This chapter explains why you should read this book and how it can help you with any computer performance problem, now or in the future. Some have hundreds of pages of very difficult math that most people cana€™t do and most problems dona€™t require. There are so many different technologies in your transaction path; to read all the necessary books would take longer than the average corporate lifetime. Almost all manuals about a specific version of a technology were written under tremendous time pressure at about the same time the engineering was being completed; thus the engineers had little time to talk to the writers. What Ia€™m about to tell you will work for any collection of computers, running any software that has ever been built. Whether you are studying the slow response time of a computer, the root cause of a traffic jam, or why you are always in the slowest line, understanding those forces gives you a big insight into why this is happening.
Many parts of this book help you solve the diversity and complexity problems mentioned earlier by helping you quickly determine that large chunks of your computing infrastructure are not the problem. Once focused, a large fraction of everyonea€™s effort is spent working in the right place and on the right problem. If you can replace S with the number 2 and U with the number 0.5 and calculate that R is equal to (spoiler alert) 4, then you have all the math you need for a long career in performance.
In the future, money will still be important, humans will still want to avoid risk, office politics will still matter, and there will be many ways that you can be right, but still fail because you did not pay attention to the people involved. Having worked many performance problems from problem discovery, through solution presentation to senior management, and then on to problem resolution, Ia€™ve made a few mistakes and learned a few tricks. If you are impressed with work experience, then read on as Ia€™ve spent the last 25 years teaching performance fundamentals, capacity planning, modeling, and performance testing of websites. If you are a person who is only impressed with academic qualifications then I have few to offer you.
Your business depends on a collection of computers, software, networking equipment, and specialized devices.
All companies have an internal language and shorthand terms they use when describing the subset of the entire computing universe that determines their customera€™s experience. In performance monitoring you need to know three things: the incoming workload, the resource consumption and what is normal. You need to know the incoming workload (what the users are asking your system to do) because all computers run just fine under no load. Expected problems are when the users are simply asking the application for more things per second than it can do.
Unexpected problems are when the incoming workload should be well within the capabilities of the application, but something is wrong and either the end-user performance is bad or some performance meter makes no sense. On any given day you, as the performance person, should be able to have a fairly good idea of how much work the users are asking the system to do and what the major performance meters are showing. With rare exception Ia€™ve found the lack of easily available workload information to be the single best predictor of how bad the situation is performance wise. The data you collect can also be used to predict the future with the other three tools in your bag: Capacity Planning, Load Testing, and Modeling. Capacity planning is the simple science of scaling the observed system so you can see if you have enough resources to handle the projected peak load, but it only works for resources you know about.
Capacity planning is like a pre-party checklist where you check if there are enough: appetizers, drinks, glasses, places to sit, etc. Capacity planning starts by gathering key performance meters at a peak time on a reasonably busy day. Now scale (multiply) the observed meters by the bossa€™s answer to get the projected peak utilization.
In my experience, the application is rarely reengineered unless the inefficiency is egregious and the fix is easy and obvious. Capacity planning can be that simple, but there are a few more things you need to consider.
Even though you base your projections on one peak day, you should look at the data over a period of a few days to a few weeks. Capacity planning can show you how busy key resources are at peak load, but it cana€™t tell you about response time changes as the load increases. Load testing is the art of creating artificially generated work that mimics the real work generated by the real users.
Load tests depend on good performance monitoring to keep an eye on critical system resources as the load builds. For a load test to be really useful it must test the entire part of the transaction path that you care about.
Load testing can also help you find where subsystems break, and isolate the effect of one transaction type.
Load testing can tell you many interesting things, but it can only give you data on the computing infrastructure you have now. If you need to predict a future that is different from your present, then you need to model. When your boss asks you to predict future performance of some application, first see if you can do a simple capacity plan. This model of Hurricane Irene is accurate enough for anyone with a house on the Gulf of Mexico and it looks hopeful for Floridaa€™s Atlantic coast as well.
In a computer context, imagine your model shows that at peak load this servera€™s CPU is 20% busy. Unfortunately, the above model of Hurricane Irene, at that moment, could not see far enough into the future to predict the devastating flooding Irene would cause in my home state of Vermont. If you respect these limits, modeling is doable, useful and has its place when you are asking questions about the future. This chapter shows you how to gain confidence you will make it smoothly though a projected future peak load by scaling up your current observed load. This chapter gives you practical advice on how to load test an existing application to see if can really handle the upcoming peak.
