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The digestive system in the domestic fowl is very simple but efficient when compared to many other species, such as cattle. The digestive system consists of the alimentary canal along which the food passes after eating to where the residual wastes are eliminated from the body, together with the liver and the pancreas.
The liver produces bile and is associated with the metabolism of nutrients together with a number of other functions.
The alimentary canal is a long tube-like organ that starts at the beak and ends with the vent or cloaca in the abdominal region.
Fowls don’t have lips and cheeks, they instead have a beak which is an area of dense and horny skin lying over the mandible and incisive bones that serve as the bony foundation. The wall of the oesophagus is composed of four layers of tissue, the innermost being mucous membrane. The muscular stomach or gizzard is located immediately after the proventriculus, partly between the lobes and partly behind the left lobe of the liver.
The entrance from the proventriculus and the exit to the duodenum are close together and dorsal in location.
The small intestine begins at the exit from the gizzard and ends at the junction of the small intestine, caeca and colon.
When a piece of the small intestine is immersed in water it takes on a very velvety appearance because of the presence of villi – long flattened, fingerlike projections that extend into the lumen (inside) of the intestine like flexible fingers. A lacteal (lymph vessels), capillaries, bundles of plain muscle fibres, nerves and other tissues and cells occupy the core of the villus. After the duodenum the small intestine forms a coil and is suspended from the dorsal wall of the abdominal wall by a thin membrane called the mesentery.
The jejunum and the ileum, together about 120 cm long, commence at the caudal end of the duodenum where the bile and the pancreatic duct papilla are located and terminates at the ileo-caecal-colic junction.
Meckel’s Diverticulum is a constant feature about half way along the small intestine and appears as a small projection on the outer surface of the small intestine.
The large intestine is very short and does not differ to any extent from the calibre of the small intestine. The liver is a bi-lobed organ that lies ventrally (below) and posterior (in rear of) to the heart and is closely associated with the proventriculus and the spleen. The liver cells have a high rate of destruction and a good regenerative capacity (re-growth ability). The liver consists of a series of tissue sheets that are two cells thick, with a sinusoid on either side of the sheet. This organ has three lobes that occupy the space between the two arms of the duodenal loop. Produce the hormones insulin and glucogen that are involved in the metabolism of carbohydrate. The pattern of food intake and its passage through the digestive system are the main factors that influence secretory and hence digestive activity. The food is delivered into the crop for storage after the first few boli have passed into the proventriculus.
While there is a wide variation between the eating habits of different birds in the flock, fowls do tend to eat meals on about 15-minute intervals through the daylight hours and, to some extent, during darkness. Similar factors affect the rate of movement of the food through the digestive system with a meal of normal food taking approximately 4 hours to pass through in the case of young stock, 8 hours in the case of laying hens and 12 hours for broody hens.
After ingestion, the food is mixed with saliva and mucous from the mouth and oesophagus and these secretions thoroughly moisten the food. The secretions of the proventriculus, or glandular stomach as it is often called, include hydrochloric acid to lower the pH of the system and the food mixture, the enzyme pepsin that acts on protein, and the hormone gastrin that stimulates the production and release of gastric juice in the proventriculus and pancreatic juice from the pancreas.
The gizzard is a very powerful organ which physically breaks the food particles into smaller sizes to make the work of the enzymes easier. The small intestine also produces enzymes that playa part in the digestive process of reducing the complex food compounds eaten to the simple compounds or building blocks that can be absorbed across the intestinal wall for transport to the organ or location where either they will be further processed, stored or used. The remainder of the material consists of waste and undigested food and are mixed with the urine in the cloaca and eliminated from the body as faeces.
