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Your digestive system is uniquely designed to turn the food you eat into nutrients, which the body uses for energy, growth and cell repair. Made up of three segments, the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum, the small intestine is a long tube loosely coiled in the abdomen (spread out, it would be more than 20 feet long).
This is a€?Energy Metabolisma€?, chapter 20 from the book Introduction to Chemistry: General, Organic, and Biological (v. This content was accessible as of December 29, 2012, and it was downloaded then by Andy Schmitz in an effort to preserve the availability of this book. PDF copies of this book were generated using Prince, a great tool for making PDFs out of HTML and CSS. For more information on the source of this book, or why it is available for free, please see the project's home page. helps people like you help teachers fund their classroom projects, from art supplies to books to calculators. The discovery of the link between insulin and diabetes led to a period of intense research aimed at understanding exactly how insulin works in the body to regulate glucose levels. The insulin receptor is located in the cell membrane and consists of four polypeptide chains: two identical chains called I± chains and two identical chains called I? chains. The thousands of coordinated chemical reactions that keep cells alive are referred to collectively as metabolismThe thousands of coordinated chemical reactions that keep cells alive..
These two equations summarize the biological combustion of a carbohydrate and a lipid by the cell through respiration. Like the combustion of the common fuels we burn in our homes and cars (wood, coal, gasoline), respiration uses oxygen from the air to break down complex organic substances to carbon dioxide and water. Adenosine triphosphate (ATP), a nucleotide composed of adenine, ribose, and three phosphate groups, is perhaps the most important of the so-called energy-rich compounds in a cell. Energy-rich compounds are substances having particular structural features that lead to a release of energy after hydrolysis. The pyrophosphate bond, symbolized by a squiggle (~), is hydrolyzed when ATP is converted to adenosine diphosphate (ADP).
Energy is released because the products (ADP and phosphate ion) have less energy than the reactants [ATP and water (H2O)]. The hydrolysis of ATP releases energy that can be used for cellular processes that require energy.
We have said that animals obtain chemical energy from the fooda€”carbohydrates, fats, and proteinsa€”they eat through reactions defined collectively as catabolism. In stage II, these monomer units (or building blocks) are further broken down through different reaction pathways, one of which produces ATP, to form a common end product that can then be used in stage III to produce even more ATP. Carbohydrate digestion begins in the mouth (Figure 20.5 "The Principal Events and Sites of Carbohydrate Digestion"), where salivary I±-amylase attacks the I±-glycosidic linkages in starch, the main carbohydrate ingested by humans.
Protein digestion begins in the stomach (Figure 20.6 "The Principal Events and Sites of Protein Digestion"), where the action of gastric juice hydrolyzes about 10% of the peptide bonds. The pain of a gastric ulcer is at least partially due to irritation of the ulcerated tissue by acidic gastric juice. Aminopeptidases in the intestinal juice remove amino acids from the N-terminal end of peptides and proteins possessing a free amino group. This diagram illustrates where in a peptide the different peptidases we have discussed would catalyze hydrolysis the peptide bonds. Lipid digestion begins in the upper portion of the small intestine (Figure 20.9 "The Principal Events and Sites of Lipid (Primarily Triglyceride) Digestion").
The monoglycerides and fatty acids cross the intestinal lining into the bloodstream, where they are resynthesized into triglycerides and transported as lipoprotein complexes known as chylomicrons.
The further metabolism of monosaccharides, fatty acids, and amino acids released in stage I of catabolism occurs in stages II and III of catabolism. In what section of the digestive tract does most of the carbohydrate, lipid, and protein digestion take place?
Aminopeptidase catalyzes the hydrolysis of amino acids from the N-terminal end of a protein, while carboxypeptidase catalyzes the hydrolysis of amino acids from the C-terminal end of a protein.
During digestion, carbohydrates are broken down into monosaccharides, proteins are broken down into amino acids, and triglycerides are broken down into glycerol and fatty acids. Using chemical equations, describe the chemical changes that triglycerides undergo during digestion. What are the expected products from the enzymatic action of chymotrypsin on each amino acid segment? What are the expected products from the enzymatic action of trypsin on each amino acid segment? Chymotrypsin is found in the small intestine and catalyzes the hydrolysis of peptide bonds following aromatic amino acids.
Pepsin is found in the stomach and catalyzes the hydrolysis of peptide bonds, primarily those that occur after aromatic amino acids.
Bile salts aid in digestion by dispersing lipids throughout the aqueous solution in the small intestine. Emulsification is important because lipids are not soluble in water; it breaks lipids up into smaller particles that can be more readily hydrolyzed by lipases. A metabolic pathwayA series of biochemical reactions by which an organism converts a given reactant to a specific end product.
A metabolic pathway is a series of biochemical reactions by which an organism converts a given reactant to a specific end product. The acetyl group enters a cyclic sequence of reactions known collectively as the citric acid cycle (or Krebs cycle or tricarboxylic acid [TCA] cycle)A cyclic sequence of reactions that brings about the oxidation of a two-C unit to carbon dioxide and water.. At first glance, the citric acid cycle appears rather complex (Figure 20.12 "Reactions of the Citric Acid Cycle"). In the first reaction, acetyl-CoA enters the citric acid cycle, and the acetyl group is transferred onto oxaloacetate, yielding citrate.
Isocitrate then undergoes a reaction known as oxidative decarboxylation because the alcohol is oxidized and the molecule is shortened by one carbon atom with the release of carbon dioxide (decarboxylation). Comment: So far, in the first four steps, two carbon atoms have entered the cycle as an acetyl group, and two carbon atoms have been released as molecules of carbon dioxide.
