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The digestive system in the domestic fowl is very simple but efficient when compared to many other species, such as cattle. The digestive system consists of the alimentary canal along which the food passes after eating to where the residual wastes are eliminated from the body, together with the liver and the pancreas. The liver produces bile and is associated with the metabolism of nutrients together with a number of other functions. The alimentary canal is a long tube-like organ that starts at the beak and ends with the vent or cloaca in the abdominal region. Fowls don’t have lips and cheeks, they instead have a beak which is an area of dense and horny skin lying over the mandible and incisive bones that serve as the bony foundation. The wall of the oesophagus is composed of four layers of tissue, the innermost being mucous membrane. The muscular stomach or gizzard is located immediately after the proventriculus, partly between the lobes and partly behind the left lobe of the liver. The entrance from the proventriculus and the exit to the duodenum are close together and dorsal in location.
The small intestine begins at the exit from the gizzard and ends at the junction of the small intestine, caeca and colon.
When a piece of the small intestine is immersed in water it takes on a very velvety appearance because of the presence of villi – long flattened, fingerlike projections that extend into the lumen (inside) of the intestine like flexible fingers. A lacteal (lymph vessels), capillaries, bundles of plain muscle fibres, nerves and other tissues and cells occupy the core of the villus.
After the duodenum the small intestine forms a coil and is suspended from the dorsal wall of the abdominal wall by a thin membrane called the mesentery. The jejunum and the ileum, together about 120 cm long, commence at the caudal end of the duodenum where the bile and the pancreatic duct papilla are located and terminates at the ileo-caecal-colic junction. Meckel’s Diverticulum is a constant feature about half way along the small intestine and appears as a small projection on the outer surface of the small intestine. The large intestine is very short and does not differ to any extent from the calibre of the small intestine. The liver is a bi-lobed organ that lies ventrally (below) and posterior (in rear of) to the heart and is closely associated with the proventriculus and the spleen. The liver cells have a high rate of destruction and a good regenerative capacity (re-growth ability). The liver consists of a series of tissue sheets that are two cells thick, with a sinusoid on either side of the sheet. This organ has three lobes that occupy the space between the two arms of the duodenal loop. Produce the hormones insulin and glucogen that are involved in the metabolism of carbohydrate.
The pattern of food intake and its passage through the digestive system are the main factors that influence secretory and hence digestive activity.
The food is delivered into the crop for storage after the first few boli have passed into the proventriculus. While there is a wide variation between the eating habits of different birds in the flock, fowls do tend to eat meals on about 15-minute intervals through the daylight hours and, to some extent, during darkness.
Similar factors affect the rate of movement of the food through the digestive system with a meal of normal food taking approximately 4 hours to pass through in the case of young stock, 8 hours in the case of laying hens and 12 hours for broody hens. After ingestion, the food is mixed with saliva and mucous from the mouth and oesophagus and these secretions thoroughly moisten the food.
The secretions of the proventriculus, or glandular stomach as it is often called, include hydrochloric acid to lower the pH of the system and the food mixture, the enzyme pepsin that acts on protein, and the hormone gastrin that stimulates the production and release of gastric juice in the proventriculus and pancreatic juice from the pancreas. The gizzard is a very powerful organ which physically breaks the food particles into smaller sizes to make the work of the enzymes easier. The small intestine also produces enzymes that playa part in the digestive process of reducing the complex food compounds eaten to the simple compounds or building blocks that can be absorbed across the intestinal wall for transport to the organ or location where either they will be further processed, stored or used. The remainder of the material consists of waste and undigested food and are mixed with the urine in the cloaca and eliminated from the body as faeces.
The utilisation of nutrients from the diet is a key element in the normal functioning of the animal. Neisham, MC, Austic, RE and Card, LE (1979) Poultry Production, 12th Edition, Lea and Febiger, Philadelphia, USA. Everybody knows that the food we eat is broken down into small usable molecules for the body to absorb from the intestine. For a chemical reaction to occur, the molecule should possess a certain amount of energy called activation energy.
The word ‘Enzyme’ was coined by Kuhne after studying the fermentation of sugars to alcohol by the enzyme Zymase. Enzymes are huge protein molecules and are usually many times larger than the substrate itself. This chain is then folded due to chemical attraction between different amino acids in the chain creating a 3 dimensional structure.
Sometimes, a number of these folded polypeptides come together and form multimeric enzyme complexes. Digestion would be impossible without the help of enzymes, which break down the complex molecules that are eaten, to the nutrients that the body requires. The next step is in the small intestine or ileum, where the pancreas pours in a cocktail of enzymes, to continue the process of digestion. Later in the ileum or small intestine, a number of other enzymes are secreted to extract the maximum nutrition from the food. Sometimes, disease or injury to the pancreas may affect their ability to secrete important enzymes for digestion, leading to malabsorption and malnutrition. The large intestine (colon) absorbs water, salt, and minerals from the waste, forming a solid stool. The pancreas is an organ approximately six inches long that is located in the abdomen behind the stomach and in front of the spine and aorta.