The utilisation of nutrients from the diet is a key element in the normal functioning of the animal. Neisham, MC, Austic, RE and Card, LE (1979) Poultry Production, 12th Edition, Lea and Febiger, Philadelphia, USA. Explain how synthetic biology as an engineering discipline differs from genetic engineering. Plasmid a circular, double-stranded DNA molecule typically containing a few thousand base pairs that replicates within a cell independently of the chromosomal DNA. Finer tuning can be achieved by rational combination of promoter and RBS elements, but it’s not trivial to predictably design this way. Understanding the performance of a device, even a rationally designed one, is needed to reliably engineer genetic systems. Your teacher will inform you if you are performing this part of the protocol or if it has been done for you. Using a sterile toothpick or inoculating loop, gather a small amount of bacteria from the stab and transfer it to a petri dish containing Luria Broth (LB) agar plus ampicillin medium. Using a sterile inoculating loop or toothpick or pipet tip, transfer a bacterial colony from one of the petri dishes to a large sterile culture tube containing 3 ml of Luria Broth (LB) + ampicillin supplemented with 25 ?L IPTG. With this assay you will determine the amount of beta-galactosidase activity associated with each sample of cells.
Note that the volumes here are given for spectrophotometers that use glass test tubes (13×100 mm). If you made the dilution in glass spectrophotometer tubes, you can proceed to the next step. Add 1.0 ml of bicarbonate buffer to 11 test tubes labeled B (blank), R (reference), and 1 though 9 (the samples).
Start the reactions by adding 100 ?l of ONPG to each tube at 15 second intervals, including your blank. After 10 minutes, stop the reactions by adding 1 ml of soda ash solution to each tube at 15 second intervals.
If you conducted the reaction in glass spectrophotometer tubes (your teacher will tell you this), you can skip to the next step. The turbidity of the bacterial populations can be estimated using the McFarland Turbidity Scale. Following your teacher’s instructions, obtain small clear test tubes containing the turbidity standards.
To compare your bacterial cultures to the standards, you will need to place the bacterial sample in a test tube of the same size and equal volume as the standards. Once the reactions have been stopped with soda ash solution, allow the debris to settle for a few minutes and then compare the solution’s meniscus to the color samples provided.
When you’ve finished your experiments, be sure to upload your data to the BioBuilder site to see how your measurements compare to what other BioBuilders around the country have seen. As you write, be sure to define and properly use all highlighted terms throughout the introduction and other parts of the lab. Analyze the data: Be sure to discuss how each part of the experiment adds to your conclusion. When you’ve finished your experiments, be sure to upload your data to the BioBuilder site to see how your ideas compare to what other BioBuilders around the country have thought.
Except where otherwise noted, this work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International Unported License.
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In the process of evolution, those avian species that developed simple but effective digestive systems were more able to fly and hence survive, as the simple digestive system would be lighter in weight.
The digestive system is responsible for the ingestion of food, its breakdown into its constituent nutrients and their absorption into the blood stream, and the elimination of wastes from that process.
The main function of the pancreas is the production of digestive enzymes and special compounds called hormones. Generally the alimentary canal has layers of muscle that run lengthwise and around it and is lined with mucous membranes. The salivary glands run the whole length of the hard palate, the groups of glands merging to form one mass of glandular tissue under the epithelium. The mucous membrane is an important barrier to the entry of microbes and the mucous it produces is a lubricant that aids the passage of the food along the alimentary canal. Simple single glands group to form lobules each of which converges into a common cavity near the surface. It has a flattened, rounded shape somewhat like a convex lens, with one side slightly larger than the other.
The gizzard consists of a number of layers of tissues, some of which contain straight tubular glands. The villi have the function of providing a vastly increased surface area for the more efficient absorption of the nutrients. The lymphoid tissue collects the lymph and the lymph vessels transport fluid, other than blood, that is found in the spaces between cells and tissues until it passes into the blood system. They extend along the line of the small intestine towards the liver and are closely attached to the small intestine along their length by the mesentery.
The cloaca is a tubular cavity opening to the exterior of the body and is common to the digestive and urogenital tract. Two bile ducts emerge from the right lobe and one of these originates from the gall bladder and the second provides a direct connection from the liver to the small intestine. Notwithstanding this, in the normal animal, much of the organ is in reserve and can be removed or destroyed without causing undue stress.