In the fifth reaction, the energy released by the hydrolysis of the high-energy thioester bond of succinyl-CoA is used to form guanosine triphosphate (GTP) from guanosine diphosphate (GDP) and inorganic phosphate in a reaction catalyzed by succinyl-CoA synthetase.
Succinate dehydrogenase then catalyzes the removal of two hydrogen atoms from succinate, forming fumarate. In the following step, a molecule of water is added to the double bond of fumarate to form L-malate in a reaction catalyzed by fumarase. One revolution of the cycle is completed with the oxidation of L-malate to oxaloacetate, brought about by malate dehydrogenase.
Respiration can be defined as the process by which cells oxidize organic molecules in the presence of gaseous oxygen to produce carbon dioxide, water, and energy in the form of ATP. Figure 20.14 "The Mitochondrial Electron Transport Chain and ATP Synthase" illustrates the organization of the electron transport chain. In the oxidation half-reaction, two hydrogen (H+) ions and two electrons are removed from the substrate.
Electrons from FADH2, formed in step 6 of the citric acid cycle, enter the electron transport chain through complex II.
Complexes III and IV include several iron-containing proteins known as cytochromesA protein that contains an iron porphyrin in which iron can alternate between Fe(II) and Fe(III).. Each intermediate compound in the electron transport chain is reduced by the addition of one or two electrons in one reaction and then subsequently restored to its original form by delivering the electron(s) to the next compound along the chain.
Looking again at Figure 20.14 "The Mitochondrial Electron Transport Chain and ATP Synthase", we see that as electrons are being transferred through the electron transport chain, hydrogen (H+) ions are being transported across the inner mitochondrial membrane from the matrix to the intermembrane space.
In cells that are using energy, the turnover of ATP is very high, so these cells contain high levels of ADP.
Mitochondria are small organelles with a double membrane that contain the enzymes and other molecules needed for the production of most of the ATP needed by the body. The reduced coenzymes (NADH and FADH2) produced by the citric acid cycle are reoxidized by the reactions of the electron transport chain. The pH gradient produced by the electron transport chain drives the synthesis of ATP from ADP.
From the reactions in Exercises 1 and 2, select the equation(s) by number and letter in which each type of reaction occurs. Both molecules serve as electron shuttles between the complexes of the electron transport chain. Cytochromes are proteins in the electron transport chain and serve as one-electron carriers. Describe how the presence or absence of oxygen determines what happens to the pyruvate and the NADH that are produced in glycolysis.
Determine the amount of ATP produced by the oxidation of glucose in the presence and absence of oxygen. In stage II of catabolism, the metabolic pathway known as glycolysisThe metabolic pathway in which glucose is broken down to two molecules of pyruvate with the corresponding production of ATP. The 10 reactions of glycolysis, summarized in Figure 20.16 "Glycolysis", can be divided into two phases. When glucose enters a cell, it is immediately phosphorylated to form glucose 6-phosphate, in the first reaction of phase I.
Organ System Main Functions:  How do the different organs in this system work together to make the organ system function as a whole? The major part of the large intestine in the digestive system is to recover water used in processing the food, reducing the waste to a drier form. The major part of the pancreas in the digestive system is to provide pancreatic juice to digest carbohydrates (bread), fats (fat).
Discovering a new drug to fight cancer is a major accomplishment, but figuring out how to synthesize that drug in large quantities and in pure form can often be as much of a challenge. What ties these concerns together is that each of these chemists believes that nanotechnology can provide the tools needed to radically improve the chemical synthesis of pharmaceuticals. To understand what nanotechnology can contribute to the effort to improve drug manufacturing, it is important to have a general idea of how chemists make complex organic molecules, the active ingredients of many pharmaceuticals. A chemical reaction is what chemists call the process of making new bonds between atoms or breaking existing ones, and all chemical reactions require energy to make them happen. A fire is a good source of energy, but not a very useful or controllable one when it comes to triggering chemical reactions. While nature uses enzymes as its catalysts, chemists use a variety of simpler chemicals, many of which include metals such as platinum, palladium and rhodium.
This inefficiency creates opportunity, and researchers are seizing on this opportunity to design new catalysts that are more efficient and easier to remove from the reaction mixtures.
In particular, he said, the composition of every catalytic nanoparticle produced using Nanokinetix's new technology is exactly the same, which means that every nanoparticle will behave exactly the same.
A second advantage of these new catalysts is that they also contain a proprietary tethering agent. Isolating catalytic nanoparticles is also the key idea behind the work of chemist Richard M.
Indeed, Crooks and his team have created catalysts that can promote some of the most useful chemical reactions for drug synthesis. Another interesting property of dendrimer-encased nanoparticle catalysts is that the dendrimer's structure can also influence the type of chemistry that occurs within its milieu.
In addition, a dendrimer, like an enzyme, is held together by what are known as amide bonds, giving the dendrimer key chemical characteristics known to play an important role in how enzymes function. One trick that nature uses so effectively, he explained, is to separate the molecules undergoing a chemical reaction from all the other molecules in their surroundings.
With these catalysts in hand, the McQuade group is now attempting to take another step toward the way nature does chemistry by making use of another nanoscale technology platform — microfluidic devices. One enticing aspect of this approach is that once the right catalysts are developed and put on a microfluidics device, it should be possible to produce as much or as little of a drug as needed simply using more or fewer catalytic microfluidic devices.