This chapter dispels the myth of modeling complexity and shows how modeling performance can save you a lot of time and money.
This chapter teaches you how to present your results so that they are understood and are believable.
This book is concise, useful, and occasionally funny.A  It gives you the tools needed to explore, and discover the hidden truths about your computing world. Unfortunately, the above model of Hurricane Irene, at that moment, could not see far enough into the future to predict the devastating flooding Irene would cause in my home state of Vermont.A  All models have limits.
Everything (hardware, operating systems, networking, applications, users, corporate goals, org charts, priorities, and budgets) changes over time and with change comes new performance challenges.
It will continue to be useful 100 years from now when todaya€™s technology, if it runs at all, will look as quaint as a mechanical cuckoo clock. They help you make sense out of the performance meters you do understand and help keep you from making big mistakes. It shows you how to use the scientific method to decipher what they mean and how to find patterns in the raw data. This rapidly focuses your companya€™s full and undivided attention on the small part of your computing world (System Z) that is causing the performance problem.
Now, the right experts can be consulted and business decisions can be made to fix or work around the problem. I spent about 15 of those years also doing performance work on live systems and critical applications for customers around the world. Ia€™ve had plenty of practice in my standup teaching as well as when working with customers. Back in the 70a€™s he wrote this wonderful little book about repairing literally any bicycle.
It usually includes dealing with immediate performance problems or collecting data that will be used by the other three tools to plan for future peak loads. Without these three things you can only solve the most obvious performance problems and have to rely on tools outside the scientific realm (such as a Ouija Board, or a Magic 8 Ball) to predict the future.
If you have a good sense of what is normal for your situation, then any abnormality will jump right out at you in the same way you notice subtle changes in a loved one that a stranger would miss.
Your meters should be running all the time (like bank security cameras) so that when weird things happen you have a multitude of clues to look at.
Assuming you know how many guests will show up and have a reasonable understanding of what they will consume, everything you checked should be fine. Almost any day will do, as long as the system load is high enough to clearly differentiate it from the idle system load. In most situations, people tend to value application stability more than the money they will spend to solve the problem with more hardware. This gives you a clear picture where the usual daily peaks are and if there are things going on at odd times that you have to factor into any changes you propose.
Even if you had perfect metering, doing the math would be a staggering challenge and, even, then youa€™d be gambling the business on reams of calculations. These resources take a little more work and creativity to capacity plan for, but this is completely doable.
It can be done in a few days, presented in a few slides and prepared with few additional costs or risks. The overall load starts off low and then increases in stages to the point where you achieved your goal or you fail because some resource has hit a limit and has become a bottleneck. For any test you need to know how much work you are sending into the system, the throughput and response time for the completed work, and how the system resources are responding under that load.
If your product is your website then you need to test from where your users are: all the way in and all the way back to where they live.
If you only got half way to your goal before you hit a bottleneck, then every measured resource is going to be doing twice the work once you fix the current bottleneck.
Imagine your workload is an even mix of Red and Blue transactions, but it is the Blue transactions that really exercise some key component of your computing world. To use a metaphor, running a race tells you about your current aerobic capacity, not the capacity you will have after six more months of training. To model, you are going to need the data you collected with performance monitoring and maybe some data from load tests. Everyday, in companies all over the world, regular people build simple models that answer important business questions.


If circumstances change so much that you lack confidence in that prediction, then try modeling. Either you can directly measure the performance of a live system under load, or you have to guess about a theoretical future situation. It doesna€™t take a genius to understand that your model could be off by a lot and the server would still have plenty of CPU power left. This chapter gives you the keys to understanding all computer performance problems and provides an important foundation for the next four chapters. With it, and some work on your part, youa€™ll be able to solve performance problems and to walk into the CIOa€™s office with confidence. There are utilization meters that tell you how busy a resource is, there are count meters that count interesting events (some good, some bad), and there are duration meters that tell you how long something took. A useful answer is: accurate enough to answer your question with a reasonable margin of safety. There are always things to do, things to learn, things to prepare for, and experiments to run. These patterns can tell you useful things about whata€™s going on inside the giant black box that is your computing world. I had three majors (Wildlife Biology, Botany and Computer Science) but I have no degree as I left college when I ran out of money and got my first job in the computer industry.