One originates from the coelic artery for normal maintenance of the liver as an organ and the second, called the hepatic portal system, transports the nutrients from the small intestine after absorption to the liver.
Two or three ducts pass the secretions of this organ into the distal end of the duodenum via papillae common with the ducts from the gall bladder and the liver. Probably because of the high metabolic rate of the fowl, a more or less continuous supply of food is required by the digestive system.
The crop is quite distensable and will hold a large amount of undigested food that is then moved on as required by the proventriculus. Intact, hard grains take longer to digest than the cracked grain and, quite often some whole grain will pass through unchanged. The enzyme amylase, which is produced by the salivary and oesophageal glands and found in the saliva and mucous, can now commence to breakdown the complex carbohydrates. At the same time, the enzymes previously released into the food with the saliva and by the proventriculus are thoroughly mixed into the food which improves their opportunity to carry out their work. Enzyme activity in this region is, in the main, a continuation of the breakdown of proteins started in the gizzard.
The insulin is involved in the maintenance of blood sugar levels while the sodium bicarbonate, which is strongly alkaline, will increase the pH of the intestinal contents. Food materials that escape enzyme action along this tract are subjected to bacterial breakdown in the caeca which provides a system of at least partial recovery of some nutrients. The appearance of the faeces varies considerably, but typically is a rounded, brown to grey mass topped with a cap of white uric acid from the kidneys.
These fresh droppings are approximately 75% water and will air dry under favourable conditions to approximately 30% water.
The avian digestive system is a simple system and consequently the diet must be of good quality and consist of easily digested ingredients if the bird is to perform at the level required on the modern commercial poultry enterprise. However, depending on the particulars of the design specification, the output might need to be held at intermediate levels, or even to slow and low outputs in some cases. It’s possible to control the rate of transcription initiation, choosing a promoter that’s active only under some conditions, for example. Some devices end up dependent on others in the cell (they are not fully insulated) and other devices demand a lot of the cell’s resources, slowing a cell’s growth rate if they really demand a lot.
Your measurements will compare a designed device to a reference one made from a strong log phase promoter, a strong RBS, a lacZ ORF that produces beta-galactosidase. Be sure to balance the tubes across from each other to minimize stress on the roller wheel. As a class you should try to perform replicate assays of each sample (so each strain gets measured two or three times) and then pool your class data to gain some confidence in the values you measure.
If not, you will need to transfer some of this diluted cell mixture to a cuvette or glass spectrophotometer tube.
You should time this step precisely since you want the replicates to be treated as identically as possible. If not, you will need to transfer some of the reaction mixture from the reaction tubes to a cuvette or glass spectrophotometer tube. This method uses suspensions of a 1% BaCl2 in 1% H2SO4 that are visually similar to suspensions of various populations of E. The tubes should contain enough standard in each to fill the tube to a height of about 1 inch (2.5 cm) from the bottom. Use small tubes and place enough standard in each to fill the tube to a height of about 1 inch (2.5 cm) from the bottom. You should move the sample to compare it to the standard tubes with the most similar turbidity. It acts as an exfoliation agent to break down the surface dead skin cells, thus helps to reduce the size of pores and keep moisture locked inside as a result skin is smooth and bright. ADVANCED BIO RENEWAL MASQUE works effectively in exfoliating dead cells, optimizing cellular renewal performance and deep pore cleansing, thus revealing a softer, fresher and healthier skin. I've got normal to mixed skin type and decided to use it after shower when pores are bit more opened.
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Glands that produce important digestive juices are found in different locations of the canal. The so called egg tooth found on the end of the beak of newly hatched chickens is an aid to their escape from the egg at hatching and disappears after a day or two.
The common opening for the two eustachian tubes is located in the middle of its dorsal wall (roof). The crop is a large dilation of the oesophagus located just prior to where the oesophagus enters the thoracic cavity.
The structure below the crop is similar to that above except there is less lymphoid tissue below the crop. The cavities converge to form a common duct that leads to the surface through the apex of a small papilla (see figure below).