Eager to test this system, McQuade would welcome suggestions from the cancer research community regarding potential drug molecules that he and his team could try to synthesize. The digestive system in the domestic fowl is very simple but efficient when compared to many other species, such as cattle. The digestive system consists of the alimentary canal along which the food passes after eating to where the residual wastes are eliminated from the body, together with the liver and the pancreas.
The liver produces bile and is associated with the metabolism of nutrients together with a number of other functions. The alimentary canal is a long tube-like organ that starts at the beak and ends with the vent or cloaca in the abdominal region. Fowls don’t have lips and cheeks, they instead have a beak which is an area of dense and horny skin lying over the mandible and incisive bones that serve as the bony foundation. The wall of the oesophagus is composed of four layers of tissue, the innermost being mucous membrane. The muscular stomach or gizzard is located immediately after the proventriculus, partly between the lobes and partly behind the left lobe of the liver.
The entrance from the proventriculus and the exit to the duodenum are close together and dorsal in location.
The small intestine begins at the exit from the gizzard and ends at the junction of the small intestine, caeca and colon.
When a piece of the small intestine is immersed in water it takes on a very velvety appearance because of the presence of villi – long flattened, fingerlike projections that extend into the lumen (inside) of the intestine like flexible fingers.
A lacteal (lymph vessels), capillaries, bundles of plain muscle fibres, nerves and other tissues and cells occupy the core of the villus.
After the duodenum the small intestine forms a coil and is suspended from the dorsal wall of the abdominal wall by a thin membrane called the mesentery.
The jejunum and the ileum, together about 120 cm long, commence at the caudal end of the duodenum where the bile and the pancreatic duct papilla are located and terminates at the ileo-caecal-colic junction. Meckel’s Diverticulum is a constant feature about half way along the small intestine and appears as a small projection on the outer surface of the small intestine. The large intestine is very short and does not differ to any extent from the calibre of the small intestine. The liver is a bi-lobed organ that lies ventrally (below) and posterior (in rear of) to the heart and is closely associated with the proventriculus and the spleen. The liver cells have a high rate of destruction and a good regenerative capacity (re-growth ability). The liver consists of a series of tissue sheets that are two cells thick, with a sinusoid on either side of the sheet. This organ has three lobes that occupy the space between the two arms of the duodenal loop. Produce the hormones insulin and glucogen that are involved in the metabolism of carbohydrate. The pattern of food intake and its passage through the digestive system are the main factors that influence secretory and hence digestive activity. The food is delivered into the crop for storage after the first few boli have passed into the proventriculus.
While there is a wide variation between the eating habits of different birds in the flock, fowls do tend to eat meals on about 15-minute intervals through the daylight hours and, to some extent, during darkness.
Similar factors affect the rate of movement of the food through the digestive system with a meal of normal food taking approximately 4 hours to pass through in the case of young stock, 8 hours in the case of laying hens and 12 hours for broody hens.
After ingestion, the food is mixed with saliva and mucous from the mouth and oesophagus and these secretions thoroughly moisten the food.
The secretions of the proventriculus, or glandular stomach as it is often called, include hydrochloric acid to lower the pH of the system and the food mixture, the enzyme pepsin that acts on protein, and the hormone gastrin that stimulates the production and release of gastric juice in the proventriculus and pancreatic juice from the pancreas.
The gizzard is a very powerful organ which physically breaks the food particles into smaller sizes to make the work of the enzymes easier. The small intestine also produces enzymes that playa part in the digestive process of reducing the complex food compounds eaten to the simple compounds or building blocks that can be absorbed across the intestinal wall for transport to the organ or location where either they will be further processed, stored or used.
The remainder of the material consists of waste and undigested food and are mixed with the urine in the cloaca and eliminated from the body as faeces. The utilisation of nutrients from the diet is a key element in the normal functioning of the animal.
Neisham, MC, Austic, RE and Card, LE (1979) Poultry Production, 12th Edition, Lea and Febiger, Philadelphia, USA. By means of a series of contractions, called peristalsis, the esophagus delivers food to the stomach. The small intestine continues the process of breaking down food by using enzymes released by the pancreas and bile from the liver.

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However, the publisher has asked for the customary Creative Commons attribution to the original publisher, authors, title, and book URI to be removed. Hormones in general act by binding to some protein, known as the hormonea€™s receptor, thus initiating a series of events that lead to a desired outcome. The I± chains, positioned on the outer surface of the membrane, consist of 735 amino acids each and contain the binding site for insulin.
Animals, for example, require heat energy to maintain body temperature, mechanical energy to move their limbs, and chemical energy to synthesize the compounds needed by their cells.
RespirationThe process by which cells oxidize organic molecules in the presence of gaseous oxygen to produce carbon dioxide, water, and energy in the form of ATP.
But the energy released in the burning of wood is manifested entirely in the form of heat, and excess heat energy is not only useless but also injurious to the living cell.
As a result, these compounds are able to supply energy for biochemical processes that require energy.
Several others are listed in Table 20.1 "Energy Released by Hydrolysis of Some Phosphate Compounds".
We can think of catabolism as occurring in three stages (Figure 20.4 "Energy Conversions"). The secretion of I±-amylase in the small intestine converts any remaining starch molecules, as well as the dextrins, to maltose. Gastric juiceA mixture of water, inorganic ions, hydrochloric acid, and various enzymes and proteins found in the stomach.