Mostly Ia€™ve learned from other performance wizards, programmers, system administrators and a few generally smart people Ia€™ve known. Clarity is essential when explaining to senior management that they need to spend large amounts of money. There are many other parts that you dona€™t control, cana€™t meter, and have no clue how they do their work.
Expected problems are no fun, but they can be foreseen and, depending on the situation, your response might be to endure them, because money is tight or because the fix might introduce too much risk.
This could be a simple case of them not caring about doing a good job, but my more charitable assessment is that he had no idea what a€?normala€? was, so everything the register told him had to be taken at face value. This can save your bacon because if you spot the unexpected utilization before the peak occurs, then you have time to find and fix the problem before the system comes under a peak load. You will want to search this data by time (What happened at 10:30?), so be sure to include timestamps. However, even if you miss something, you are still better off having planned for reasonable amounts of the key resources. Ia€™m very sure the CIO looking at all this complex math would feel very uneasy betting his or her job on these calculations. If you need more confidence in your plan, or you need to hold the response time down to a reasonable level, or if the future you are planning for includes significant changes to the transaction mix or vital systems, then you need to do either Load Testing or Modeling.
When that happens, throughput stops increasing, response times climb to an unacceptably painful place and things break. If you (and your boss) only have responsibility for a small subset of the entire transaction path then thata€™s all you really need to test.
So take all the peak measurements and double them to get a good idea of what you are likely to run out of as you push the test to the goal load. Create a load test that sends in all Blue transactions and you can collect the data you need without the interference of the Red transactions. Examples of big changes that preclude simple capacity planning might be things like, large application or middleware changes or a big change in the incoming workload. The closer to the utilization limit (or the projected storm track), the more precise you have to make your model. As the commemorative plate infomercial says: a€?Collect them all!a€?A  Please dona€™t wait for perfection.
I would arrive knowing almost nothing about their business and their problems and leave having given them a clear path to follow. An engaging style is essential when teaching multi-day classes, especially just after lunch.
Furthermore, there are limits placed on you due to politics, time, budget, legal restrictions, and the tools you have available. Modeling is the only way to project the performance of an application in the design stage where there is no performance data to scale.
Start somewhere, collect something and, as you explore and discover, add this to your collection. I like people and if I couldna€™t make my classes useful, interesting, and relevant, then I would have stopped teaching a long time ago.
As the commemorative plate infomercial says: a€?Collect them all!a€? Please dona€™t wait for perfection. THESE VERY SAME ENFORCEMENT AGENCIES, WHO HAVE SWORN TO PROTECT AND SERVE, OUR COUNTRY, AND CITIZENS ,ARE BUT SOME, OF THE CORRUPT,GREEDY TRAITORS .ENGAGED IN THE TYRANNY AND TORTURE. But I know enough about chemistry to know that a chemical by itself may be poisonous but not poisonous when in a compound with other chemicals.
But you should be aware that the story of Chicken Little is notA  a "fable character." While he did say "The sky is falling" quite a bit, this was only because he had difficulty making contact the his agent provocateur whose actual physical appearance had changed over the years. The video faculty includes Eric Hulsizer, a former Channel 8 cameramanA who photographed "Channel 8 On Your Side," and Lisa Inserra of Cox Media (the company that owns Valpack) who is active in producing television commercials for her company's clients.az?i»? In my program, I've studied drawing, camera operation, scripting, digital imaging, programming basics, copyright law, video editing, website design, sound production and editing. One of myA professors says the program is the best of its kind in the Tampa Bay area and I think he's right.az?i»?i»? Please, please, put the word out to others so that this fine program will be better known. It doesn't matter what your heritage is or whether you are still in high school or old enough for Medicare. Petersburg Collede digital arts program is filled with both talented professors and students. In your story on stadium horns, you called them vuvuzwelas, what is that funny looking symbol after the photo credits. The school district has moved to a biometric identification program, saying students will no longer have to use an ID card to buy lunch.A  BIOMETRICS TO TRACK YOUR KIDS!!!!!i»?i»?A TARGETED INDIVIDUALS, THE GREEDY CRIMINALS ARE NOW CONDONING THEIR TECH!
The image can be used freely, subject to some restrictive terms in the license, including crediting the photographer.