Each surface is covered by a glistening layer of tendinous tissue which is thicker at the centre and becoming thinner towards the edges. The innermost layer is a strong, flexible skin that is able to withstand the potentially damaging effects of the muscular action grinding the food often in the presence of stones or other insoluble material. Of the three parts of the mammalian small intestine, the duodenum, jejunum and ileum, only the duodenum can be easily distinguished in the fowl.
The efficiency of the absorption is influenced by the surface area available for the nutrients to move through i.e. The duodenum starts at the gizzard and forms an elongated loop that is approximately 20 centimetres long. Bile ducts from the gall bladder that are attached to the liver and two to three pancreatic ducts enter the small intestine by a common papilla at the caudal end (closest to the rear) of the duodenum. Sometimes this section is referred to as the colon and the rectum (the rectum being the terminal section).
The structure of the cloaca is very similar to that of the intestine except that the muscularis mucosa disappears near the vent. The liver is dark brown or chocolate in colour except for the first 10-14 days when it may be quite pale due to the absorption of lipids (fats) from the yolk as an embryo. The hepatic portal system, the capillaries of the arterial blood supply and the hepatic veins are in close association with each other in these sinusoids.

The blood vessels, when they enter these sinusoids, become closely associated with them to provide for the easy transfer of material from one system to another. The structure is similar to that of the pancreas of mammals and consists of special secreting tissue for pancreatic juice as well as other groups of cells called the “islets of langerhan”.
This is provided for by the crop that acts as a reservoir for the storage of food prior to its digestion and consequently permits the fowl to eat its food as periodic meals. This function of the crop is less important when there is a plentiful supply of food available. However, the amount of enzyme action at this stage is minimal and the first major enzyme activity takes place in the proventriculus and in the gizzard. This breaking and mixing function of the gizzard is enhanced by the presence of insoluble grit such as stones.
Pancreatic juice and bile from the liver enters via ducts located at the distal end of the duodenum at about the junction of the duodenum and the jejunum if it were differentiated. The contents of the caeca are also discharged periodically as discrete masses of brown, glutinous material.
A good working knowledge of the system and how it carries out its functions is necessary for the effective management of the poultry flock and, therefore, a study of the digestive system and the process of digestion and metabolism is an important facet in the study of poultry husbandry. For example a bacterial gene expression device might be designed by thoughtfully coupling together a promoter, a ribosome binding site (RBS), an open reading frame (ORF), and a terminator sequence. Translation control is another way to control the output, increasing or decreasing the translation initiation rate by modifying the sequence of the ribosome binding site for instance. Imagine a car in which the volume button on the radio also turned the steering wheel, or a car in which the louder you played the radio, the slower the car could run. The designed variants in your experiment all contain the same lacZ ORF, but the devices vary in the efficiency (“strength”) of the promoters and RBSs.
Alternatively, tubes can be placed on a platform shaker to grow the cells with aeration overnight.
A data table is included to help you organize your assay, but you can make one of your own if you prefer. If you do not have a spectrophotometer and are comparing the color to paint chips instead, follow the instructions in the next section. You can make this assessment more precise by looking for a standard that most similarly obscures the black lines on the background card.
Papain, an enzyme derived from papaya, helps exfoliate damaged and dead skin cells to prevent clogged pores that can result in skin eruptions.
This is especially important if the birds are to attain the productive performance expected of them. The nutrients from the food, after digestion, are absorbed through the wall of the alimentary canal into the circulatory system for transport to the liver or other parts of the body. The hard palate that forms the roof of the mouth, presents a long, narrow median (median – along the middle) slit that communicates with the nasal cavity. The crop provides the capacity to hold food for some time before further digestion commences. The crop structure is similar to that of the oesophagus except there are no glands present in fowls. These glands produce a number of juices or enzymes that are used in the digestion or breaking down of food into its constituent nutrients. The glands of the gizzard produce a liquid which is a keratinised material that passes to the surface of the horny lining where it hardens to replace tissue worn away by the grinding action of the organ.