Pancreatic juice, carried from the pancreas via the pancreatic duct, contains inactive enzymes such as trypsinogen and chymotrypsinogen. Figure 20.8 "Hydrolysis of a Peptide by Several Peptidases" illustrates the specificity of these protein-digesting enzymes. A hormone secreted in this region stimulates the gallbladder to discharge bile into the duodenum.
Phospholipids and cholesteryl esters undergo similar hydrolysis in the small intestine, and their component molecules are also absorbed through the intestinal lining. Chymotrypsin catalyzes the hydrolysis of peptide bonds following aromatic amino acids, while trypsin catalyzes the hydrolysis of peptide bonds following lysine and arginine. The acetyl unit, derived (as we will see) from the breakdown of carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins, is attached to coenzyme A, making the acetyl unit more reactive. The cyclical design of this complex series of reactions, which bring about the oxidation of the acetyl group of acetyl-CoA to carbon dioxide and water, was first proposed by Hans Krebs in 1937. All the reactions, however, are familiar types in organic chemistry: hydration, oxidation, decarboxylation, and hydrolysis. In this reaction, a tertiary alcohol, which cannot be oxidized, is converted to a secondary alcohol, which can be oxidized in the next step.
The reaction is catalyzed by isocitrate dehydrogenase, and the product of the reaction is I±-ketoglutarate. This time I±-ketoglutarate is converted to succinyl-CoA, and another molecule of NAD+ is reduced to NADH. The remaining reactions of the citric acid cycle use the four carbon atoms of the succinyl group to resynthesize a molecule of oxaloacetate, which is the compound needed to combine with an incoming acetyl group and begin another round of the cycle. This step is the only reaction in the citric acid cycle that directly forms a high-energy phosphate compound. This oxidation-reduction reaction uses flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD), rather than NAD+, as the oxidizing agent. We have seen that two carbon atoms enter the citric acid cycle from acetyl-CoA (step 1), and two different carbon atoms exit the cycle as carbon dioxide (steps 3 and 4). A cell may contain 100a€“5,000 mitochondria, depending on its function, and the mitochondria can reproduce themselves if the energy requirements of the cell increase. The components of the chain are organized into four complexes designated I, II, III, and IV. In the reduction half-reaction, the NAD+ molecule accepts both of those electrons and one of the H+ ions.
Succinate dehydrogenase, the enzyme in the citric acid cycle that catalyzes the formation of FADH2 from FAD is part of complex II.
The iron in these enzymes is located in substructures known as iron porphyrins (Figure 20.15 "An Iron Porphyrin").
The coenzymes NADH and FADH2 are oxidized by the respiratory chain only if ADP is simultaneously phosphorylated to ATP. The concentration of H+ is already higher in the intermembrane space than in the matrix, so energy is required to transport the additional H+ there. They must therefore consume large quantities of oxygen continuously, so as to have the energy necessary to phosphorylate ADP to form ATP. Table 20.2 "Maximum Yield of ATP from the Complete Oxidation of 1 Mol of Acetyl-CoA" summarizes the theoretical maximum yield of ATP produced by the complete oxidation of 1 mol of acetyl-CoA through the sequential action of the citric acid cycle, the electron transport chain, and oxidative phosphorylation. For each acetyl-CoA that enters the citric acid cycle, 2 molecules of carbon dioxide, 3 molecules of NADH, 1 molecule of ATP, and 1 molecule of FADH2 are produced. This series of reactions also produces a pH gradient across the inner mitochondrial membrane. In the first 5 reactionsa€”phase Ia€”glucose is broken down into two molecules of glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate. The phosphate donor in this reaction is ATP, and the enzymea€”which requires magnesium ions for its activitya€”is hexokinase. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has recognized the effect that inefficient chemical synthesis has on the production of life-saving pharmaceuticals. The vast majority of drugs are what are known as new chemical entities — they do not exist in nature and thus must be invented by a chemist. That's where a catalyst comes in — it interacts with reactants in a way that lowers the energy needed to trigger a chemical reaction. At NanoKinetix, for example, Zhou and his colleagues are creating tethered, nanoscale catalysts that both improve the selectivity of certain chemical catalysts and make it simple to recover all of the catalyst once the chemical reaction is complete.
This chemical linker attaches the nanoscale catalyst particles to a larger particle than can be easily filtered after the chemical reaction is complete. Some of these catalysts contain more than one active metal atom, greatly extending the catalysts' versatility.
The makeup of the dendrimer determines how accessible the catalyst is to reactants in solution.
As a result, a dendrimer, like nature's enzymes, can act as a nanofilter that will only allow molecules of a certain shape or size to reach the active catalytic sites within its structure.
To achieve this effect in a synthetic system, McQuade's group traps catalytic nanoparticles inside porous polymer shells made of a material known as polyamide. Efficient mixing and reactions within microfluidic channels using micro-bead supported catalysts.
In the process of evolution, those avian species that developed simple but effective digestive systems were more able to fly and hence survive, as the simple digestive system would be lighter in weight. The digestive system is responsible for the ingestion of food, its breakdown into its constituent nutrients and their absorption into the blood stream, and the elimination of wastes from that process.
The main function of the pancreas is the production of digestive enzymes and special compounds called hormones. Generally the alimentary canal has layers of muscle that run lengthwise and around it and is lined with mucous membranes. The salivary glands run the whole length of the hard palate, the groups of glands merging to form one mass of glandular tissue under the epithelium.
The mucous membrane is an important barrier to the entry of microbes and the mucous it produces is a lubricant that aids the passage of the food along the alimentary canal. Simple single glands group to form lobules each of which converges into a common cavity near the surface.
