universe known as geocentrism. It was thought to be genuinely a€?Christiana€? and a€?biblical.a€? Brahe came up with a variation of an earth-centered model that was satisfactory to many.
He disagreed with the Copernican idea that the planets travel in circular routes around the earth. He heard of a new spyglass that had been invented in the Netherlands and set out to build his own.
The Jesuits saw in his teaching the worst consequences for the Church of Rome--they would be seen to have been in error and that their interpretation of the Bible was in error! There were others before and since, but whenever the topic of science and Christianity is discussed, Galileo usually is introduced into the argument as the primary example of one who proved the Church wrong. He is credited with being the first researcher in the Western world to describe in exact and correct detail the circulatory system of the human body and the process used by the heart in pumping blood around within the body.
At the funeral, his coffin was carried by three earls, two dukes, and the Lord Chancellor of Great Britain. If the planets revolve around sun in elliptical orbits, and all at different rates of speed and tracking different pathways, how is it that this is all so orderly? Everything tells us mathematically, said Newton, that once on a trajectory, the planets they should continue on out in a straight line, like an arrow or a missile, and never return.
He concluded that the same force that drew the apple downward was the same force that kept the planets and the earth in orbit -- gravity. He discovered the law of gravitation, formulated the basic laws of motion, developed calculus, and analyzed the nature of white light. This theory explained quite fully everything from the movement of the planets through the skies, to the movements of the tides, to the velocity of falling objects--and more. The design of the eye required a perfect understanding of optics, and the design of the ear required a knowledge of sounds. He believed history was under the dominion of the Creator, and prophecy showed how the Creator was to establish His earthly kingdom in the end.
He believed Jesus Christ was the Savior of the world, but he did not believe He was very God. Whatever forms of government the nations had used to govern, it seemed to the new thinkers that inevitably they always resulted in war. The so-called Enlightenment began in the late 17th century and continued through most of the 18th century. In other words, what can be known about God, about eternity, about spiritual laws and commandments, can be discovered through human reason using the tools of the scientific method. The Reformation questioned the traditional beliefs, teachings, and authority of the Roman Church. A deist is one who believes in a God who created the universe, wound it up like a clock, and then walked away from it, allowing it to operate on its own under fixed laws. The common people of Europe knew and cared little about the philosophers who could sit around and debate natural laws: a€?We have to work for a living!a€? There were also great ministers and Christian theologians, especially in England and Scotland, who challenged the conclusions of the new thinkers. It was more or less an undercover exchange of ideas within the context of an absolute French monarchy that was generally opposed to the ideals being discussed by the philosophes.
Some were committed to the basic truths of the Bible but knew that something other than absolutism had to be embraced (whether absolutism in government or the Roman Church) if God-given individual rights were to be set free. Although he did not fully develop his ideas concerning government, the later philosophes claimed Descartes as their forerunner. The most fundamental idea of Montesquieu was the idea that all men are prone to evil and men with power are exceptionally prone to evil. For in his day, Rome was enamored with absolutism--especially if the Roman Church was in charge or if one of its hand-picked monarchs was on the throne. Montesquieu was widely read by the American colonists and was the most frequently quoted author in the letters and books of colonial writers in the period 1740-1780. Her belief system greatly impacted his view of government and faith, and he saw no reason why she should be suppressed and censored because of her beliefs. If we can tame the natural world, then we can do the same with government, society and culture. Thomas Jefferson picked up on these ideas from Montesquieu and championed the idea that in the new America only the educated should be given the right to vote and to serve in public office. There is no one system that fits all, he concluded, BUT whatever form of government is used, it MUST grant freedom to all of its citizens. He advocated religious freedom for all and the guarantee of civil liberties, fair trials and freedom of thought and speech. There he learned to admire the freedoms that the English enjoyed under the parliamentary monarchy, where, he said, "The English, as a free people choose their own road to heaven.
He distrusted a democracy as much as a despotic king, because mob rule, to Voltaire, was as despotic as one-man rule. What he soon finds is hardship, disappointment, and treachery everywhere as part of the human condition. That it occurred is an indication of to Voltaire of Goda€™s indifference towards mankind and perhaps even his cruelty.
The true God of heaven was suppressed by the false gods created by religions--especially the Roman Catholic Church. Of all the philosophes, Diderot was the most outspoken critic of all religion, not simply because of the arguments raised by Voltaire and others, but simply because he believed that human reason excelled all forms of human religion. She did so in exchange for his willingness to sell to her his extensive and expensive art collection, something needed, she felt, if Russia was to enter the 19th century as an enlightened nation of Europe.
As suggested by Locke earlier, both the rulers and those ruled should live by means of a social contract. His trust in the general will of the majority to do and to rule in a good fashion was viewed as extremely idealistic. They valued the concept that all men were created in the image of God with certain innate, inalienable rights. Each person enters the world as a blank page, a tabula rasa, but as each grows older his or her experiences in life shape their personalities. Second was a mana€™s right to work his property and to own and control what he makes from it. This was an excuse, per Locke, to justify some men ruling over other men without their consent. One of his important works was the defense of the Christian faith in his work, On the Reasonableness of Christianity (1695). Written during the English Civil War (1642-1651), Leviathan presented an absolute monarchy as the only hope to prevent mankind from self-destruction.
In this system the government controlled production of goods, the pricing of goods, setting of tariffs and taxes to control the flow of goods in and out of the country, and in general controlled most aspects of the economy.
If the government allows its citizens to use personal greed in production and in buying and selling, it will motivate towards great economic progress. The most healthy and prosperous economies, said Smith, would be those were government takes its hands off of the economy. Investors will purchase stock to enable the producer to even further invest in machinery, workers, and research and development. When Thomas Paine moved to France from America, where, complained, the new nation was too religious, he joined them. While many of the concepts of Locke and Montesquieu helped shape the new government that was created in the United States of America, the message of the philosophes in France created an increasing agitation that led to the French Revolution and to the European revolutions of 1848.
So heavily involved were ministers in this movement towards American independence, that the resulting war between Great Britain and America was called a€?the Presbyterian Revolta€? in the Parliament of England.
Music in England and Germany tended to strengthen the spiritual dimensions of culture and inspired people to faith. It resulted in new musical forms: polyphonic music, the opera, the ballet, the oratorio, the symphony, and compositions where instruments accompanied vocal music.
He was troubled by the worldly attitudes of many Lutherans, by the wide-spread reliance upon infant baptism as a guarantee of salvation, and by the seeming coldness of many towards private communion with God.
Any idea that unaided human reason could arrive at absolute truth, or that mankind could achieve harmony and a just society apart from God, were ludicrous for Spener. He began to advocated communal living and taught that the community was more important to onea€™s spiritual and emotional development than even the nuclear family.
Many resettled in other areas of Germany, but many settled in the new colony of Pennsylvania in English America. He was among the first 29 persons to be inducted in 1900 into the Hall of Fame of Great Americans.
Edwards son-in-law, David Brainard, became a missionary to the native Americans in New England.
Because he had no funds, he entered Oxford University as a sevitor, or student of the lowest rank who earned his tuition by serving the needs of tuition-paying students. There he met the two brothers, Charles and John Wesley, and together with them formed the Methodist movement within the Anglican Church, which later separated and became the Methodist Church. And on another occasion when Whtiefiled urged the immense crowd to give financially to the spread of the Gospel, Franklin emptied his wallet! He once admitted to Whitefield that, a€?You have almost persuaded me!a€? Franklin once remarked that after Whitefield had preached in Philadelphia, Franklin walked through the streets and almost everywhere heard families in their homes singing psalms. Together with his brother Charles he framed an outline of Christian disciplines, which, if followed, could lead a person into a deeper, more intimate relationship with Christ.
Upon returning home, however, they both realized a deep emptiness in their hearts, and spoke about this with a Moravian in England who was waiting for a ship to sail to Georgia. They are still sung today and remain to form far more vibrant ideas than anything written by their contemporaries, the French philosophes.
They are mankinda€™s achievements as we attempt to fulfill Goda€™s command to subdue the earth and have control over it -- germs, bacilli, water, weather, steam, fire and all the other resources that God has so graciously given to us. But an increased interest in astronomy to further assist navigation also resulted in a re-thinking of astronomy itself. Medieval theologians embraced the teaching that the earth was the center of the solar system, proof that humankind was the center of God's attention. He proposed a model in which the eartha€™s moon and the sun revolved around the earth, while the planets revolved around the sun. His mathematical calculations convinced him that the planets moved in elliptical orbits around the sun.
Man, created in Goda€™s image, said Bacon, has the responsibility to observe Goda€™s creation and learn from it and learn about it. Behind all his science was the conviction that God made the universe with a mathematical structure and He gifted human beings' minds to understand that structure. His Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms Amended used astronomical data to argue that the Bible was the oldest document in the world and that the events of Biblical history preceded all other ancient histories. Newton believed the Athanasian creed and the doctrine of the Trinity diminished the sovereign dominion of the Almighty and corrupted the purity of the church for centuries. The lives of common people were turned upside-down, agriculture and industry destroyed, and all of Europe involved in military buildup. The Enlightenment, or Age of Reason, questioned the traditional ideas about how to discover truth and how to live together in harmony on earth. Some of the philosophes were skeptics, questioning much of everything, including Christianitya€™s basic claims. He also concluded that not only religious people can do this but all can engage in it, hence, religion is not necessary to harmony in society.
Here the nobles are great without insolence, and the people share in the government without disorder" (Voltaire, Letters on the English, 1733).
In the end, these events do not seem to achieve any apparent good except to point out clearly the cruelty and folly of mankind and the apparent indifference of the natural world and its God. However, he also predicted that Newtona€™s law of gravity would eventually (within one century) overthrow Christianity as it was then known and practiced. He advocated allowing children to set their own agendas in school and granting them freedom to study what was of interest to them. In his own personal life, Rousseau had four children by his live-in a€?wifea€? who bore him four children. This was in opposition to the Calvinism of Geneva with its twin doctrines of original sin and predestination. Every person, if allowed to live a life of freedom, has the innate ability and capacity to reach perfection here on earth and to share that perfection with his or her fellow humans!
The duty to preserve onea€™s life is so strong that he neither has the right to end his own life or to subject his life to slavery.
As creatures of God each person has the capacity to take charge of their own destiny and can regulate and improve their situation in life. However, he did not say that a man could amass property without limits or to the hurt of others.
The king and queen would be subject to the input, the laws, and the regulations of those who they governed. His view of government, therefore, called for a strong central government necessary to thwart mindless revolts. Although Austria was a Roman Catholic country and Vienna was the seat of the Holy Roman Empire, the Zinzendorfs had converted to Lutheranism.
His father was an official in the government of Saxony but died several weeks after Nikolausa€™ birth. The American War for Independence was heavily impacted by the Great Awakening, and whatever impact the French philosophes and the Enlightenment had on American thinking, it was greatly tempered by Edwards, the Wesleys, and George Whitefield. They later parted company with the Moravians because they rejected the a€?quietisma€? emphasized by the Moravians.
The hymns emphasized the free grace of God expressed through the death and resurrection of Jesus, emphasized the personal relationship that the Christian is intended to enjoy with God through Christ, and those practices of the Christian life that Methodism developed.