It looks to me like he called on Curtis LeMay, Colonel Clearwater - and then realizing he had made a mistake - schluffed it into Colonel Kilgore. Here's a photo of American school children using the original Bellamy salute:A I think the photo speaks for itself. Colonel Clearwater Dear Colonel Clearwater: What do you think about the Egyptian revolution? Fundamentalists, in any religion, are usually a reaction to what the followers perceive as injustice. This doesn't mean Egyptian society and culture will necessarily change; it is still their culture and values. But in the long run any thing they make of it will be for their benefit (and not the benefit of the United States). Paul Weindling, history of medicine professor at Oxford Brookes University, describes his search for the lost victims of Nazi experiments. The chairman of the board at ESL a€” then proprietor of the desert wasteland in Nevada known as a€?Area 51a€? a€” was William Perry, who would be appointed secretary of defense several years later. Not by rampeling down the side of the building like Tom Cruise, but by sliding in with a tourist visa when it was not open to tourists.
EUCACH.ORG PanelIn a 2-hour wide-ranging Panel with Alfred Lambremont Webre on the Transhumanist Agenda, Magnus Olsson, Dr. Henning Witte, and Melanie Vritschan, three experts from the European Coalition Against Covert Harassment, revealed recent technological advances in human robotization and nano implant technologies, and an acceleration of what Melanie Vritschan characterized as a a€?global enslavement programa€?.Shift from electromagnetic to scalar wavesThese technologies have now shifted from electromagnetic wave to scalar waves and use super quantum computers in the quantum cloud to control a€?pipesa€? a reference to the brains of humans that have been taken over via DNA, via implants that can be breathed can breach the blood-brain barrier and then controlled via scalar waved on a super-grid. Clearwater: Republicans are betting that your readers don't care - that after all you did to beat them in 2006 and 2008, you're going to sit this one out.
So they're whipping up their base by blocking help to unemployed workers, blocking summer jobs for teens, apologizing to the big companies that gave us the spill in the Gulf, and doing anything else they can do to stop progress.
Eventually, such 'subvocal speech' systems could be used in spacesuits, in noisy places like airport towers to capture air-traffic controller commands, or even in traditional voice-recognition programs to increase accuracy, according to NASA scientists."What is analyzed is silent, or sub auditory, speech, such as when a person silently reads or talks to himself," said Chuck Jorgensen, a scientist whose team is developing silent, subvocal speech recognition at NASA Ames Research Center in California's Silicon Valley. Yes, that Rand Paul, who says freedom means a private business can discriminate against African-Americans, and that President Obama holding polluters accountable for the mess in the Gulf is "un-American." And he's not alone. We numbered the columns and rows, and we could identify each letter with a pair of single-digit numbers," Jorgensen said.
One candidate calls Social Security "horrible policy," while another has said that Americans will turn to "Second Amendment remedies" against Democrats. People in noisy conditions could use the system when privacy is needed, such as during telephone conversations on buses or trains, according to scientists."An expanded muscle-control system could help injured astronauts control machines. If an astronaut is suffering from muscle weakness due to a long stint in microgravity, the astronaut could send signals to software that would assist with landings on Mars or the Earth, for example," Jorgensen explained.
In New Hampshire, Paul Hodes is running neck-and-neck with his Republican opponent to take this seat for the Democrats.
These are processed to remove noise, and then we process them to see useful parts of the signals to show one word from another," Jorgensen said.After the signals are amplified, computer software 'reads' the signals to recognize each word and sound.
We've just started to turn our country around, passing healthcare reform, working to hold the big banks accountable for the Wall Street meltdown, pushing legislation to address climate change and end our addiction to oil. The GOP is betting big that saying "no" and blocking progress is a path to success in November.What bet will you make? I think the Republicans should adopt as their emblem the condom because it more clearly reflects the party's political stance. A condom stands for inflation, halts production, destroys the next generation, protects a bunch of pricks, and gives one a sense of security while screwing others. Colonel ClearwaterDear Colonel Clearwater, Last week, my friend and colleague, Congressman Anthony Weiner, did something very good, and very gutsy. Weiner's report showed that this firm, which sells gold coins, rips off its customers while benefiting directly from Beck's Chicken Little lunacy about the economy. Every time Beck screams that there is an impending Obama-led government takeover of the economy and your savings aren't safe, he's making a sales pitch for this sleazy advertiser.
You see, Beck's ratings have recently crashed, and most of his reputable advertisers have deserted him.