It has a flattened, rounded shape somewhat like a convex lens, with one side slightly larger than the other. The gizzard consists of a number of layers of tissues, some of which contain straight tubular glands. The villi have the function of providing a vastly increased surface area for the more efficient absorption of the nutrients. The lymphoid tissue collects the lymph and the lymph vessels transport fluid, other than blood, that is found in the spaces between cells and tissues until it passes into the blood system. They extend along the line of the small intestine towards the liver and are closely attached to the small intestine along their length by the mesentery. The cloaca is a tubular cavity opening to the exterior of the body and is common to the digestive and urogenital tract. Two bile ducts emerge from the right lobe and one of these originates from the gall bladder and the second provides a direct connection from the liver to the small intestine. Notwithstanding this, in the normal animal, much of the organ is in reserve and can be removed or destroyed without causing undue stress. One originates from the coelic artery for normal maintenance of the liver as an organ and the second, called the hepatic portal system, transports the nutrients from the small intestine after absorption to the liver. Two or three ducts pass the secretions of this organ into the distal end of the duodenum via papillae common with the ducts from the gall bladder and the liver. Probably because of the high metabolic rate of the fowl, a more or less continuous supply of food is required by the digestive system. The crop is quite distensable and will hold a large amount of undigested food that is then moved on as required by the proventriculus. Intact, hard grains take longer to digest than the cracked grain and, quite often some whole grain will pass through unchanged.
The enzyme amylase, which is produced by the salivary and oesophageal glands and found in the saliva and mucous, can now commence to breakdown the complex carbohydrates. At the same time, the enzymes previously released into the food with the saliva and by the proventriculus are thoroughly mixed into the food which improves their opportunity to carry out their work.
Enzyme activity in this region is, in the main, a continuation of the breakdown of proteins started in the gizzard. The insulin is involved in the maintenance of blood sugar levels while the sodium bicarbonate, which is strongly alkaline, will increase the pH of the intestinal contents.
Food materials that escape enzyme action along this tract are subjected to bacterial breakdown in the caeca which provides a system of at least partial recovery of some nutrients.
The appearance of the faeces varies considerably, but typically is a rounded, brown to grey mass topped with a cap of white uric acid from the kidneys. These fresh droppings are approximately 75% water and will air dry under favourable conditions to approximately 30% water. The avian digestive system is a simple system and consequently the diet must be of good quality and consist of easily digested ingredients if the bird is to perform at the level required on the modern commercial poultry enterprise. Chewing breaks the food into pieces that are more easily digested, while saliva mixes with food to begin the process of breaking it down into a form your body can absorb and use. Just before the connection to the stomach there is a "zone of high pressure," called the lower esophageal sphincter; this is a "valve" meant to keep food from passing backwards into the esophagus. The stomach secretes acid and powerful enzymes that continue the process of breaking down the food. Bile is a compound that aids in the digestion of fat and eliminates waste products from the blood.
You may also download a PDF copy of this book (72 MB) or just this chapter (5 MB), suitable for printing or most e-readers, or a .zip file containing this book's HTML files (for use in a web browser offline). In the early 1970s, the insulin receptor was purified, and researchers began to study what happens after insulin binds to its receptor and how those events are linked to the uptake and metabolism of glucose in cells. Living cells remain organized and functioning properly only through a continual supply of energy. The oxidation process ultimately converts the lipid or carbohydrate to carbon dioxide (CO2) and water (H2O). Living organisms instead conserve much of the energy respiration releases by channeling it into a series of stepwise reactions that produce adenosine triphosphate (ATP) or other compounds that ultimately lead to the synthesis of ATP. One reason for the amount of energy released is that hydrolysis relieves the electron-electron repulsions experienced by the negatively charged phosphate groups when they are bonded to each other (Figure 20.3 "Hydrolysis of ATP to Form ADP"). Notice, however, that the energy released when ATP is hydrolyzed is approximately midway between those of the high-energy and the low-energy phosphate compounds.
In stage I, carbohydrates, fats, and proteins are broken down into their individual monomer units: carbohydrates into simple sugars, fats into fatty acids and glycerol, and proteins into amino acids. HCl helps to denature food proteins; that is, it unfolds the protein molecules to expose their chains to more efficient enzyme action. The amino acids that are released by protein digestion are absorbed across the intestinal wall into the circulatory system, where they can be used for protein synthesis. The principal constituents of bile are the bile salts, which emulsify large, water-insoluble lipid droplets, disrupting some of the hydrophobic interactions holding the lipid molecules together and suspending the resulting smaller globules (micelles) in the aqueous digestive medium.
Each reaction of the citric acid cycle is numbered, and in Figure 20.12 "Reactions of the Citric Acid Cycle", the two acetyl carbon atoms are highlighted in red.
An important reaction linked to this is the reduction of the coenzyme nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) to NADH. GTP can readily transfer its terminal phosphate group to adenosine diphosphate (ADP) to generate ATP in the presence of nucleoside diphosphokinase. Succinate dehydrogenase is the only enzyme of the citric acid cycle located within the inner mitochondrial membrane.
Oxaloacetate can accept an acetyl group from acetyl-CoA, allowing the cycle to begin again. Yet nowhere in our discussion of the citric acid cycle have we indicated how oxygen is used. Thus there are two compartments in mitochondria: the intermembrane space, which lies between the membranes, and the matrix, which lies inside the inner membrane. These electrons come from NADH, which is formed in three reactions of the citric acid cycle.