Pancreatic cysts are collections (pools) of fluid that can form within the head, body, and tail of the pancreas.
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Primary hormones of the pancreas include insulin and glucagon, and both regulate blood glucose.
The pancreas belongs to the endocrine and digestive systemsa€”with most of its cells (more than 90%) working on the digestive side.
The pancreas is a 6 inch-long flattened gland that lies deep within the abdomen, between the stomach and the spine.
The production of pancreatic hormones, including insulin, somatostatin, gastrin, and glucagon, play an important role in maintaining sugar and salt balance in our bodies. Gastrin: This hormone aids digestion by stimulating certain cells in the stomach to produce acid.
Glucagon: Glucagon helps insulin maintain normal blood glucose by working in the opposite way of insulin.
Insulin: This hormone regulates blood glucose by allowing many of your bodya€™s cells to absorb and use glucose.
Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP): This hormone helps control water secretion and absorption from the intestines by stimulating the intestinal cells to release water and salts into the intestines. Problems in the production or regulation of pancreatic hormones will cause complications related to blood sugar imbalance. Type 1 diabetes: If you have type 1 diabetes, then your body doesna€™t produce any insulin to handle the glucose in your body. Despite the fact that the great majority of pancreatic cells are devoted to digestive function, the endocrine cells play a major role in your overall health.
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In the process of evolution, those avian species that developed simple but effective digestive systems were more able to fly and hence survive, as the simple digestive system would be lighter in weight. The digestive system is responsible for the ingestion of food, its breakdown into its constituent nutrients and their absorption into the blood stream, and the elimination of wastes from that process. The main function of the pancreas is the production of digestive enzymes and special compounds called hormones. Generally the alimentary canal has layers of muscle that run lengthwise and around it and is lined with mucous membranes. The salivary glands run the whole length of the hard palate, the groups of glands merging to form one mass of glandular tissue under the epithelium. The mucous membrane is an important barrier to the entry of microbes and the mucous it produces is a lubricant that aids the passage of the food along the alimentary canal. Simple single glands group to form lobules each of which converges into a common cavity near the surface. It has a flattened, rounded shape somewhat like a convex lens, with one side slightly larger than the other.
The gizzard consists of a number of layers of tissues, some of which contain straight tubular glands.


The villi have the function of providing a vastly increased surface area for the more efficient absorption of the nutrients. The lymphoid tissue collects the lymph and the lymph vessels transport fluid, other than blood, that is found in the spaces between cells and tissues until it passes into the blood system. They extend along the line of the small intestine towards the liver and are closely attached to the small intestine along their length by the mesentery.
The cloaca is a tubular cavity opening to the exterior of the body and is common to the digestive and urogenital tract.
Two bile ducts emerge from the right lobe and one of these originates from the gall bladder and the second provides a direct connection from the liver to the small intestine.
Notwithstanding this, in the normal animal, much of the organ is in reserve and can be removed or destroyed without causing undue stress. One originates from the coelic artery for normal maintenance of the liver as an organ and the second, called the hepatic portal system, transports the nutrients from the small intestine after absorption to the liver. Two or three ducts pass the secretions of this organ into the distal end of the duodenum via papillae common with the ducts from the gall bladder and the liver. Probably because of the high metabolic rate of the fowl, a more or less continuous supply of food is required by the digestive system. The crop is quite distensable and will hold a large amount of undigested food that is then moved on as required by the proventriculus. Intact, hard grains take longer to digest than the cracked grain and, quite often some whole grain will pass through unchanged. The enzyme amylase, which is produced by the salivary and oesophageal glands and found in the saliva and mucous, can now commence to breakdown the complex carbohydrates.
At the same time, the enzymes previously released into the food with the saliva and by the proventriculus are thoroughly mixed into the food which improves their opportunity to carry out their work. Enzyme activity in this region is, in the main, a continuation of the breakdown of proteins started in the gizzard.
The insulin is involved in the maintenance of blood sugar levels while the sodium bicarbonate, which is strongly alkaline, will increase the pH of the intestinal contents. Food materials that escape enzyme action along this tract are subjected to bacterial breakdown in the caeca which provides a system of at least partial recovery of some nutrients.
The appearance of the faeces varies considerably, but typically is a rounded, brown to grey mass topped with a cap of white uric acid from the kidneys.
These fresh droppings are approximately 75% water and will air dry under favourable conditions to approximately 30% water. The avian digestive system is a simple system and consequently the diet must be of good quality and consist of easily digested ingredients if the bird is to perform at the level required on the modern commercial poultry enterprise.
But not many know the significance of thousands of small molecules called enzymes breaking down food during digestion.