Now that he's been exposed, Beck has spent the last week using his big media platform to attack and undermine Weiner - he even set up an attack website designed to damage Weiner's political standing. Our Research and Development Division has been in contact with the Federal Bureau of Prisons, the California Department of Corrections, the Texas Department of Public Safety, and the Massachusetts Department of Correction to run limited trials of the 2020 neural chip implant.


This collusion between big media, conservative commentators, and quack economics is a scam, but it is powerful if it remains unopposed. We have established representatives of our interests in both management and institutional level positions within these departments. And we need to support people like Weiner, who have the guts to go after right-wing lunacy at the source.
Federal regulations do not yet permit testing of implants on prisoners, but we have entered nto contractual agreements with privatized health care professionals and specified correctional personnel to do limited testing of our products. We need, however, to expand our testing to research how effective the 2020 neural chip implant performs in those identified as the most aggressive in our society. In California, several prisoners were identified as members of the security threat group, EME, or Mexican Mafia. Consider his statement: "I beg you, look for the words 'social justice' or 'economic justice' on your church Web site. They were brought to the health services unit at Pelican Bay and tranquilized with advanced sedatives developed by our Cambridge,Massachussetts laboratories. The results of implants on 8 prisoners yielded the following results: a€?Implants served as surveillance monitoring device for threat group activity. That oil disaster must be stopped, and a way must be found."I am not the original author of that sensible thought, but it has been my favorite definition of faith for a while. While we have no way of certainty for moving past them, working to find a pathway that takes us beyond our doubts is the best option in my view. However, during that period substantial data was gathered by our research and development team which suggests that the implants exceed expected results. One of the major concerns of Security and the R & D team was that the test subject would discover the chemial imbalance during the initial adjustment period and the test would have to be scurbbed. However, due to advanced technological developments in the sedatives administered, the 48 hour adjustment period can be attributed t prescription medication given to the test subjects after the implant procedure. One of the concerns raised by R & D was the cause of the bleeding and how to eliminate that problem. Unexplained bleeding might cause the subject to inquire further about his "routine" visit to the infirmary or health care facility. Security officials now know several strategies employed by the EME that facilitate the transmission of illegal drugs and weapons into their correctional facilities. One intelligence officier remarked that while they cannot use the informaiton that have in a court of law that they now know who to watch and what outside "connections" they have. The prison at Soledad is now considering transferring three subjects to Vacaville wher we have ongoing implant reserach. Our technicians have promised that they can do three 2020 neural chip implants in less than an hour. Soledad officials hope to collect information from the trio to bring a 14 month investigation into drug trafficking by correctional officers to a close. Essentially, the implants make the unsuspecting prisoner a walking-talking recorder of every event he comes into contact with.
There are only five intelligence officers and the Commisoner of Corrections who actually know the full scope of the implant testing. In Massachusetts, the Department of Corrections has already entered into high level discussion about releasing certain offenders to the community with the 2020 neural chip implants. Our people are not altogether against the idea, however, attorneys for Intelli-Connection have advised against implant technology outside strick control settings. While we have a strong lobby in the Congress and various state legislatures favoring our product, we must proceed with the utmost caution on uncontrolled use of the 2020 neural chip.
If the chip were discovered in use not authorized by law and the procedure traced to us we could not endure for long the resulting publicity and liability payments. Massachusetts officials have developed an intelligence branch from their Fugitive Task Force Squad that would do limited test runs under tight controls with the pre-release subjects. Correctons officials have dubbed these poetnetial test subjects "the insurance group." (the name derives from the concept that the 2020 implant insures compliance with the law and allows officials to detect misconduct or violations without question) A retired police detective from Charlestown, Massachusetts, now with the intelligence unit has asked us to consider using the 2020 neural chip on hard core felons suspected of bank and armored car robbery. He stated, "Charlestown would never be the same, we'd finally know what was happening before they knew what was happening." We will continue to explore community uses of the 2020 chip, but our company rep will be attached to all law enforcement operations with an extraction crrew that can be on-site in 2 hours from anywhere at anytime. We have an Intelli-Connection discussion group who is meeting with the Director of Security at Florence, Colorado's federal super maximum security unit. The initial discussions with the Director have been promising and we hope to have an R & D unit at this important facilitly within the next six months. Then how come Congress starts each session with a prayer and the president is sworn in on a Bible? Wants to KnowDear Wants to Know, As I said in an earlier reply, our countrys laws and structure are not based on the God of the Bible and the Ten Commandments, as Sarah Palin and others claim. So most of us do not work on Sunday and some businesses are not open for business on Sunday. So we have a religious custom of not working on Sunday and a secular custom of watching football on Sunday.
The Constitution states that the president must take an oath, but it does not mention anything about a Bible.
Colonel ClearwaterDear Colonel Clearwater, I understand you answer, but you say customs and traditions. Wants to Know MoreDear Wants to Know More, It is important to realize the difference between a custom and a tradition. Napolitano insisted that the department was not planning on engaging in any form of ideological profiling. It is a custom at my house that every year we watch football on Thanksgiving Day after we eat.
A tradition is a ceremony invented for the purpose of commemorating some historical event or to develop a sense of binding in a community or religious group. Thanksgiving Day is a tradition in America that serves the purpose of reminding us of what we have from God for which to be thankful and is loosely based on the first harvest feast of the Pilgrims to celebrate their first year of survival in the New World. It is a tradition; a ceremony we use to create a common bond among Americans by commemorating our heritage. When Congress meets, the first thing that happens is that the designated speaker calls the group together. Colonel ClearwaterDear Colonel Clearwater, I have just seen a video about an organization called the Council on Foreign Relations. This organization has members who were past Presidents and past Secretary of States of the United States, plus leaders in the fields of finance, industry, and other important positions in society. The spokesman on the video has concluded that this organization must be a part of world conspiracy to take over the world and put the entire world under a one-world socialist government and I agree with him. The Council on Foreign Relations (CFR) is an organization of foreign policy experts, people concerned with international trade, prominent historians and writers, as well as others who are involved with foreign policy and international affairs.
The CFR hold speaking events with question-and-answer periods which are usually televised on CSpan or other cable stations. I will tell him face-to-face that we honor veterans at DHS and employ thousands across the department, up to and including the Deputy Secretary," Ms.
The speakers are usually world leaders, historians, writers, or others involved in international affairs.
Some of the speakers have included such figures as Nelson Mandela, George Soros, Thomas Friedman, Mikhail Gorbachev, and Ronald Reagan.
The journal, which I have subscribed to and read for over 25 years (plus you can buy it at the newsstands in Borders or Barnes and Noble) provides a forum for contrasting views and opinions regarding issues affecting foreign policy.
Some people have made a nice living scarring others with conspiracy theories about the CFR. My advice to you is to go to the store, buy and read their journal, watch their events on CSpan, and be wary of people who wish to sell you on the idea that other people are out to get you. Colonel Clearwater________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________Dear Colonel Clearwater: Cancel my subscription to your liberal rage. And no matter how great the obstacles may seem, we must never stop our efforts to reduce the weapons of war. We must never stop at all until we see the day when nuclear arms have been banished from the face of this earth." Ronald Wilson Reagan, 1984 Colonel ClearwaterDear Colonel Clearwater: Liberals? I realize that there is collateral damage in war, but this is no less than cold-blooded genocide. Steve Buyer of Indiana, the ranking Republican on the House Committee on Veterans' Affairs, called it "inconceivable" that the Obama administration would categorize veterans as a potential threat. They were shooting at insurgents who, upon later investigation, turned out to be civilians. By saying the soldiers were shooting civilans implies that they knew they were shooting civiliansj.
The real guilty party are those who convinced the American public that this war was necessary and just. Can you tell me how the "Smallest of the World's Leading Newspapers" managed to scoop "Florida's Best Newspaper?" Pedro TechadorDear Pedro, Always nice to hear from one of the Techadors.This was a WikiLeak scoop. Palin:Your statement reminds me of what Republican Congressman, Devin Nunes said during the health care vote. And now you are bringing the ghosts back into this chamber." There is no polite way to get around this. Tea Party Patriots are morons when it comes to history, economics, and how to run a society. Much like the resurgence of the Ku Klux Klan after World War I, the Tea Party Patriots are people who believe they have lost their privileged status in American society and wish to thwart others hopes for the American dream. Unfortunately, or fortunately (depending on which editor yells loudest) President Obama considers Wall Street, the banks, the Republicans in congress, and those with tea party policies as necessary players in the solution when they are, in fact, part of the problem. Both the Senior Citizens' Right to Work Act and the Family Medical Leave Act were passed this way.



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