There is no clear demarcation between the jejunum and ileum and the small intestine appears as one long tube. The pancreas lies between the arms of the loop and is attached to, and actually holds together, each arm of the duodenum. The pancreas is a very important organ in the process of digesting food and it is attached to each side of the duodenal loop and lies between the two arms. The bursa of fabricius is located immediately above the cloaca of young birds but disappears when the birds have reached approximately one year old. Minute canals called canaliculi that have the task of collecting and transporting the bile are associated with the cells in the tissue sheets. There is quite wide variability between birds in relation to eating behaviour, even between those in the same flock.
Due to the crop’s ability to hold a supply of food, when applying a food control (restriction) program, it is necessary to compensate by providing a long period of food deprivation to achieve the required degree of control.
However, because of back flow of pancreatic juice and bile towards the gizzard, the actions of these secretions start earlier in the digestive process than would be expected by their entry point to the small intestine. Synthetic biologists can also build the devices they design, using techniques such as DNA synthesis, gel electrophoresis, polymerase chain reaction, and cloning. This is the current state we face when we engineer genetic systems, devices and parts…problematic to say the least! You will measure the output of each device, presuming that the combination of promoter and RBS can explain any differences detected in measured beta-galactosidase activity. When the ONPG reacts with the beta-galactosidase enzyme, the ONPG gets converted into galactose and o-nitrophenol, a yellow compound. If you do not have a spectrophotometer and are using Turbidity Standards instead, follow the instructions in the next section.
If you are filling the tubes from stock bottles of the standards, use small tubes and place enough standard in each to fill the tube to a height of about 1 inch (2.5 cm) from the bottom. It is able to whiten and soften the skin, heal wounds and prevent the subsequent development of pimples. This page describes the structure and function of the various parts of the digestive system of the fowl and discusses the digestion of poultry food into its constituent nutrients. This capacity enables the bird to take its food as “meals” at time intervals but permits continuous digestion. The mucous membrane is raised into folds and between these folds are numerous simple tubular glands that produce hydrochloric acid as well as lymphoid tissue. Much of the digestion of the food and all of the absorption of the nutrients takes place in the small intestine and hence its structure is quite important.
Permanent folds in the mucous membrane called the “valves of kerkring” are located at the proximal end (closest to the front) of the duodenum. They also provide a means of concentrating the nutrients collection ability once they have moved through the intestine wall. The capsule, or glissosis, is the membrane that covers the liver and is thinner than that of mammals.
These canals eventually join together to form the bile ducts with one going directly to the intestine and one to the gall bladder before it connects to the small intestine.
Some eat small amounts at short intervals while others eat larger amounts at wider intervals. There is no relationship between the length of time of food deprivation and the amount of food consumed. One effect is an increase in the pH of the intestinal contents of the latter half of the duodenum from strongly to weakly acid. Numerous ducts of the salivary glands pierce the hard palate to release their secretions into the mouth cavity. A transverse row of simple, large and horny papillae with their tips directed towards the rear of the mouth cavity are located on the posterior end.
Inside the thoracic cavity, the oesophagus enters or becomes the proventriculus which is a very glandular part of the digestive tract (often called the glandular stomach). In pigeons the surface cells of the crop slough off during brooding to form pigeon’s milk which is used to feed the baby pigeons in the nest.
The gizzard almost always contains quantities of hard objects such as gravel or other grit that aids in the disintegration of food, which is the primary function of the gizzard.
This might mean characterizing the cells behavior with enzyme activity assays, fluorescent protein measurements or phenotype analysis.
You can measure the intensity of the yellow color using a spectrophotometer, like a Spec 20, or with visual comparisons to yellow paint-chip standards. Depending on what the system is suppose to do, measurements might be made to test the speed of a device’s response, its sensitivity to environmental signals, or its level of a protein output. Some believe that there are taste buds located on the tongue, but this belief is not universally held.

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