The other H+ ion is transported from the matrix, across the inner mitochondrial membrane, and into the intermembrane space. The iron ions in the FeA·S centers are in the Fe(III) form at first, but by accepting an electron, each ion is reduced to the Fe(II) form. Like the FeA·S centers, the characteristic feature of the cytochromes is the ability of their iron atoms to exist as either Fe(II) or Fe(III). The currently accepted model explaining how these two processes are linked is known as the chemiosmotic hypothesis, which was proposed by Peter Mitchell, resulting in Mitchell being awarded the 1978 Nobel Prize in Chemistry.
Consider, for example, that resting skeletal muscles use about 30% of a resting adulta€™s oxygen consumption, but when the same muscles are working strenuously, they account for almost 90% of the total oxygen consumption of the organism. The individual reactions in glycolysis were determined during the first part of the 20th century.
In the last five reactionsa€”phase IIa€”each glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate is converted into pyruvate, and ATP is generated. Indeed, one of the three areas of emphasis in the FDA's Critical Path Initiative is to encourage the development of new tools for characterizing and manufacturing pharmaceuticals with the aim of producing drugs in a consistent and less costly manner. To make such molecules, chemists start with some simpler chemical that they can purchase in bulk or isolate from a natural source.
Add energy, in the form of a spark of electricity or a flame, and two molecules of hydrogen will react with one molecule of oxygen to make two molecules of water. For example, sucrose, or table sugar, is made of one molecule of glucose and one molecule of fructose linked together. Zhou explained that chemical catalysts have always been nanoscale entities, but what is new is that chemists can now control the exact makeup of the catalyst at the atomic and molecular levels. With every particle of the new nano-designed catalysts being exactly the same, the expectation is that the production of byproducts should be reduced. In addition, the tethering process allows the individual nanoparticles to remain as discrete entities. Moreover, the exact arrangement of the metal atoms within the catalyst can be controlled by varying the dendrimer's composition and the conditions used to assemble the catalyst. Indeed, experiments have shown that these dendrimer catalysts are capable of discriminating among many possible chemicals to selectively promote one chemical reaction over another. Making these constructs starts by attaching a catalyst to a water-soluble polymer and then anchoring that polymer inside the porous polyamide shell.
It is necessary that the diet provided to fowls be of high quality and easily digestible due to the simplicity in the structure and function of their digestive system. Glands that produce important digestive juices are found in different locations of the canal.

The so called egg tooth found on the end of the beak of newly hatched chickens is an aid to their escape from the egg at hatching and disappears after a day or two. The common opening for the two eustachian tubes is located in the middle of its dorsal wall (roof). The crop is a large dilation of the oesophagus located just prior to where the oesophagus enters the thoracic cavity. The structure below the crop is similar to that above except there is less lymphoid tissue below the crop. The cavities converge to form a common duct that leads to the surface through the apex of a small papilla (see figure below).
Each surface is covered by a glistening layer of tendinous tissue which is thicker at the centre and becoming thinner towards the edges. The innermost layer is a strong, flexible skin that is able to withstand the potentially damaging effects of the muscular action grinding the food often in the presence of stones or other insoluble material. Of the three parts of the mammalian small intestine, the duodenum, jejunum and ileum, only the duodenum can be easily distinguished in the fowl.
The efficiency of the absorption is influenced by the surface area available for the nutrients to move through i.e. The duodenum starts at the gizzard and forms an elongated loop that is approximately 20 centimetres long. Bile ducts from the gall bladder that are attached to the liver and two to three pancreatic ducts enter the small intestine by a common papilla at the caudal end (closest to the rear) of the duodenum. Sometimes this section is referred to as the colon and the rectum (the rectum being the terminal section).
The structure of the cloaca is very similar to that of the intestine except that the muscularis mucosa disappears near the vent. The liver is dark brown or chocolate in colour except for the first 10-14 days when it may be quite pale due to the absorption of lipids (fats) from the yolk as an embryo. The hepatic portal system, the capillaries of the arterial blood supply and the hepatic veins are in close association with each other in these sinusoids.
The blood vessels, when they enter these sinusoids, become closely associated with them to provide for the easy transfer of material from one system to another. The structure is similar to that of the pancreas of mammals and consists of special secreting tissue for pancreatic juice as well as other groups of cells called the “islets of langerhan”. This is provided for by the crop that acts as a reservoir for the storage of food prior to its digestion and consequently permits the fowl to eat its food as periodic meals. This function of the crop is less important when there is a plentiful supply of food available. However, the amount of enzyme action at this stage is minimal and the first major enzyme activity takes place in the proventriculus and in the gizzard. This breaking and mixing function of the gizzard is enhanced by the presence of insoluble grit such as stones.
Pancreatic juice and bile from the liver enters via ducts located at the distal end of the duodenum at about the junction of the duodenum and the jejunum if it were differentiated.
The contents of the caeca are also discharged periodically as discrete masses of brown, glutinous material.
A good working knowledge of the system and how it carries out its functions is necessary for the effective management of the poultry flock and, therefore, a study of the digestive system and the process of digestion and metabolism is an important facet in the study of poultry husbandry. Peristalsis (contractions) is also at work in this organ, moving food through and mixing it up with digestive secretions.