Enzymes can accelerate biological reactions by drastically reducing the activation energy of the molecule. On this enormous molecule, the actual portion of the enzyme that is involved in catalysis is a very small region called the active site, which binds with the substrate and facilitates the reaction.
This folded structure creates pockets and crevices where the substrates can bind and the chemical reaction basically occurs here.
The proteinaceous enzymes are found closely associated with non protein molecules such as metal ions (Mg 2+, Mn2+, Zn 2+, Fe2+, Fe3+) and Vitamins (B complex). Digestion begins the moment the food hits the mouth, when the amylase and lipase break down starches and lipids respectively.
This can be corrected with over the counter digestive enzyme supplements to help the digestive system.
A mutation in some genes can cause a faulty enzyme to be produced or sometimes even no enzyme is produced. Discover common skin conditions like psoriasis, rashes, and more in the collection of medical photos. Some pancreatic cysts are true cysts (non-inflammatory cysts), that is, they are lined by a special layer of cells that are responsible for secreting fluid into the cysts.
For example, pseudocysts that form after an attack of acute pancreatitis contain digestive enzymes such as amylase in high concentrations. Find out which foods can trigger diarrhea and other digestive problems such as gas, bloating, indigestion, heartburn and more. In other words, the pancreas has the dual function of secreting hormones into blood (endocrine) and secreting enzymes through ducts (exocrine). However, the pancreas performs the vital duty of producing hormonesa€”most notably insulina€”to maintain the balance of blood glucose (sugar) and salt in the body. These cells are clustered in groups within the pancreas and look like little islands of cells when examined under a microscope. Insulin deficiency causes a range of complications, so people with type 1 diabetes have to take insulin to help their body use glucose appropriately. People with type 2 diabetes may be able to produce insulin, but their bodies dona€™t use it correctly.
By regulating your blood sugar levels, the pancreatic hormones are directly related to some of the most common diseases of today, including diabetes.
It is necessary that the diet provided to fowls be of high quality and easily digestible due to the simplicity in the structure and function of their digestive system.
Glands that produce important digestive juices are found in different locations of the canal. The so called egg tooth found on the end of the beak of newly hatched chickens is an aid to their escape from the egg at hatching and disappears after a day or two. The common opening for the two eustachian tubes is located in the middle of its dorsal wall (roof). The crop is a large dilation of the oesophagus located just prior to where the oesophagus enters the thoracic cavity. The structure below the crop is similar to that above except there is less lymphoid tissue below the crop.
The cavities converge to form a common duct that leads to the surface through the apex of a small papilla (see figure below). Each surface is covered by a glistening layer of tendinous tissue which is thicker at the centre and becoming thinner towards the edges.
The innermost layer is a strong, flexible skin that is able to withstand the potentially damaging effects of the muscular action grinding the food often in the presence of stones or other insoluble material. Of the three parts of the mammalian small intestine, the duodenum, jejunum and ileum, only the duodenum can be easily distinguished in the fowl. The efficiency of the absorption is influenced by the surface area available for the nutrients to move through i.e. The duodenum starts at the gizzard and forms an elongated loop that is approximately 20 centimetres long. Bile ducts from the gall bladder that are attached to the liver and two to three pancreatic ducts enter the small intestine by a common papilla at the caudal end (closest to the rear) of the duodenum. Sometimes this section is referred to as the colon and the rectum (the rectum being the terminal section). The structure of the cloaca is very similar to that of the intestine except that the muscularis mucosa disappears near the vent. The liver is dark brown or chocolate in colour except for the first 10-14 days when it may be quite pale due to the absorption of lipids (fats) from the yolk as an embryo.
The hepatic portal system, the capillaries of the arterial blood supply and the hepatic veins are in close association with each other in these sinusoids. The blood vessels, when they enter these sinusoids, become closely associated with them to provide for the easy transfer of material from one system to another. The structure is similar to that of the pancreas of mammals and consists of special secreting tissue for pancreatic juice as well as other groups of cells called the “islets of langerhan”. This is provided for by the crop that acts as a reservoir for the storage of food prior to its digestion and consequently permits the fowl to eat its food as periodic meals.
This function of the crop is less important when there is a plentiful supply of food available.
However, the amount of enzyme action at this stage is minimal and the first major enzyme activity takes place in the proventriculus and in the gizzard. This breaking and mixing function of the gizzard is enhanced by the presence of insoluble grit such as stones. Pancreatic juice and bile from the liver enters via ducts located at the distal end of the duodenum at about the junction of the duodenum and the jejunum if it were differentiated. The contents of the caeca are also discharged periodically as discrete masses of brown, glutinous material.
A good working knowledge of the system and how it carries out its functions is necessary for the effective management of the poultry flock and, therefore, a study of the digestive system and the process of digestion and metabolism is an important facet in the study of poultry husbandry.
