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Minerals, vitamins and water are already small enough to be absorbed by the body without being broken down, so they are not digested. The arctic fox, a complex animal that has adapted to its environment, illustrates the relationships between an animal’s form and function.
The goal of homeostasis is the maintenance of equilibrium around a specific value of some aspect of the body or its cells called a set point. When a change occurs in an animal’s environment, an adjustment must be made so that the internal environment of the body and cells remains stable.
Animals can be divided into two groups: those that maintain a constant body temperature in the face of differing environmental temperatures, and those that have a body temperature that is the same as their environment and thus varies with the environmental temperature. An animal that maintains a constant body temperature in the face of environmental changes is called an endotherm. Watch this Discovery Channel video on thermoregulation to see illustrations of the process in a variety of animals. Osmoregulation is the process of maintaining salt and water balance ( osmotic balance) across membranes within the body.
Mammalian systems have evolved to regulate not only the overall osmotic pressure across membranes, but also specific concentrations of important electrolytes in the three major fluid compartments: blood plasma, interstitial fluid, and intracellular fluid. The human excretory system functions to remove waste from the body through the skin as sweat, the lungs in the form of exhaled carbon dioxide, and through the urinary system in the form of urine. Internally, the kidney has three regions—an outer cortex, a medulla in the middle, and the renal pelvis, which is the expanded end of the ureter. The human excretory system is made up of the kidneys, ureter, urinary bladder, and urethra.
Blood enters each kidney from the aorta, the main artery supplying the body below the heart, through a renal artery. The bladder contains sensory nerves, stretch receptors that signal when it needs to be emptied. Dialysis is a medical process of removing wastes and excess water from the blood by diffusion and ultrafiltration. One of the challenges in human nutrition is maintaining a balance between food intake, storage, and energy expenditure.
Both physical and chemical digestion begin in the mouth or oral cavity, which is the point of entry of food into the digestive system.
The chemical process of digestion begins during chewing as food mixes with saliva, produced by the salivary glands (Figure 16.5). The stomach lining is unaffected by pepsin and the acidity because pepsin is released in an inactive form and the stomach has a thick mucus lining that protects the underlying tissue. The large intestine reabsorbs the water from indigestible food material and processes the waste material (Figure 16.6).
The large intestine reabsorbs water from undigested food and stores waste until it is eliminated.
The organs discussed above are the organs of the digestive tract through which food passes.
The liver is the largest internal organ in humans and it plays an important role in digestion of fats and detoxifying blood. The pancreas secretes bicarbonate that neutralizes the acidic chyme and a variety of enzymes for the digestion of protein and carbohydrates. The human diet should be well balanced to provide nutrients required for bodily function and the minerals and vitamins required for maintaining structure and regulation necessary for good health and reproductive capability (Figure 16.8).
Explore this interactive United States Department of Agriculture website to learn more about each food group and the recommended daily amounts. The organic molecules required for building cellular material and tissues must come from food. Proteins in food are broken down during digestion and the resulting amino acids are absorbed.
While the animal body can synthesize many of the molecules required for function from precursors, there are some nutrients that must be obtained from food.
The fatty acids omega-3 alpha-linolenic acid and omega-6 linoleic acid are essential fatty acids needed to make some membrane phospholipids. With obesity at high rates in the United States, there is a public health focus on reducing obesity and associated health risks, which include diabetes, colon and breast cancer, and cardiovascular disease. Fatty foods are calorie-dense, meaning that they have more calories per unit mass than carbohydrates or proteins.
Animals are complex multicellular organisms that require a mechanism for transporting nutrients throughout their bodies and removing wastes. The medium for transport of gases and other molecules is the blood, which continually circulates through the system. Gas exchange between tissues and the blood is an essential function of the circulatory system. During inhalation the diaphragm descends creating a negative pressure around the lungs and they begin to inflate, drawing in air from outside the body. From the nasal cavity, air passes through the pharynx (throat) and the larynx (voice box) as it makes its way to the trachea (Figure 16.9). Air enters the respiratory system through the nasal cavity, and then passes through the pharynx and the trachea into the lungs. The circulatory system is a network of vessels—the arteries, veins, and capillaries—and a pump, the heart. The heart is a complex muscle that consists of two pumps: one that pumps blood through pulmonary circulation to the lungs, and the other that pumps blood through systemic circulation to the rest of the body’s tissues (and the heart itself). The heart is asymmetrical, with the left side being larger than the right side, correlating with the different sizes of the pulmonary and systemic circuits (Figure 16.10). The main purpose of the heart is to pump blood through the body; it does so in a repeating sequence called the cardiac cycle. In each cardiac cycle, a series of contractions (systoles) and relaxations (diastoles) pumps blood through the heart and through the body.