The binding of insulin to its receptor stimulates the I? chains to catalyze the addition of phosphate groups to the specific side chains of tyrosine (referred to as phosphorylation) in the I? chains and other cell proteins, leading to the activation of reactions that metabolize glucose. This means that the hydrolysis of ATP can provide energy for the phosphorylation of the compounds below it in the table. One part of stage I of catabolism is the breakdown of food molecules by hydrolysis reactions into the individual monomer unitsa€”which occurs in the mouth, stomach, and small intestinea€”and is referred to as digestionThe breakdown of food molecules by hydrolysis reactions into the individual monomer units in the mouth, stomach, and small intestine.. Disaccharides such as sucrose and lactose are not digested until they reach the small intestine, where they are acted on by sucrase and lactase, respectively.
The principal digestive component of gastric juice is pepsinogen, an inactive enzyme produced in cells located in the stomach wall.
For example, it may be used as the starting material for the biosynthesis of lipids (such as triglycerides, phospholipids, or cholesterol and other steroids). The citric acid cycle produces adenosine triphosphate (ATP), reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH), reduced flavin adenine dinucleotide (FADH2), and metabolic intermediates for the synthesis of needed compounds. Each intermediate in the cycle is a carboxylic acid, existing as an anion at physiological pH.
The NADH is ultimately reoxidized, and the energy released is used in the synthesis of ATP, as we shall see.
Recall, however, that in the four oxidation-reduction steps occurring in the citric acid cycle, the coenzyme NAD+ or FAD is reduced to NADH or FADH2, respectively. The outer membrane is permeable, whereas the inner membrane is impermeable to most molecules and ions, although water, oxygen, and carbon dioxide can freely penetrate both membranes. The metal ions can be reduced and then oxidized repeatedly as electrons are passed from one component to the next.
Leta€™s use step 8 as an example, the reaction in which L-malate is oxidized to oxaloacetate and NAD+ is reduced to NADH. The NADH diffuses through the matrix and is bound by complex I of the electron transport chain. Because each FeA·S center can transfer only one electron, two centers are needed to accept the two electrons that will regenerate FMN.
Thus, each cytochrome in its oxidized forma€”Fe(III)a€”can accept one electron and be reduced to the Fe(II) form. The process that links ATP synthesis to the operation of the electron transport chain is referred to as oxidative phosphorylationThe process that links ATP synthesis to the operation of the electron transport chain.. It was the first metabolic pathway to be elucidated, in part because the participating enzymes are found in soluble form in the cell and are readily isolated and purified. Notice that all the intermediates in glycolysis are phosphorylated and contain either six or three carbon atoms. The presence of such a reaction in a catabolic pathway that is supposed to generate energy may surprise you. Then, just like nature does, they use catalysts to enable chemical reactions, each performed separately, that add groups of atoms to the starting material. In this case, hydrogen and oxygen are called the reactants, and water is called the product.
For example, the Texas A&M team has created a catalyst particle that has a gold core and a platinum shell, all trapped within the confines of the dendrimer.
This is especially important if the birds are to attain the productive performance expected of them.
The nutrients from the food, after digestion, are absorbed through the wall of the alimentary canal into the circulatory system for transport to the liver or other parts of the body. The hard palate that forms the roof of the mouth, presents a long, narrow median (median – along the middle) slit that communicates with the nasal cavity.
The crop provides the capacity to hold food for some time before further digestion commences.
The crop structure is similar to that of the oesophagus except there are no glands present in fowls. These glands produce a number of juices or enzymes that are used in the digestion or breaking down of food into its constituent nutrients. The glands of the gizzard produce a liquid which is a keratinised material that passes to the surface of the horny lining where it hardens to replace tissue worn away by the grinding action of the organ. There is no clear demarcation between the jejunum and ileum and the small intestine appears as one long tube. The pancreas lies between the arms of the loop and is attached to, and actually holds together, each arm of the duodenum. The pancreas is a very important organ in the process of digesting food and it is attached to each side of the duodenal loop and lies between the two arms.
The bursa of fabricius is located immediately above the cloaca of young birds but disappears when the birds have reached approximately one year old. Minute canals called canaliculi that have the task of collecting and transporting the bile are associated with the cells in the tissue sheets.
There is quite wide variability between birds in relation to eating behaviour, even between those in the same flock. Due to the crop’s ability to hold a supply of food, when applying a food control (restriction) program, it is necessary to compensate by providing a long period of food deprivation to achieve the required degree of control.
However, because of back flow of pancreatic juice and bile towards the gizzard, the actions of these secretions start earlier in the digestive process than would be expected by their entry point to the small intestine. The duodenum is largely responsible for continuing the process of breaking down food, with the jejunum and ileum being mainly responsible for the absorption of nutrients into the bloodstream. In this chapter we will look at the pathway that breaks down glucosea€”in response to activation by insulina€”for the purpose of providing energy for the cell.
Section 20.1 "ATPa€”the Universal Energy Currency" examines the structure of ATP and begins to explore its role as the chemical energy carrier of the body. For example, the hydrolysis of ATP provides sufficient energy for the phosphorylation of glucose to form glucose 1-phosphate.