Enzymes are biological catalysts, which increase the velocity of biological reactions without undergoing any changes themselves. Enzymes lower the activation energy of reactions by bringing reactants closer to each other on the active site, rather than relying on collisions between them to produce the product. Being proteins, they are made up of amino acids(forming a polypeptide chain) strung together like pearls on a necklace.


These protein structures are very sensitive to extreme conditions like high temperatures or pH which can unfold or denature them, resulting in losing the 3D structure required for catalytic activity. Another enzyme lysozyme destroys the bacteria and viruses by dissolving their protein based membranes. A single mutation leading to a single change in the amino acid sequence in the enzyme can drastically influence its structure.
The digestive tract is a long, muscular tube that extends from the mouth through the stomach and intestines to the anus.
The head of the pancreas is located on the right side of the abdomen adjacent to the duodenum. Other cysts are pseudocysts (inflammatory cysts) and do not contain specialized lining cells. Mucinous cysts contain mucus (a proteinaceous liquid) produced by the mucinous cells that form the inside lining of the cyst. These groups of pancreatic endocrine cells are known as pancreatic islets or more specifically, islets of Langerhans (named after the scientist who discovered them). This is especially important if the birds are to attain the productive performance expected of them. The nutrients from the food, after digestion, are absorbed through the wall of the alimentary canal into the circulatory system for transport to the liver or other parts of the body. The hard palate that forms the roof of the mouth, presents a long, narrow median (median – along the middle) slit that communicates with the nasal cavity.
The crop provides the capacity to hold food for some time before further digestion commences.
The crop structure is similar to that of the oesophagus except there are no glands present in fowls. These glands produce a number of juices or enzymes that are used in the digestion or breaking down of food into its constituent nutrients. The glands of the gizzard produce a liquid which is a keratinised material that passes to the surface of the horny lining where it hardens to replace tissue worn away by the grinding action of the organ. There is no clear demarcation between the jejunum and ileum and the small intestine appears as one long tube.
The pancreas lies between the arms of the loop and is attached to, and actually holds together, each arm of the duodenum. The pancreas is a very important organ in the process of digesting food and it is attached to each side of the duodenal loop and lies between the two arms.
The bursa of fabricius is located immediately above the cloaca of young birds but disappears when the birds have reached approximately one year old.
Minute canals called canaliculi that have the task of collecting and transporting the bile are associated with the cells in the tissue sheets.
There is quite wide variability between birds in relation to eating behaviour, even between those in the same flock. Due to the crop’s ability to hold a supply of food, when applying a food control (restriction) program, it is necessary to compensate by providing a long period of food deprivation to achieve the required degree of control.
However, because of back flow of pancreatic juice and bile towards the gizzard, the actions of these secretions start earlier in the digestive process than would be expected by their entry point to the small intestine. Chemically, it would take a very strong acid such as hydrochloric acid or sulphuric acid a few days to break down protein when kept at 100° C.
But this is not the same for all enzymes as some of them are named pepsin, trypsin, chymotrypsin and rennin which are more arbitrarily named by their discoverers. In the stomach, gastric enzymes are secreted and are activated by the hydrochloric acid present here. This leads to an inactivation of the mutant protein produced, as it no longer structurally resembles the actual enzyme (wild type).
As food moves along the digestive tract, it is digested (changed into substances that can be absorbed into the bloodstream).
The tail is on the left side of the abdomen, and the body lies between the head and the tail.There are two functional parts to the pancreas, referred to as the exocrine and endocrine parts. Often these pseudocysts contain pancreatic digestive juices because they are connected to the pancreatic ducts. Lifestyle choices, such as diet and exercise, play a major role in managing and preventing type 2 diabetes. This page describes the structure and function of the various parts of the digestive system of the fowl and discusses the digestion of poultry food into its constituent nutrients. This capacity enables the bird to take its food as “meals” at time intervals but permits continuous digestion. The mucous membrane is raised into folds and between these folds are numerous simple tubular glands that produce hydrochloric acid as well as lymphoid tissue. Much of the digestion of the food and all of the absorption of the nutrients takes place in the small intestine and hence its structure is quite important. Permanent folds in the mucous membrane called the “valves of kerkring” are located at the proximal end (closest to the front) of the duodenum. They also provide a means of concentrating the nutrients collection ability once they have moved through the intestine wall. The capsule, or glissosis, is the membrane that covers the liver and is thinner than that of mammals. These canals eventually join together to form the bile ducts with one going directly to the intestine and one to the gall bladder before it connects to the small intestine. Some eat small amounts at short intervals while others eat larger amounts at wider intervals. There is no relationship between the length of time of food deprivation and the amount of food consumed.
One effect is an increase in the pH of the intestinal contents of the latter half of the duodenum from strongly to weakly acid. