In the past, when people spoke of hand drills, they were originally referring to the old fashioned eggbeater drills, first manufactured by the North Brothers in 1910.
Close-quarter drills are used when attempting to drill in spaces where an average power drill won't fit.
LifestyleHoliday AccommodationDifferent types of accommodation to consider this festive period. AMSTERDAM, NETHERLANDS - JUNE 1:View of the field on June 14, 1968 in Amsterdam, Netherlands.
At this time of the year in New Jersey, many of us are suffering a bad case of cabin fever, after being indoors so much over winter.
Courtesy of the helpful guides at the Reeves-Reed Arboretum in Summit NJ, our family had lots of fun learning about how maple syrup is made. One of many sugar maple trees found in northern New Jersey which are used to make maple syrup. Since this is done in winter time only (for reasons that will become apparent), for the newbie, one leafless tree looks like all the rest. Maple sugaring can only be done effectively on trees that are old enough, which means trees have to be at least 40 years old. To assess whether a maple tree is old enough to do maple sugaring, you need to measure its girth.
Tapping is done with a little silver thing called a spile, which looks a bit like a wine decanter to me.
When tapping maple trees to get sap to make sugar, it’s best to drill the hole on the southern side.
A metal tool called a spile is used to collect sap from a sugar maple tree in North New Jersey. It is safe to say though, that these ideal weather patterns only occur at a specific time of the year.
Once the sap flows, you collect it daily and refrigerate until you are prepared to cook it. The sap should be filtered with a coffee filter inside a sieve to get any debris or floaties out before you start cooking it. Collected sap from maple trees needs to be filtered using a coffee filter and sieve to catch any impurities.
The filtered sap is placed in a large open pan (like a baking tray) and boiled uncovered for several hours. Maple sap looks much like water and it takes 10 gallons of sap to make 1 gallon of maple syrup by boiling away the water content. Once at Basking Ridge (Lord Sterling Road, nature reserve), once at Chatham (mentioned above), and also at Van Vleck House Montclair. But back to the maple sugaring, you really appreciate why it is as expensive as it is when you see what goes into making it. They are used for drilling holes and driving screws, as well as accommodating various attachments for paint mixing, sanding, grinding and several others.
This hand-operated drill uses a crank handle that rotates an interlocking gear, which then turns the drill bit. It didn't become popular until the 1980s, when electronic systems for controlling its speed were first developed. They can be either corded or battery powered, usually using a 12 or 14 volt battery unit, which keeps them light weight.
We need styles that are quick and easy to maintain without having to wake up at the break of dawn every morning to get it right. So in late February and early March, it’s a gift from heaven to find something outdoors you can do with kids that doesn’t involve snow or ice! Although Canada is better known for maple syrup, the process is conducted on trees in the northern part of New Jersey where the climate is still cold enough for these maple trees to grow and produce sap. You can measure the girth of a maple tree trunk to tell this – a 40 year old tree should be at least 10 inches in diameter.
A hole is put into the tree on its southern side because this is the warmest side, and the most likely place that the sap will flow easiest, at this time of the year. That’s a manual hand-held tool (needs no electricity) that my father used, way back when… It’s amazing that they can still be so useful today.
A hole is drilled using an old fashioned drill as shown, then the spile, a metal drain is hammered gently into the hole so the sap can drip into an external container. When the sap moves upwards, the spile catchs the sap and it drips into an external container to be collected at a later time. Sap is mostly made of water, so you will need about 10 gallons of sap to make approximately one gallon of syrup.

It makes a lot of steam so you can do it outside on an open grill or fire to avoid humidifying your kitchen. Near Chatham, maple sugaring activities are held at the Great Swamp Outdoors Education Centre on Saturdays and Sundays in January and February. This drill works by using a repetitive pushing motion to rotate the drill points and drive them into place.
Many versions of the rotary drill have an adjustable clutch, which regulates the drive depth of the screws. Many models come equipped with varying speeds, reversible action, and the ability to work as a rotary drill. Like many things city folks consume, we have always just bought it at the supermarket without a second thought about how it’s made. They have branches with what’s called opposite branching: the branches are symmetrically arranged.
You need to have freezing temperatures at night but above freezing temperatures in the daytime. You have to pay attention to this boiling pot otherwise you will overcook it and make a sticky black mess. Our kids are older at 9 and 14 yrs but still worthwhile going there to see what’s on. This style of hand drill is still found in use in most woodworking shops, as it is strong, easy to use, and allows the ultimate control over precision work. Another version of the rotary drill, called the electric driver, has a greater torque and will drive and remove screws at a much faster rate. There are also many factors that determine the integrity of a large structure like the one being built here. Maple sugaring is simply the process of making maple syrup, which is not only interesting to find out about but a fun thing you can do with the entire family.
Our kids already spend too much time indoors, so a good reason to get them outside in the sun and fresh air. I’ll let you find out yourselves, how and why the tree’s sap behaves this way, when you go to one of these events.
Come summer there are concerts etc in the gardens, which, come spring and summer should be beautiful, it is all on a few acres (maybe 10 acres) in the middle of Montclair. Ken BildhamThe thing that runs through my mind when I build any type of outbuilding on the farm is to build it with enough structural "soundness" that it has the best chance at outliving its own usefulness. The integrity of the skeletal structure of any building has much to do with how well it does its job; and that job is to contain and protect things.
When that integrity begins to fail, at some point the things in a building need protecting FROM the building. When an object is plumb it means that one or more of its features are in line with gravity's singular direction of pull toward the center of the earth; in other words, it's straight up and down. And the pole barn method of construction is a right good choice for my workshop because it can be relatively simple for one person to build … board by board.
This is why this particular method of building is ideal for the farmer who’s limited to working on his projects whenever time allows. However, my favorite method is a simple bubble level attached to a tightly stretched string. Driving a nail in the 1st post at any comfortable height (probably a little lower than eye level), I place a small loop at the end of some string, place it around the nail, and with the level hanging in the middle I stretch the string tightly and wrap it around a 2nd nail driven in the 2nd post at about the same height.
If I end up showing level between the nail on the 6th pole and the original nail on the 1st pole, I figure I’ve done pretty well, so I pat myself on the back. And now I know I have 6 nails on as many poles that represent where a level plane intersects each pole. This height really just depends on how high I want my roof to be, and will affect whether or not I bump my head on the tops of doors or rafters.
On my plans the bottom of the trusses will start about 10 feet high so I’ll need to mark that on the 1st pole. If it were made on the high side of the hill, then naturally the part of the workshop sitting on the low side would measure from ground to truss higher than 10 feet; and if marked on the low side of the hill, the part of the workshop sitting on the high side would measure from ground to truss shorter than 10 feet. In other words, depending on where I make this initial mark, part of my workshop might end up taller or shorter than I anticipated due to the hill it’s sitting on. It just happens to be 44 inches.Using that same measurement of 44 inches, I mark the same distance up from the level plane nail on each pole.
This ensures that the sills (and therefore the roof later) will sit level on each pole … even if the ground is not level.
Having marked where the tops of the sills will sit, I carefully cut the posts off even with my mark.

Next, shoulders will be cut and chiseled on the posts that will give the sills a firm seat to rest on, rather than relying solely on the strength of bolts or nails to hold up the weight of the entire roof. A bit of tape on the saw blade lets me know how deep to make each cut as I score the shoulder. The loft floor sills will be situated about 2 feet below the top sills and will also have notched shoulders to rest on that are cut to match the height of each board, while making sure their tops are all in a level plane with one another (so that the loft floor will be level).
This was done using heavy clamps that held boards on each side of the posts while I drilled the holes with an extra long bit.
I could've used large nails for attaching these boards but nuts and bolts have less chance of working loose. Once the two vertically positioned sill boards are installed, the top plate can be nailed in place and gives a flat, wide surface for the trusses to rest on. Grease, oil, or even soapy dishwashing liquid on the tips of nails will keep you from bending a lot of 'em when hammering into cured hardwood boards, and is less trouble than pre-drilling. Incidentally, with my workshop plan the two rows of top plates ought to be 11 feet 2 inches apart from outer edge to outer edge (The extra 2 inches allows for an inch of the plate to extend past the cedar posts on either side.
Making sure that this distance is consistent all the way down is important for installing the trusses later. Had they been off a tad, now would be the time to draw them in or push them apart ever so slightly to an exact 11 foot 2 inches, while nailing the front and back boards on to hold them, and possibly a temporary board across the middle pair of poles to hold that distance in the center if necessary.
Once the poles are all connected by horizontal boards, braces can be installed at 45 degree angles to give stability to the entire structure. Irregular slab lumber, leftover after milling logs into boards, are just fine to use since both ends need to be sculpted to fit the board and pole anyway.
I started by marking where each end needed shaping, but it's basically a job of trial and error to arrive at a decent fit that doesn't rock at either end. Mine are made from small hardwood trees (about 5 to 6 inch in diameter) that I hewed square with my chainsaw, using a long, straight-edged board tacked to it as a guide. Setting them up on the loft sills, I turned them until they all fairly well matched on the top and nailed them in place at about 2 foot intervals. Later on, floor boards will be nailed to the top of these rough 4 by 4 joists giving me a place to walk around and store things up there.With all horizontal boards and their bracing in place on the central or main part of the pole barn, it's time to turn my attention to adding poles and sills for what's called "side sheds". These are right nice in that they add square footage to any building with little structural effort.
My side sheds will extend out 9 feet from the main structure, and instead of being set in the ground the posts will rest on concrete piers. This showed me where I need to dig a hole about a foot or so deep under the pier that will also be filled with concrete. The concrete that will fill this hole and extend up into the form will help keep the pier from settling too much over time. Once the hole is dug the form is repositioned so that the top of the pier will be in line with my batter strings again.If memory serves me, just over 40 lbs of concrete (not including the water) filled each hole and its corresponding pier.
After the initial filling, tapping with a hammer or rock works out a good many air pockets, settling the concrete down into the form and hole so it can be filled some more and topped off level. A bolt, lag screw, nail or any similar metal object I can find is placed halfway in the concrete and will keep the post from being knocked off the pier. I give one last check with the batter strings in case I need to adjust the form while the concrete's still wet. When the concrete has set up just a bit, I temporary put some rocks around the bolt just for my own safety’s sake. Since these will sit up off the ground on piers I don't have to use a rot resistant type of tree, and these oak posts I chose will have plenty of strength.
Make sure the drill bit is slightly bigger than the bolt.Once all six posts are prepared, I can remove forms from the piers.
The side shed posts can now be positioned on their respective piers, with the bolts fitting nicely into the slightly over-sized holes.With all six posts up on their piers I temporarily brace 'em with scrap lumber making sure each outer side is plumb.
Shoulders are cut into the outer sides (just like with the truss and loft sill shoulders earlier) and the excess tops are cut off.
Unlike the truss sills, my rafter sills have only one horizontal board between each post bolted to the outer side.Now that everything is as about plumb level as I can get it, my workshop is ready for rafters and trusses.

Table saw grinding noise
Miter saw cutting width

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