Chinese and Arab insights and discoveries often suggested new explanations for natural phenomena.
The telescope, first produced in the Netherlands and improved by Galileo in Italy, led to the discovery and confirmation of the new way to conceive of our solar system--heliocentrism (literally: a€?sun-centereda€™).
He was the first to discover the moons of Jupiter, the first to see spots on the sun, the first to realize that the Milky Way is made up of a myriad of stars and to suggest that the moon is mountainous. If something is empirically true, it has been proven to be so through the senses, through experimentation and testing. Man is to trust God for new insights and new revelations about Himself and his created universe. They remain in motion due to an immense force that set them into motion and, they remain in their course because of a law that holds them in orbit.
Therefore, onea€™s religious beliefs should not be the test of being a good, acceptable citizen.
Corrupt government officials work hand in hand with dishonest clergy against the common people. Violating his own stated ideal for children and the family, he required her to place them in homes for orphans.
Coupled with this was the notion that a nationa€™s economic health was directly measured by the amount of gold and silver it was able to accumulate. His mother requested Philipp Jakob Spener to serve as Nikolausa€™ godfather, and sent the child to live with her mother, who was a godly, pietistic Lutheran. If human reason coupled with the scientific method can discover the natural laws of the physical universe, why not the same for the spiritual world?
Montesquieu attributed Polybius, ancient Greek philosopher, for many of his foundational principles.
Newtona€™s discovery completely overturned ancient superstitions, including those of the Roman Church.
Dead formalism was replaced by excitement, enthusiasm, spiritual fervor, and individual commitment to Christ. We would have no plastics, no machinery, no cures for infection, no successful surgeries, we would walk everywhere, and have very limited knowledge about and communication with the rest of the world -- and even with communities that exist only 100-200 miles away! THESE VERY SAME ENFORCEMENT AGENCIES, WHO HAVE SWORN TO PROTECT AND SERVE, OUR COUNTRY, AND CITIZENS ,ARE BUT SOME, OF THE CORRUPT,GREEDY TRAITORS .ENGAGED IN THE TYRANNY AND TORTURE. But I know enough about chemistry to know that a chemical by itself may be poisonous but not poisonous when in a compound with other chemicals. My name Chan Junt Hoong, has the characters of Shenzhen city in it, in which the Junt is similar or near similar, though the characters Chan Junt is not nearly as close as Shenzhen city, China. I have not been to China since I was born though my parents and my brothers and sisters and uncle has been to the area of Lam Hoi and Fo Shan, China.Self Portrait of Junt Hoong Chan or Chan Junt Hoong or J Chan in my Small Office Home Office.
The Image is set in front of a mirror with LED's behind to show light images on the mirror and on the photograph analogous to computer data or computer text on the mirror with my self portait behind. J Chan from Dolphin Photography Studios in the University of Birmingham, Birmingham, United Kingdom in 1998 and the Photograph Negative Re-Order Form No. Chan Junt Hoong) graduated with a BEng 3rd class Honours in Electronics and Electrical Engineering. Chan Junt Hoong graduated with BEng with 3rd class Honours in Electronics and Electrical Engineering.In the final year of my studies in the University of Birmingham in 1997, I had failed the theoretical examinations and passed the project paper with 51% in the project results. But you should be aware that the story of Chicken Little is notA  a "fable character." While he did say "The sky is falling" quite a bit, this was only because he had difficulty making contact the his agent provocateur whose actual physical appearance had changed over the years.
This had resulted in a failed overall result of my studies in The University of Birmingham in the School of Electrical, Electronic and Communications Engineering. I had chosen my own subjects in my course and I had to manage a minimum of 10 different subjects to be awarded the degree of Electrical and Electronic Engineering against those who had specialised in different degrees which had fewer subjects.
In the resulting discusssion with my supervisor and mentor of my project, Professor Colin J. Goodman of my failure in my studies, the Professor mentioned if I had any medical problems that would have resulted in this failure of my studies in The University of Birmingham.
I have a cause to appeal and resit the examinations or revise the results if there is a valid cause as a medical cause or health cause that would have caused the examinations failure. I complained to the Professor Forsyth that I my memory was not working and I could not remember my work after an hour of studying and he told me to take some paracetamol for headaches. The video faculty includes Eric Hulsizer, a former Channel 8 cameramanA who photographed "Channel 8 On Your Side," and Lisa Inserra of Cox Media (the company that owns Valpack) who is active in producing television commercials for her company's clients.az?i»? In my program, I've studied drawing, camera operation, scripting, digital imaging, programming basics, copyright law, video editing, website design, sound production and editing. One of myA professors says the program is the best of its kind in the Tampa Bay area and I think he's right.az?i»?i»? Please, please, put the word out to others so that this fine program will be better known.
In the roads leading to the appeal of my failure in my studies, I went to see the medical doctor in the University of Birmingham under the National Healthcare Scheme in England or know as the NHS as students are provided with this facility. I had earlier met the councilor in the University of Birmingham in the Guild in the University and told her of my problems in my studies and had failed.
It doesn't matter what your heritage is or whether you are still in high school or old enough for Medicare. I had initially wanted this to be an excuse to get an advantage in the appeal and mentioned I had AIDS, but not HIV, and the coucilor mentioned that it could be anxiety.
The cause of the AIDS was that I was extorted and could have been hit by people in Amsterdam, Holland in 1996 when I went there during my summer vacation after resitting the 2nd year exams which I had failed and the results of the resit was that I had passed the examinations of the resit in the 2nd year for the papers which I had failed.
I am now a Chartered Engineer , under Engineering Coucil of the United Kingdom and the IET. I realized in the past few years as I investigated the deaths of Malaysian students and the condition of myself in the United Kingdom and other overseas countries under the mentorship of the Government of Malaysia and the Prime Minister of Malaysia then, Tun Dr. Mahatir Mohammed that extensive foul play was involved including heavy occults, drugs and substance abuse and black magic to murder Malaysian students overseas. Petersburg Collede digital arts program is filled with both talented professors and students.
This is an attempt on Malaysia and an attempt to destroy the country by destroying the students of Malaysia overseas as these are the people who would eventually lead the nation into the future. I realized that my fellow students and classmates of other nations smoked and bought and rolled, sliced green leaves , which doesn't look like dried tobacco leaves, of which the tobacco leaves are crunched and which are brown and sold somtimes in small tins, whereas the sliced green leaves which were smoked by the fellow students in the University were sold in packets outside the University for 2 British Pounds a packet. I would like to mention that the sliced green leaves are drugs or marijuana or something else, please let me or the local Government know if you know what it is definitely.
I have realized through whispers in thin air and surrounding discussions that drug addicts are able to remove and swap a persons brain with theirs as in the placing of the brain into the FGPA device through occult methods and black magic in order to make a drug addicts brain work again as the synapses in a drug addicts brain has failed and cannot remember or think. The idea of replacing with another human brain or in an FPGA allows for switches to switch and these are analogous to synapses.
My classmates had done this to me in the University and removed my brain while I was studying by ways of drug methods either by smoke or needles. In your story on stadium horns, you called them vuvuzwelas, what is that funny looking symbol after the photo credits. I let you know again I have AIDS(Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome), that means any type of disease that cannot be cured by the immune system which has resulted in a deficiency syndrome, a result of the drugs method inflicted onto me by my friends in the University of Birmingham. The voices I hear in whisper in thin air is a type of AIDS effect, I do not have HIV or Human Immunodeficiency Virus,  and there seems to be no cure, and resulted from drug addicts inflicting the AIDS whispers sound onto me in my University.
The school district has moved to a biometric identification program, saying students will no longer have to use an ID card to buy lunch.A  BIOMETRICS TO TRACK YOUR KIDS!!!!!i»?i»?A TARGETED INDIVIDUALS, THE GREEDY CRIMINALS ARE NOW CONDONING THEIR TECH!
My head exploded(some sort of opening of doors in religion) in 2001 at the end of the year while I was working in Advanced Micro Devices in Singapore and my head was clouded in voices from every angle. I currently have not found a cure for whispers or the whispers caused by AIDS in the surroundings. I was allowed to resit the whole final theoretical year and my complete final year exams in The British Council in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia in 1998 after my appeal suceeded in the University of Birmingham, United Kingdom through mitigation.
I did not attend the appeal in the University of Birmingham and was notified by my written letter and supervisors, Professor Colin J.
I passed my examinations with a 3rd class honours in Electrical and Electronic Engineering from the University of Birmingham, United Kingdom, the highest achivement in Electrical and Electronic Engineering worldwide and the best degree in the world in 1998.
I attended the graduation and congregation at the University of Birmingham in July, 1998 on my own and attended with my ex-classmates, Phd student then, Dr. The image can be used freely, subject to some restrictive terms in the license, including crediting the photographer. Written by Junt Hoong Chan MIET MIEEE CEng.?The frequency grid has it advantages allowing a human to hear listen to voices up to a frequency of 22 kHz. It's possible to place a voice of human in the normal hearing range, but is it possible to cloak and mask it as in stealth? This is possible if it's out of the hearing range of humans, but brought back into the hearing range again by a decoder, or a system to lower the frequency to a human frequency? Is this a possible thing to be done, that a human can listen to something out of human frequency range and even manipulate the sound to another frequency in order to be heard? It looks to me like he called on Curtis LeMay, Colonel Clearwater - and then realizing he had made a mistake - schluffed it into Colonel Kilgore. This would result in disaster as the sound would be out of tune and unable to be understood. Careful consideration has to be made to what is being heard and what is in stealth mode or in simple terms, what is not heard, even though the person who is talking in front of you, he may be talking to others in stealth as well. The reason is clear now, there could be a very tempting business deal but in stealth, your head could be removed and a hound of hell in your place or a piramid dog walking on 2 legs in your place when the business deal is done. Please be careful, terrorism is real and the threat of terror from failed religions are real, as the failed religion believers are trying everything to reinstate themselves. I believe that my wife's miscarriages are due to my status as United States General and a supporter of the United States war effort, anti terrorism and anti Al-Qaeda. The miscarriages of my unborn children are fraud and my unborn children have been murdered in Singapore by terrorists.
The clinic is still run by the owners of the clinic, Yim Gynaecology Medical Clinic in Admiralty. This dead man's chest deal only happens when there is a loan from a shark that has to be repaid, an example is blood money or blood diamond money where the interest is 300% or 3000%. I let you know know I do not have a medical certificate and am not a graduate in medical, surgical or gyneacology. It was a few years ago that my 2nd miscarriage happened but as this was the first cross examination of the baby as my wife announced the baby to me, I went to the clinic nearby as my 1st child was also announced a miscarriage in Singapore by another doctor.
This doctor which examined my wife for my 2nd child in the Yim Gynaecology Medical Clinic is a different doctor or know as a doctor because the doctor actually looks like a classmate of mine back in 1st year in collage in Malaysia, and a friend, and informed me that he is a graduate from Manchester, UMIST or Manchester University and earned a doctorate in Power Electronics. The 2nd baby was pronounced dead by him or whoever he is, as I discussed and went for a second opinion in another clinic nearby. I wondered then if the scope was plugged in corrrectly, or should say the ground signal in direct electronics is a simple thing to perform in a scope by not plugging in the scope or if there is a ground button, by pressing the button.


Does a layman actually know what the scope and what the presumed doctor is pressing on the scope or can a person see the words written on the equipment?
As I went for the 2nd opinion then, the baby was also pronounced a miscarriage and there was no heart beat. I wonder if Singapore knows what they are doing in the numerous medical clinic's or centre's they have or are they able even to call themselves a medical centre in the world? Are you not afraid they they may have amputated parts of your body by a fraud doctors, or as they call them in my home country in Malaysia, Dr. Or are you afraid that they may have performed surgery on a patient such as your loved ones a and pronounced them dead though it's a minor aliment?
It's true that medical doctors are provided for in law, but what of fraud doctors or perhaps doctorate students in Engineering such as my classmate above, who is also known as a doctor but in Engineering?
This is a frightening and I report it now as my wife is expecting her 3rd child and I am the father. Written by Junt Hoong Chan MIET MIEEE CEng.I have read in the internet that Infra-Red beams such as those in the table and room fan controllers, television channel controllers and DVD players and other household appliances can be utilised as a carrier beam for communications.
I have shone the Infra-Red beam around the house without turning on any electrical appliances and sometimes I wonder if I am hearing sounds from other Infra-Red devices. Is that a possible thought that people can be transferring their voices on the Infra-Red beam without their knowledge? Another idea, just as lasers are possibly utilised in satellite communications as a carrier, or a point to point communiations carrier. Junt Hoong Chan is the sole owner and entrepreneur of Engineering and Computer Works and is the sole employee of the office.
The Specialist Diploma was shown to my manager in Infineon Singapore in Quality and Reliability Department, Infineon Singapore where I was a Stress Board Design and Reliability Engineer. I expected a promotion which did not happen and was asked to leave at the end of 2010 at which the Human Resource Director requested me to write my own resignation letter and sacked me from Infineon, Singapore. I left and joined another company as a Research and Development Manager in March 2011 doing automation.I was an ex-student of Nanyang Polytechnic in Singapore in 2009 while studying a short course in Embedded Systems programming including FPGA (ESDP). I was awarded a Specialist Diploma in Embedded Systems from Nanyang Polytechnic in Singapore in December 2009. The course was for 9 months.In the days before the final report, I wrote the code on the final project know as SRAM Controller myself based on the course including the course materials relating to counting up and restarting.
My final project was done with a partner and I and him compared and showed each other our projects though my was working partially. My partner's idea was a better idea and his was selected to represent our final project. It involves fixing the interconnections of the FPGA which are not able to be connected using this occult method. Here's a photo of American school children using the original Bellamy salute:A I think the photo speaks for itself. Colonel Clearwater Dear Colonel Clearwater: What do you think about the Egyptian revolution? The brain eventually burns out after a while and a new brain has to be replaced by having sexual intercourse.
Fundamentalists, in any religion, are usually a reaction to what the followers perceive as injustice. It involves the sperm fixing back the brain again for a while as the sperm is brain material.
This doesn't mean Egyptian society and culture will necessarily change; it is still their culture and values. Can anyone comment on this or place comments in writing in my blog or send me an email if this is true, just to check? But in the long run any thing they make of it will be for their benefit (and not the benefit of the United States). I have access to the DSP magazines in IEEE and it shows all kinds of reports that seems to show the brain of a human, currently in the latest issue. The Future of Volatile Storage published in IEEE SPECTRUM Magazine November 2015. In my office, Engineering and Computer Works, I published an idea for memory storage some time back involving ions and electrons, or atomic in a sense for storage, please read the following as an idea : Could this be utilised as a memory circuit? If 4 transistors are placed together, and the base of the transistor is the activator for the transistors, and 4 capacitors are held on the collector or emitter of the transistors, and are charged when the base of the transistor is selected? Analogous to this, if I have 4 positive charges( in ions), and can be neutralised by turning the circuit off? The idea is that can multiple ions (+ve charges) be placed in 1 charge, meaning 1 cell can hold multiple charge, or multiple memory cells by utilising differnt +ve ions in 1 cell and each controlled by a transistor or switch? Below, is a published idea in IEEE SPECTRUM Magazine on November 2015 The Future of Storage on Volatile Memory .?  IEEE SPECTRUM Magazine advertisment of the past placed in IEEE SPECTRUM November 2015 on Beam Power Amplifier Tubes or Operational Amplifiers of the past. Paul Weindling, history of medicine professor at Oxford Brookes University, describes his search for the lost victims of Nazi experiments. These tubes are still made by Russia and China and are available to audiophiles and people all over the world.Junt Hoong Chan worked on the Operational Amplifier as his research project for his final year thesis in 1997 at the University of Birmingham, Birmingham, United Kingdom. During the research into Operational Amplifiers, I found that the Amplifiier Tubes were utilised in the past as Operational Amplifiers.
They were utilised in the war in 1939 - 1945 by the German army in calculations and trajectory and to fire weapons, for example, in the Battleship Bismark and Tirpitz and I believe in the whole of the German army then. The chairman of the board at ESL a€” then proprietor of the desert wasteland in Nevada known as a€?Area 51a€? a€” was William Perry, who would be appointed secretary of defense several years later. Not by rampeling down the side of the building like Tom Cruise, but by sliding in with a tourist visa when it was not open to tourists. It was examined and it was found that they utilised these Amplifier Tubes or Operational Amplifiers. EUCACH.ORG PanelIn a 2-hour wide-ranging Panel with Alfred Lambremont Webre on the Transhumanist Agenda, Magnus Olsson, Dr.
For a Plane that could perform at Mach 3 the Speed of Sound, utilising Amplifier Tubes, it's a super achievement then. Henning Witte, and Melanie Vritschan, three experts from the European Coalition Against Covert Harassment, revealed recent technological advances in human robotization and nano implant technologies, and an acceleration of what Melanie Vritschan characterized as a a€?global enslavement programa€?.Shift from electromagnetic to scalar wavesThese technologies have now shifted from electromagnetic wave to scalar waves and use super quantum computers in the quantum cloud to control a€?pipesa€? a reference to the brains of humans that have been taken over via DNA, via implants that can be breathed can breach the blood-brain barrier and then controlled via scalar waved on a super-grid. Clearwater: Republicans are betting that your readers don't care - that after all you did to beat them in 2006 and 2008, you're going to sit this one out. It was part of the understanding then during my research into a Power Electronics Project utilising Operational Amplifiers.
So they're whipping up their base by blocking help to unemployed workers, blocking summer jobs for teens, apologizing to the big companies that gave us the spill in the Gulf, and doing anything else they can do to stop progress. From Junt Hoong Chan MIET MIEEE CEng.  IEEE SPECTRUM Magazine from IEEE for November 2015 articles The Hunt For Earth 2, BLASTOFF!
Eventually, such 'subvocal speech' systems could be used in spacesuits, in noisy places like airport towers to capture air-traffic controller commands, or even in traditional voice-recognition programs to increase accuracy, according to NASA scientists."What is analyzed is silent, or sub auditory, speech, such as when a person silently reads or talks to himself," said Chuck Jorgensen, a scientist whose team is developing silent, subvocal speech recognition at NASA Ames Research Center in California's Silicon Valley. Please click on the link to download and view the front cover of IET's December 2015 Magazine. Yes, that Rand Paul, who says freedom means a private business can discriminate against African-Americans, and that President Obama holding polluters accountable for the mess in the Gulf is "un-American." And he's not alone. We numbered the columns and rows, and we could identify each letter with a pair of single-digit numbers," Jorgensen said. The complete article Changing_the_world_one_maker_at_a_time_from_IET.pdf? is placed in the server. Please click on the link to download.Software USART for Microchip PIC16F84A and Hardware USART for Microchip devices with USART assembly codes for Microchip devices are available in the server. One candidate calls Social Security "horrible policy," while another has said that Americans will turn to "Second Amendment remedies" against Democrats. Please click on the links to download.Please download Microsoft Windows 8 from the link attached.
Could such a sample be utilised with the control system as pressing the control keys to indicate a press on the Javascript button like a keypad via the control system driver? Or could the Javascript be controlling the controller by pressing the keys on the Javascript and turning on a function on the control system via linking to the control system driver?
People in noisy conditions could use the system when privacy is needed, such as during telephone conversations on buses or trains, according to scientists."An expanded muscle-control system could help injured astronauts control machines. Think about it, Javascript, total control from any Internet system, possible on the ideas thought above?
If an astronaut is suffering from muscle weakness due to a long stint in microgravity, the astronaut could send signals to software that would assist with landings on Mars or the Earth, for example," Jorgensen explained. In New Hampshire, Paul Hodes is running neck-and-neck with his Republican opponent to take this seat for the Democrats. These are processed to remove noise, and then we process them to see useful parts of the signals to show one word from another," Jorgensen said.After the signals are amplified, computer software 'reads' the signals to recognize each word and sound. Written by Junt Hoong Chan MIET MIEEE CEng. Javascript Calendar from TELERIK is as shown below.
We've just started to turn our country around, passing healthcare reform, working to hold the big banks accountable for the Wall Street meltdown, pushing legislation to address climate change and end our addiction to oil. The GOP is betting big that saying "no" and blocking progress is a path to success in November.What bet will you make? Save the file and open from Internet Explorer.There are proprietary files in the Javascript. From Junt Hoong Chan MIET MIEEE CEng My office business license has been renewed for 2016 and this is going into the 5th year as Engineering and Computer Works.
I think the Republicans should adopt as their emblem the condom because it more clearly reflects the party's political stance. Thank you for the support, browsers, viewers and friends of the office.Included in the Source Code files above in the list is Web Camera with Source Code from Albert Sandro Mamu from Visual Studio Samples.
A condom stands for inflation, halts production, destroys the next generation, protects a bunch of pricks, and gives one a sense of security while screwing others.
Colonel ClearwaterDear Colonel Clearwater, Last week, my friend and colleague, Congressman Anthony Weiner, did something very good, and very gutsy. Weiner's report showed that this firm, which sells gold coins, rips off its customers while benefiting directly from Beck's Chicken Little lunacy about the economy.
Every time Beck screams that there is an impending Obama-led government takeover of the economy and your savings aren't safe, he's making a sales pitch for this sleazy advertiser.
You see, Beck's ratings have recently crashed, and most of his reputable advertisers have deserted him.
Junt Hoong Chan MIET MIEEE CEng. Please view Engineering and Computer Works website blog at this address. Now that he's been exposed, Beck has spent the last week using his big media platform to attack and undermine Weiner - he even set up an attack website designed to damage Weiner's political standing. Our Research and Development Division has been in contact with the Federal Bureau of Prisons, the California Department of Corrections, the Texas Department of Public Safety, and the Massachusetts Department of Correction to run limited trials of the 2020 neural chip implant.
This collusion between big media, conservative commentators, and quack economics is a scam, but it is powerful if it remains unopposed.
We have established representatives of our interests in both management and institutional level positions within these departments. And we need to support people like Weiner, who have the guts to go after right-wing lunacy at the source. Federal regulations do not yet permit testing of implants on prisoners, but we have entered nto contractual agreements with privatized health care professionals and specified correctional personnel to do limited testing of our products.
We need, however, to expand our testing to research how effective the 2020 neural chip implant performs in those identified as the most aggressive in our society.
In California, several prisoners were identified as members of the security threat group, EME, or Mexican Mafia.
Please take a look in Visual Studio samples.I have an idea of performing a road show in Singapore and Malaysia with the complete system as below for SGD 500 per person approximately. Consider his statement: "I beg you, look for the words 'social justice' or 'economic justice' on your church Web site. They were brought to the health services unit at Pelican Bay and tranquilized with advanced sedatives developed by our Cambridge,Massachussetts laboratories. This road show will inform on how to use Microchip devices and introduce Microchip and Microsoft software and Visual Studio together for the total and complete solution including examples of house security and wireless control of system via handphone. The results of implants on 8 prisoners yielded the following results: a€?Implants served as surveillance monitoring device for threat group activity. The road show will be held in approximately 3 months time if everyting is suitable and with people participation. There are 6 functions, including dual potentiometer on a single ADC, temperature, voltage control, tone control, 12 hour clock, 24 hour clock, keypad 16-way and 12-way, USB control, and synchonous clock with the computer USB link(to be completed). The USB board would be utilised together with the new controller. That oil disaster must be stopped, and a way must be found."I am not the original author of that sensible thought, but it has been my favorite definition of faith for a while. While we have no way of certainty for moving past them, working to find a pathway that takes us beyond our doubts is the best option in my view.
However, during that period substantial data was gathered by our research and development team which suggests that the implants exceed expected results.
One of the major concerns of Security and the R & D team was that the test subject would discover the chemial imbalance during the initial adjustment period and the test would have to be scurbbed.
I am in Singapore currently. I cannot classify how the heart beat was heard by me last night with a loud bump of the 3rd baby, but I think this baby would be strong  weather than a weak baby who would be dead by age of 21 due to a weak heart.
However, due to advanced technological developments in the sedatives administered, the 48 hour adjustment period can be attributed t prescription medication given to the test subjects after the implant procedure. I am a Chartered Engineer in Asia, of which I pursue the First World of Malaysia, and would continue relentlessly. One of the concerns raised by R & D was the cause of the bleeding and how to eliminate that problem. I have come to the terms that my support of First World Malaysia is a much sought after term, fought for by politicians and those who intend to be politicians as the gains are much and plenty. Unexplained bleeding might cause the subject to inquire further about his "routine" visit to the infirmary or health care facility. I don't have much to say in heart to others but the little dragons of Asia are not much of anything anymore, fighting for political positions and governance with a large Asia ready to move ahead. Small items in my life are not much of a concern, but the likely political power of those who may wield it in future in the rising Asia and those who have shed blood and tears for it are going to be gainers and the losers who have resorted to vile tactics know now the likely outcome of what is to be, paving their way with murder.
Security officials now know several strategies employed by the EME that facilitate the transmission of illegal drugs and weapons into their correctional facilities.
I will stand by my country in the belief that there would be justice and peace,  The United States of America, Britain, Singapore and Malaysia.
One intelligence officier remarked that while they cannot use the informaiton that have in a court of law that they now know who to watch and what outside "connections" they have. Junt Hoong Chan MIET IEEE CEng.There is a 2nd generation of control system in my office comprising of 40 pin device and 28 pin device and 18 pin device coupled with the keypad control system of 28 pins. The prison at Soledad is now considering transferring three subjects to Vacaville wher we have ongoing implant reserach.
There are 5 additional functions, including dual potentiometer, temperature, music, voltage and time.
Our technicians have promised that they can do three 2020 neural chip implants in less than an hour. Total functions - 6 functions with combination IO's of a larger quantity than the last control system. Soledad officials hope to collect information from the trio to bring a 14 month investigation into drug trafficking by correctional officers to a close.
And the item that still is similar to the earlier is that, it's still powered by USB and only 5 Volts.
Essentially, the implants make the unsuspecting prisoner a walking-talking recorder of every event he comes into contact with.
The first generation solution is provided as below in the keypad system, the link to download the source code is as follows.
There are only five intelligence officers and the Commisoner of Corrections who actually know the full scope of the implant testing. Click the link above to download.There is a new idea for a driving camera and reverse and side cameras with the control system. In Massachusetts, the Department of Corrections has already entered into high level discussion about releasing certain offenders to the community with the 2020 neural chip implants. The camera could be utilised to view and the control system utilised to drive the vehicle with side and rear monitoring from different views. Our people are not altogether against the idea, however, attorneys for Intelli-Connection have advised against implant technology outside strick control settings.
As mentioned, we have the driving simulation below and today I have managed to put in real pictures including off-road terrains and move them about the simulation. The camera should have the same effect and driving while viewing through the camera is an idea or photographing the view and having the controller or computer process the photograph. While we have a strong lobby in the Congress and various state legislatures favoring our product, we must proceed with the utmost caution on uncontrolled use of the 2020 neural chip. If the chip were discovered in use not authorized by law and the procedure traced to us we could not endure for long the resulting publicity and liability payments. Massachusetts officials have developed an intelligence branch from their Fugitive Task Force Squad that would do limited test runs under tight controls with the pre-release subjects. Correctons officials have dubbed these poetnetial test subjects "the insurance group." (the name derives from the concept that the 2020 implant insures compliance with the law and allows officials to detect misconduct or violations without question) A retired police detective from Charlestown, Massachusetts, now with the intelligence unit has asked us to consider using the 2020 neural chip on hard core felons suspected of bank and armored car robbery.
He stated, "Charlestown would never be the same, we'd finally know what was happening before they knew what was happening." We will continue to explore community uses of the 2020 chip, but our company rep will be attached to all law enforcement operations with an extraction crrew that can be on-site in 2 hours from anywhere at anytime. This could be an idea for the local car industry or for military weapons or military vehicles when in close quarters. We have an Intelli-Connection discussion group who is meeting with the Director of Security at Florence, Colorado's federal super maximum security unit. The initial discussions with the Director have been promising and we hope to have an R & D unit at this important facilitly within the next six months. Then how come Congress starts each session with a prayer and the president is sworn in on a Bible? Wants to KnowDear Wants to Know, As I said in an earlier reply, our countrys laws and structure are not based on the God of the Bible and the Ten Commandments, as Sarah Palin and others claim. So most of us do not work on Sunday and some businesses are not open for business on Sunday. My mum gave them to me after a doctor which made a fraud diagnosis on me for schizophrenia 10 years ago, met my mum recently, and asked her to give me this medication.
I don't have any such condition and have not met the doctor since 2010, and he suddenly goes and sees my mum and asks her to give me this medication?!!!!!!!!!!! The doctor is a fraud and calls himself a specialist, his name is Dr.Lee Aikk How and has told me at the begining of his check on me that he has shifted to a new office and has increased his costs and charged me RM1500 every 3 months and that lasted for 10 years.
So we have a religious custom of not working on Sunday and a secular custom of watching football on Sunday. Please, Dr Lee Aikk How, I beg to differ, please do not cause trouble if you're reading this, I spelt your name wrongly or correctly is not an issue, but the cause of you shaming me is a big issue.
Please do not see my mum and asks her to give me tablets when I have not seen you for 5 years.
The Constitution states that the president must take an oath, but it does not mention anything about a Bible.
You claim to be from specialist England, but what sort of prescription is this after I haven't met you for 5 years? Colonel ClearwaterDear Colonel Clearwater, I understand you answer, but you say customs and traditions. Wants to Know MoreDear Wants to Know More, It is important to realize the difference between a custom and a tradition. Napolitano insisted that the department was not planning on engaging in any form of ideological profiling. It is a custom at my house that every year we watch football on Thanksgiving Day after we eat.
A tradition is a ceremony invented for the purpose of commemorating some historical event or to develop a sense of binding in a community or religious group. Thanksgiving Day is a tradition in America that serves the purpose of reminding us of what we have from God for which to be thankful and is loosely based on the first harvest feast of the Pilgrims to celebrate their first year of survival in the New World. It is a tradition; a ceremony we use to create a common bond among Americans by commemorating our heritage.
When Congress meets, the first thing that happens is that the designated speaker calls the group together. Colonel ClearwaterDear Colonel Clearwater, I have just seen a video about an organization called the Council on Foreign Relations. This organization has members who were past Presidents and past Secretary of States of the United States, plus leaders in the fields of finance, industry, and other important positions in society. The spokesman on the video has concluded that this organization must be a part of world conspiracy to take over the world and put the entire world under a one-world socialist government and I agree with him. The Council on Foreign Relations (CFR) is an organization of foreign policy experts, people concerned with international trade, prominent historians and writers, as well as others who are involved with foreign policy and international affairs.
The CFR hold speaking events with question-and-answer periods which are usually televised on CSpan or other cable stations.
I will tell him face-to-face that we honor veterans at DHS and employ thousands across the department, up to and including the Deputy Secretary," Ms. The speakers are usually world leaders, historians, writers, or others involved in international affairs.
Some of the speakers have included such figures as Nelson Mandela, George Soros, Thomas Friedman, Mikhail Gorbachev, and Ronald Reagan. The journal, which I have subscribed to and read for over 25 years (plus you can buy it at the newsstands in Borders or Barnes and Noble) provides a forum for contrasting views and opinions regarding issues affecting foreign policy. Some people have made a nice living scarring others with conspiracy theories about the CFR. My advice to you is to go to the store, buy and read their journal, watch their events on CSpan, and be wary of people who wish to sell you on the idea that other people are out to get you. Colonel Clearwater________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________Dear Colonel Clearwater: Cancel my subscription to your liberal rage. And no matter how great the obstacles may seem, we must never stop our efforts to reduce the weapons of war. We must never stop at all until we see the day when nuclear arms have been banished from the face of this earth." Ronald Wilson Reagan, 1984 Colonel ClearwaterDear Colonel Clearwater: Liberals? I realize that there is collateral damage in war, but this is no less than cold-blooded genocide. Steve Buyer of Indiana, the ranking Republican on the House Committee on Veterans' Affairs, called it "inconceivable" that the Obama administration would categorize veterans as a potential threat. They were shooting at insurgents who, upon later investigation, turned out to be civilians. By saying the soldiers were shooting civilans implies that they knew they were shooting civiliansj.
The real guilty party are those who convinced the American public that this war was necessary and just. Can you tell me how the "Smallest of the World's Leading Newspapers" managed to scoop "Florida's Best Newspaper?" Pedro TechadorDear Pedro, Always nice to hear from one of the Techadors.This was a WikiLeak scoop.
Palin:Your statement reminds me of what Republican Congressman, Devin Nunes said during the health care vote.
And now you are bringing the ghosts back into this chamber." There is no polite way to get around this. Tea Party Patriots are morons when it comes to history, economics, and how to run a society. Much like the resurgence of the Ku Klux Klan after World War I, the Tea Party Patriots are people who believe they have lost their privileged status in American society and wish to thwart others hopes for the American dream. Unfortunately, or fortunately (depending on which editor yells loudest) President Obama considers Wall Street, the banks, the Republicans in congress, and those with tea party policies as necessary players in the solution when they are, in fact, part of the problem. Both the Senior Citizens' Right to Work Act and the Family Medical Leave Act were passed this way.



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