The major products of the complete hydrolysis of disaccharides and polysaccharides are three monosaccharide units: glucose, fructose, and galactose. When food enters the stomach after a period of fasting, pepsinogen is converted to its active forma€”pepsina€”in a series of steps initiated by the drop in pH. Chymotrypsin preferentially attacks peptide bonds involving the carboxyl groups of the aromatic amino acids (phenylalanine, tryptophan, and tyrosine). Most importantly for energy generation, it may enter the citric acid cycle and be oxidized to produce energy, if energy is needed and oxygen is available. All the reactions occur within the mitochondria, which are small organelles within the cells of plants and animals. As such, it prevents the cycle from operating in the reverse direction, in which acetyl-CoA would be synthesized from carbon dioxide. The matrix contains all the enzymes of the citric acid cycle with the exception of succinate dehydrogenase, which is embedded in the inner membrane. Recall from Chapter 5 "Introduction to Chemical Reactions", Section 5.5 "Oxidation-Reduction (Redox) Reactions", that a compound is reduced when it gains electrons or hydrogen atoms and is oxidized when it loses electrons or hydrogen atoms. This change in oxidation state is reversible, so the reduced form can donate its electron to the next cytochrome, and so on. The buildup of H+ ions in the intermembrane space results in an H+ ion gradient that is a large energy source, like water behind a dam (because, given the opportunity, the protons will flow out of the intermembrane space and into the less concentrated matrix). The pathway is structured so that the product of one enzyme-catalyzed reaction becomes the substrate of the next. For example, the process for making the anticancer drug tamoxifen starts with a relatively simple molecule known as phenyl (trimethyl silyl) — acetylene [compound A].
Now, add the enzyme invertase and sucrose is broken apart into glucose and fructose — the enzyme binds sucrose and lowers the energy needed to break the chemical bond that held glucose and fructose together. The activity of this novel particle is significantly enhanced compared to traditional catalysts when catalyzing a widely used chemical reaction known as hydrogenation.
This page describes the structure and function of the various parts of the digestive system of the fowl and discusses the digestion of poultry food into its constituent nutrients.
This capacity enables the bird to take its food as “meals” at time intervals but permits continuous digestion. The mucous membrane is raised into folds and between these folds are numerous simple tubular glands that produce hydrochloric acid as well as lymphoid tissue.
Much of the digestion of the food and all of the absorption of the nutrients takes place in the small intestine and hence its structure is quite important. Permanent folds in the mucous membrane called the “valves of kerkring” are located at the proximal end (closest to the front) of the duodenum.
They also provide a means of concentrating the nutrients collection ability once they have moved through the intestine wall. The capsule, or glissosis, is the membrane that covers the liver and is thinner than that of mammals. These canals eventually join together to form the bile ducts with one going directly to the intestine and one to the gall bladder before it connects to the small intestine. Some eat small amounts at short intervals while others eat larger amounts at wider intervals.
There is no relationship between the length of time of food deprivation and the amount of food consumed. One effect is an increase in the pH of the intestinal contents of the latter half of the duodenum from strongly to weakly acid. On the other hand, a green plant is able to absorb radiant energy from the sun, the most abundant source of energy for life on the earth. By the same token, the hydrolysis of compounds, such as creatine phosphate, that appear above ATP in the table can provide the energy needed to resynthesize ATP from ADP.
Trypsin attacks peptide bonds involving the carboxyl groups of the basic amino acids (lysine and arginine). We will look more closely at the structure of mitochondria in Section 20.5 "Stage II of Carbohydrate Catabolism". The enzymes that are needed for the reoxidation of NADH and FADH2 and ATP production are also located in the inner membrane. By passing the electrons along, NADH is oxidized back to NAD+ and FMN is reduced to FMNH2 (reduced form of flavin mononucleotide). Complex III contains cytochromes b and c, as well as FeA·S proteins, with cytochrome c acting as the electron shuttle between complex III and IV.
Current research indicates that the flow of H+ down this concentration gradient through a fifth enzyme complex, known as ATP synthase, leads to a change in the structure of the synthase, causing the synthesis and release of ATP.
Eleven different chemical reactions are then used to build this starting molecule into tamoxifen. Numerous ducts of the salivary glands pierce the hard palate to release their secretions into the mouth cavity. A transverse row of simple, large and horny papillae with their tips directed towards the rear of the mouth cavity are located on the posterior end.
Inside the thoracic cavity, the oesophagus enters or becomes the proventriculus which is a very glandular part of the digestive tract (often called the glandular stomach). In pigeons the surface cells of the crop slough off during brooding to form pigeon’s milk which is used to feed the baby pigeons in the nest. The gizzard almost always contains quantities of hard objects such as gravel or other grit that aids in the disintegration of food, which is the primary function of the gizzard. Plants use this energy first to form glucose and then to make other carbohydrates, as well as lipids and proteins.
It has a fairly broad specificity but acts preferentially on linkages involving the aromatic amino acids tryptophan, tyrosine, and phenylalanine, as well as methionine and leucine. Pancreatic juice also contains procarboxypeptidase, which is cleaved by trypsin to carboxypeptidase.
Instead, oxygen participation and significant ATP production occur subsequent to the citric acid cycle, in two pathways that are closely linked: electron transport and oxidative phosphorylation. They are arranged in specific positions so that they function in a manner analogous to a bucket brigade. The latter is an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of peptide linkages at the free carboxyl end of the peptide chain, resulting in the stepwise liberation of free amino acids from the carboxyl end of the polypeptide.
This highly organized sequence of oxidation-reduction enzymes is known as the electron transport chain (or respiratory chain)An organized sequence of oxidation-reduction reactions that ultimately transports electrons to oxygen, reducing it to water..
This enzyme has the ability to transfer electrons to molecular oxygen, the last electron acceptor in the chain of electron transport reactions. They must eat plants or other animals to get carbohydrates, fats, and proteins and the chemical energy stored in them (Figure 20.2 "Some Energy Transformations in Living Systems"). Once digested and transported to the cells, the nutrient molecules can be used in either of two ways: as building blocks for making new cell parts or repairing old ones or a€?burneda€? for energy. Some believe that there are taste buds located on the tongue, but this belief is not universally held.

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