The pumping of the heart is a function of the cardiac muscle cells, or cardiomyocytes, that make up the heart muscle.
The electrical impulses in the heart produce electrical currents that flow through the body and can be measured on the skin using electrodes.
Visit the following website to see the heart’s pacemaker, or electrocardiogram system, in action. The blood from the heart is carried through the body by a complex network of blood vessels (Figure 16.12). The arteries of the body, indicated in red, start at the aortic arch and branch to supply the organs and muscles of the body with oxygenated blood. The endocrine system produces hormones that function to control and regulate many different body processes. Maintaining homeostasis within the body requires the coordination of many different systems and organs. The final step in digestion is the elimination of undigested food content and waste products.
Diarrhea and constipation are some of the most common health concerns that affect digestion.
Human Digestive System Diagram is made up of the digestive tract—a series of hollow organs joined in a long, twisting tube from the mouth to the anus—and other organs.
When view at this Photo of Human Digestive System Diagram, you can download and take by right click on the right click to get the large version.
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This is only a start to the process of digestion, as chewed pieces of food are still too large to be absorbed by the body. If you chew a piece of bread for long enough, the starch it contains is digested to sugar, and it begins to taste sweet. The multicellular bodies of animals consist of tissues that make up more complex organs and organ systems. Animal organs and organ systems constantly adjust to internal and external changes in order to maintain this steady state. While there are normal fluctuations from the set point, the body’s systems will usually attempt to go back to this point. Animals that do not have internal control of their body temperature are called ectotherms. These animals are able to maintain a level of activity that an ectothermic animal cannot because they generate internal heat that keeps their cellular processes operating optimally even when the environment is cold. Vasodilation, the opening up of arteries to the skin by relaxation of their smooth muscles, brings more blood and heat to the body surface, facilitating radiation and evaporative heat loss, cooling the body. They simply seek cooler areas during the hottest part of the day in the desert to keep from getting too warm.
The processes of temperature control are centered in the hypothalamus of the advanced animal brain.
The fluids inside and surrounding cells are composed of water, electrolytes, and nonelectrolytes. Since osmotic pressure is regulated by the movement of water across membranes, the volume of the fluid compartments can also change temporarily. The kidneys filter blood and form urine, which is stored in the bladder until it is eliminated through the urethra.
These signals create the urge to urinate, which can be voluntarily suppressed up to a limit. When kidney function fails, dialysis must be done to artificially rid the body of wastes and fluids. While some roles in this field include equipment development and maintenance, most dialysis technicians work in direct patient care. While plants can obtain nutrients from their roots and the energy molecules required for cellular function through the process of photosynthesis, animals obtain their nutrients by the consumption of other organisms.
Taking in more food energy than is used in activity leads to storage of the excess in the form of fat deposits. The teeth play an important role in masticating (chewing) or physically breaking food into smaller particles. The gastro-esophageal sphincter (or cardiac sphincter) is located at the stomach end of the esophagus.
The highly acidic environment kills many microorganisms in the food and, combined with the action of the enzyme pepsin, results in the catabolism of protein in the food.
The small intestine is the organ where the digestion of protein, fats, and carbohydrates is completed. The human large intestine is much smaller in length compared to the small intestine but larger in diameter. The liver produces bile, a digestive juice that is required for the breakdown of fats in the duodenum.
During digestion, digestible carbohydrates are ultimately broken down into glucose and used to provide energy within the cells of the body. All of the proteins in the body must be formed from these amino-acid constituents; no proteins are obtained directly from food.
Fatty foods are also significant sources of energy, and fatty acids are required for the construction of lipid membranes. These nutrients are termed essential nutrients, meaning they must be eaten, because the body cannot produce them. One gram of carbohydrates has four calories, one gram of protein has four calories, and one gram of fat has nine calories. To combat childhood obesity and ensure that children get a healthy start in life, in 2010 First Lady Michelle Obama launched the Let’s Move!
The human circulatory system has a complex network of blood vessels that reach all parts of the body. Pressure differences within the system cause the movement of the blood and are created by the pumping of the heart. In humans, other mammals, and birds, blood absorbs oxygen and releases carbon dioxide in the lungs. How often a breath is taken and how much air is inhaled or exhaled is regulated by the respiratory center in the brain in response to signals it receives about the carbon dioxide content of the blood. The air enters the body through the nasal cavity located just inside the nose (Figure 16.9). The main function of the trachea is to funnel the inhaled air to the lungs and the exhaled air back out of the body.
In all vertebrate organisms this is a closed-loop system, in which the blood is largely separated from the body’s other extracellular fluid compartment, the interstitial fluid, which is the fluid bathing the cells.
The cardiac cycle is the flow of blood through the heart coordinated by electrochemical signals that cause the heart muscle to contract and relax. Cardiomyocytes are distinctive muscle cells that are striated like skeletal muscle but pump rhythmically and involuntarily like smooth muscle; adjacent cells are connected by intercalated disks found only in cardiac muscle. This information can be observed as an electrocardiogram (ECG) a recording of the electrical impulses of the cardiac muscle. Capillary beds contain a large number, 10’s to 100’s of capillaries that branch among the cells of the body. The endocrine system coordinates with the nervous system to control the functions of the other organ systems. One mechanism of communication between neighboring cells, and between cells and tissues in distant parts of the body, occurs through the release of chemicals called hormones.

Food needs to be broken into smaller particles so that animals can harness the nutrients and organic molecules. It is important to break down macromolecules into smaller fragments that are of suitable size for absorption across the digestive epithelium. The salivary enzyme amylase begins the breakdown of food starches into maltose, a disaccharide.
Recall that the chyme from the stomach enters the duodenum and mixes with the digestive secretion from the pancreas, liver, and gallbladder. The enzyme pepsin plays an important role in the digestion of proteins by breaking down the intact protein to peptides, which are short chains of four to nine amino acids.
However, the bulk of lipid digestion occurs in the small intestine due to pancreatic lipase.
Constipation is a condition where the feces are hardened because of excess water removal in the colon. It is often in response to an irritant that affects the digestive tract, including but not limited to viruses, bacteria, emotions, sights, and food poisoning. Digestion and absorption take place in a series of steps with special enzymes playing important roles in digesting carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids.
Food has to be broken down chemically into really small particles before it can be absorbed. Digestion of proteins in the stomach is helped by stomach acid, which is strong hydrochloric acid. Examples of internal conditions maintained homeostatically are the level of blood glucose, body temperature, blood calcium level.
A change in the internal or external environment is called a stimulus and is detected by a receptor; the response of the system is to adjust the activities of the system so the value moves back toward the set point. The body temperature of these organisms is generally similar to the temperature of the environment, although the individual organisms may do things that keep their bodies slightly below or above the environmental temperature. Vasoconstriction, the narrowing of blood vessels to the skin by contraction of their smooth muscles, reduces blood flow in peripheral blood vessels, forcing blood toward the core and vital organs, conserving heat.
The same animals may climb onto rocks in the evening to capture heat on a cold desert night before entering their burrows.
The hypothalamus maintains the set point for body temperature through reflexes that cause vasodilation or vasoconstriction and shivering or sweating.
Excess water, electrolytes, and wastes are transported to the kidneys and excreted, helping to maintain osmotic balance. Since blood plasma is one of the fluid components, osmotic pressures have a direct bearing on blood pressure. Here we focus on the urinary system, which is comprised of the paired kidneys, the ureter, urinary bladder and urethra (Figure 16.3). Within the nephron the blood comes in intimate contact with the waste-collecting tubules in a structure called the glomerulus.
The conscious decision to urinate sets in play signals that open the sphincters, rings of smooth muscle that close off the opening, to the urethra that allows urine to flow out of the bladder and the body. Their on-the-job duties, which typically occur under the direct supervision of a registered nurse, focus on providing dialysis treatments.
At the cellular level, the biological molecules necessary for animal function are amino acids, lipid molecules, nucleotides, and simple sugars. The rise in obesity and the resulting diseases like type 2 diabetes makes understanding the role of diet and nutrition in maintaining good health all the more important.
All mammals have teeth and can chew their food to begin the process of physically breaking it down into smaller particles.
The smooth muscles of the esophagus undergo peristalsis that pushes the food toward the stomach. In response to swallowing and the pressure exerted by the bolus of food, this sphincter opens, and the bolus enters the stomach. Chemical digestion is facilitated by the churning action of the stomach caused by contraction and relaxation of smooth muscles.
The small intestine is a long tube-like organ with a highly folded surface containing finger-like projections called the villi. The chyme is mixed with pancreatic juices, an alkaline solution rich in bicarbonate that neutralizes the acidity of chyme from the stomach.
The anus is an opening at the far-end of the digestive tract and is the exit point for the waste material. Accessory organs include the salivary glands, the liver, the pancreas, and the gall bladder.
The liver also processes the absorbed vitamins and fatty acids and synthesizes many plasma proteins. Complex carbohydrates, including polysaccharides, can be broken down into glucose through biochemical modification; however, humans do not produce the enzyme necessary to digest cellulose (fiber). Fats are also required in the diet to aid the absorption of fat-soluble vitamins and the production of fat-soluble hormones.
These fatty acids are stored in adipose tissue cells—the fat cells in the mammalian body whose primary role is to store fat for later use. This extensive network supplies the cells, tissues, and organs with oxygen and nutrients, and removes carbon dioxide and waste compounds. Thus the circulatory and respiratory system, whose function is to obtain oxygen and discharge carbon dioxide, work in tandem. Humans, when they are not exerting themselves, breathe approximately 15 times per minute on average. However, it is possible to override this automatic regulation for activities such as speaking, singing and swimming under water.
As the air passes through the nasal cavity, the air is warmed to body temperature and humidified by moisture from mucous membranes. The primary bronchus divides, creating smaller and smaller diameter bronchi until the passages are under 1 mm (.03 in) in diameter when they are called bronchioles as they split and spread through the lung.
Blood circulates inside blood vessels and circulates unidirectionally from the heart around one of two circulatory routes, then returns to the heart again; this is a closed circulatory system. There is one atrium and one ventricle on the right side and one atrium and one ventricle on the left side.
The right side of the heart receives deoxygenated blood from the body and pumps it to the lungs.
In each cardiac cycle, a sequence of contractions pushes out the blood, pumping it through the body; this is followed by a relaxation phase, where the heart fills with blood.
These connections allow the electrical signal to travel directly to neighboring muscle cells.
Capillaries are narrow-diameter tubes that can fit single red blood cells and are the sites for the exchange of nutrients, waste, and oxygen with tissues at the cellular level.
The pulmonary arteries are blue to reflect the fact that they are deoxygenated, and the pulmonary veins are red to reflect that they are oxygenated.
Large, complex molecules of proteins, polysaccharides, and lipids must be reduced to simpler particles such as simple sugar before they can be absorbed by the digestive epithelial cells. As the bolus of food travels through the esophagus to the stomach, no significant digestion of carbohydrates takes place. Pancreatic juices also contain amylase, which continues the breakdown of starch and glycogen into maltose, a disaccharide.
In the duodenum, other enzymes—trypsin, elastase, and chymotrypsin—act on the peptides reducing them to smaller peptides.
When chyme enters the duodenum, the hormonal responses trigger the release of bile, which is produced in the liver and stored in the gallbladder. If the lipid in the chyme aggregates into large globules, very little surface area of the lipids is available for the lipases to act on, leaving lipid digestion incomplete.
It is important to consume some amount of dietary lipid to aid the absorption of lipid-soluble vitamins.
Recall that the colon is also home to the microflora called “intestinal flora” that aid in the digestion process. This forceful expulsion of the food is due to the strong contractions produced by the stomach muscles. Elimination describes removal of undigested food contents and waste products from the body. Lipids are also required in the diet to aid the absorption of lipid-soluble vitamins and for the production of lipid-soluble hormones.
You will see an images where related with to the title, entitled Including graphic with tag archive. These systems are adapted to obtain the necessary nutrients and other resources needed by the cells of the body, to remove the wastes those cells produce, to coordinate the activities of the cells, tissues, and organs throughout the body, and to coordinate the many responses of the individual organism to its environment. These conditions remain stable because of physiologic processes that result in negative feedback relationships.
The receptor sends information to a control center, often the brain, which relays appropriate signals to an effector organ that is able to cause an appropriate change, either up or down, depending on the information the sensor was sending. This can include burrowing underground on a hot day or resting in the sunlight on a cold day. Animals with thick fur or feathers create an insulating layer of air between their skin and internal organs.
Some animals have adaptions to their circulatory system that enable them to transfer heat from arteries to veins that are flowing next to each other, warming blood returning to the heart. The sympathetic nervous system under control of the hypothalamus directs the responses that effect the changes in temperature loss or gain that return the body to the set point.
The kidneys are a pair of bean-shaped structures that are located just below the liver in the body cavity.
The ureters are urine-bearing tubes that exit the kidney and empty into the urinary bladder. Water and many solutes present in the blood, including ions of sodium, calcium, magnesium, and others; as well as wastes and valuable substances such as amino acids, glucose and vitamins, leave the blood and enter the tubule system of the nephron.
In some cases, the patients undergo artificial dialysis until they are eligible for a kidney transplant. This can include reviewing patient history and current condition, assessing and responding to patient needs before and during treatment, and monitoring the dialysis process. The food is then swallowed and enters the esophagus—a long tube that connects the mouth to the stomach. It also contains an enzyme called salivary amylase that begins the process of converting starches in the food into a disaccharide called maltose. The peristaltic wave is unidirectional—it moves food from the mouth the stomach, and reverse movement is not possible, except in the case of the vomit reflex. When there is no swallowing action, this sphincter is shut and prevents the contents of the stomach from traveling up the esophagus. Pancreatic juices contain several digestive enzymes that break down starches, disaccharides, proteins, and fats. Two sphincters regulate the exit of feces, the inner sphincter is involuntary and the outer sphincter is voluntary.
The secretions of the liver, pancreas, and gallbladder are regulated by hormones in response to food consumption.
The gallbladder is a small organ that aids the liver by storing bile and concentrating bile salts. The intestinal flora in the human gut are able to extract some nutrition from these plant fibers. Greater amounts of food energy taken in than the body’s requirements will result in storage of the excess in fat deposits.
The goal of this campaign is to educate parents and caregivers on providing healthy nutrition and encouraging active lifestyles in future generations.
These processes help equilibrate the air to the body conditions, reducing any damage that cold, dry air can cause. The right atrium receives deoxygenated blood from the systemic circulation through the major veins: the superior vena cava, which drains blood from the head and from the veins that come from the arms, as well as the inferior vena cava, which drains blood from the veins that come from the lower organs and the legs. These two phases are called the systole (contraction) and diastole (relaxation), respectively (Figure 16.11).
These cells may compose endocrine glands, may be tissues or may be located in organs or tissues that have functions in addition to hormone production. The disaccharides are broken down into monosaccharides by enzymes called maltases, sucrases, and lactases, which are also present in the brush border of the small intestinal wall. Trypsin elastase, carboxypeptidase, and chymotrypsin are produced by the pancreas and released into the duodenum where they act on the chyme.
By forming an emulsion, bile salts increase the available surface area of the lipids many fold.
The semi-solid waste is moved through the colon by peristaltic movements of the muscle and is stored in the rectum. Many bacteria, including the ones that cause cholera, affect the proteins involved in water reabsorption in the colon and result in excessive diarrhea. While most absorption occurs in the small intestines, the large intestine is responsible for the final removal of water that remains after the absorptive process of the small intestines. If the blood glucose or calcium rises, this sends a signal to organs responsible for lowering blood glucose or calcium.
If glucose levels in the blood rise after a meal, adjustments are made to lower them and to get the nutrient into tissues that need it or to store it for later use. The ectotherms have been called cold-blooded, a term that may not apply to an animal in the desert with a very warm body temperature.

Polar bears and seals live and swim in a subfreezing environment and yet maintain a constant, warm, body temperature. This is called a countercurrent heat exchange; it prevents the cold venous blood from cooling the heart and other internal organs. The body’s fluids include blood plasma, fluid that exists within cells, and the interstitial fluid that exists in the spaces between cells and tissues of the body.
Biological systems constantly interact and exchange water and nutrients with the environment by way of consumption of food and water and through excretion in the form of sweat, urine, and feces. Each of the kidneys contains more than a million tiny units called nephrons that filter blood containing the metabolic wastes from cells.
As materials pass through the tubule much of the water, required ions, and useful compounds are reabsorbed back into the capillaries that surround the tubules leaving the wastes behind.
Treatment may include taking and reporting a patient’s vital signs, preparing solutions and equipment to ensure accurate and sterile procedures.
Animals must convert these macromolecules into the simple molecules required for maintaining cellular function. Using peristalsis, or wave-like smooth-muscle contractions, the muscles of the esophagus push the food toward the stomach. The peristaltic movement of the esophagus is an involuntary reflex; it takes place in response to the act of swallowing. Acid reflux or “heartburn” occurs when the acidic digestive juices escape into the esophagus. The epithelial cells of these structures absorb nutrients from the digested food and release them to the bloodstream on the other side. The colon is home to many bacteria or “intestinal flora” that aid in the digestive processes. This program aims to involve the entire community, including parents, teachers, and healthcare providers to ensure that children have access to healthy foods—more fruits, vegetables, and whole grains—and consume fewer calories from processed foods.
Particulate matter that is floating in the air is removed in the nasal passages by hairs, mucus, and cilia. Bronchi are innervated by nerves of both the parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous systems that control muscle contraction (parasympathetic) or relaxation (sympathetic) in the bronchi and bronchioles, depending on the nervous system’s cues.
This deoxygenated blood then passes to the right ventricle through the tricuspid valve, which prevents the backflow of blood. The capillaries converge again into venules that connect to minor veins that finally connect to major veins. Hormones circulate throughout the body and stimulate a response in cells that have receptors able to bind with them.
In vertebrates, the teeth, saliva, and tongue play important roles in mastication (preparing the food into bolus). The animal diet needs carbohydrates, protein, and fat, as well as vitamins and inorganic components for nutritional balance. Further breakdown of peptides to single amino acids is aided by enzymes called peptidases (those that break down peptides).
Emulsification is a process in which large lipid globules are broken down into several small lipid globules. The pancreatic lipases can then act on the lipids more efficiently and digest them, as detailed in [link]. As the rectum expands in response to storage of fecal matter, it triggers the neural signals required to set up the urge to eliminate. The cells that line the large intestine absorb some vitamins as well as any leftover salts and water. The arctic fox, for example, uses its fluffy tail as extra insulation when it curls up to sleep in cold weather. The countercurrent adaptation is found in dolphins, sharks, bony fish, bees, and hummingbirds.
During an infection, compounds called pyrogens are produced and circulate to the hypothalamus resetting the thermostat to a higher value.
The membranes of the body (both the membranes around cells and the “membranes” made of cells lining body cavities) are semipermeable membranes.
Without a mechanism to regulate osmotic pressure, or when a disease damages this mechanism, there is a tendency to accumulate toxic waste and water, which can have dire consequences. The conversion of the food consumed to the nutrients required is a multistep process involving digestion and absorption. The chewing and wetting action provided by the teeth and saliva prepare the food into a mass called the bolus for swallowing.
The villi and microvilli, with their many folds, increase the surface area of the small intestine and increase absorption efficiency of the nutrients.
The colon has four regions, the ascending colon, the transverse colon, the descending colon and the sigmoid colon.
The excess sugars in the body are converted into glycogen and stored for later use in the liver and muscle tissue. After it is filled, the right ventricle contracts, pumping the blood to the lungs for reoxygenation.
The changes brought about in the receiving cells affect the functioning of the organ system to which they belong. While the food is being mechanically broken down, the enzymes in saliva begin to chemically process the food as well. Other disaccharides, such as sucrose and lactose are broken down by sucrase and lactase, respectively. Specifically, carboxypeptidase, dipeptidase, and aminopeptidase play important roles in reducing the peptides to free amino acids.
These small globules are more widely distributed in the chyme rather than forming large aggregates. While you will be able to view the content of this page in your current browser, you will not be able to get the full visual experience. Mammals can increase body heat production by shivering, which is an involuntary increase in muscle activity. This allows the body’s temperature to increase to a new homeostatic equilibrium point in what is commonly called a fever. Semipermeable membranes are permeable to certain types of solutes and to water, but typically cell membranes are impermeable to solutes. The nephrons remove wastes, concentrate them, and form urine that is collected in the bladder. Some wastes, including ions and some drugs remaining in the blood, diffuse out of the capillaries into the interstitial fluid and are taken up by the tubule cells. During digestion, food particles are broken down to smaller components, which are later absorbed by the body.
This acidity kills microorganisms, breaks down food tissues, and activates digestive enzymes. The movement of chyme from the stomach into the small intestine is regulated by hormones, stomach distension and muscular reflexes that influence the pyloric sphincter. The main functions of the colon are to extract the water and mineral salts from undigested food, and to store waste material.
Glycogen stores are used to fuel prolonged exertions, such as long-distance running, and to provide energy during food shortage.
Minerals perform many functions, from muscle and nerve function, to acting as enzyme cofactors. With the increase in television viewing and stationary pursuits such as video games, sedentary lifestyles have become the norm. The air contains oxygen that crosses the lung tissue, enters the bloodstream, and travels to organs and tissues.
The mucus catches particles that have been inhaled, and the cilia move the particles toward the pharynx.
Many of the hormones are secreted in response to signals from the nervous system, thus the two systems act in concert to effect changes in the body.
The combined action of these processes modifies the food from large particles to a soft mass that can be swallowed and can travel the length of the esophagus. Sucrase breaks down sucrose (or “table sugar”) into glucose and fructose, and lactase breaks down lactose (or “milk sugar”) into glucose and galactose. Lipids are hydrophobic substances: in the presence of water, they will aggregate to form globules to minimize exposure to water. These molecules can pass through the plasma membrane of the cell and enter the epithelial cells of the intestinal lining.
Please consider upgrading your browser software or enabling style sheets (CSS) if you are able to do so. Homeostatic mechanisms keep the body in dynamic equilibrium by constantly adjusting to the changes that the body’s systems encounter. In addition, arrector pili muscles can contract causing individual hairs to stand up when the individual is cold.
The increase in body heat makes the body less optimal for bacterial growth and increases the activities of cells so they are better able to fight the infection. Further breakdown of food takes place in the small intestine where bile produced by the liver, and enzymes produced by the small intestine and the pancreas, continue the process of digestion. This blood passes through the bicuspid valve to the left ventricle where the blood is pumped into the aorta. Closing of these valves caused by the contraction of the ventricles produces a “lub” sound. The monosaccharides (glucose) thus produced are absorbed and then can be used in metabolic pathways to harness energy.
Bile contains bile salts, which are amphipathic, meaning they contain hydrophobic and hydrophilic parts. The bile salts surround long-chain fatty acids and monoglycerides forming tiny spheres called micelles.
The blood then collects in larger and larger vessels and leaves the kidney in the renal vein. The smaller molecules are absorbed into the blood stream through the epithelial cells lining the walls of the small intestine.
Carbon dioxide exits the cells, enters the bloodstream, travels back to the lungs, and is expired out of the body during exhalation.
The aorta is the major artery of the body, taking oxygenated blood to the organs and muscles of the body. The signal has, by this time, passed down the walls of the heart, through a point between the right atrium and right ventricle. The monosaccharides are transported across the intestinal epithelium into the bloodstream to be transported to the different cells in the body. Thus, the bile salts hydrophilic side can interface with water on one side and the hydrophobic side interfaces with lipids on the other. The micelles move into the brush border of the small intestine absorptive cells where the long-chain fatty acids and monoglycerides diffuse out of the micelles into the absorptive cells leaving the micelles behind in the chyme. Two examples of factors that are regulated homeostatically are temperature and water content.
Humans retain this reaction, which does not have the intended effect on our relatively hairless bodies; it causes “goose bumps” instead.
The renal vein joins the inferior vena cava, the main vein that returns blood to the heart from the lower body. The waste material travels on to the large intestine where water is absorbed and the drier waste material is compacted into feces; it is stored until it is excreted through the anus.
The epiglottis is a flap of tissue that covers the tracheal opening during swallowing to prevent food from entering the lungs. The human body can synthesize only 11 of the 20 required amino acids; the rest must be obtained from food. The long-chain fatty acids and monoglycerides recombine in the absorptive cells to form triglycerides, which aggregate into globules and become coated with proteins. The processes that maintain homeostasis of these two factors are called thermoregulation and osmoregulation.
The amounts of water and ions reabsorbed into the circulatory system are carefully regulated and this is an important way the body regulates its water content and ion levels. Loss of significant amounts of body fat will compromise an individual’s ability to conserve heat. The waste is collected in larger tubules and then leaves the kidney in the ureter, which leads to the bladder where urine, the combination of waste materials and water, is stored. Closing of the valves to these arteries caused by blood being drawn back toward the heart during ventricular relaxation produces a monosyllabic “dub” sound. Chylomicrons contain triglycerides, cholesterol, and other lipids and have proteins on their surface.
The anatomical arrangement of capillaries and alveoli emphasizes the structural and functional relationship of the respiratory and circulatory systems.
Together, they enable the chylomicron to move in an aqueous environment without exposing the lipids to water.
This large surface area, combined with the thin-walled nature of the alveolar cells, allows gases to easily diffuse across the cells.

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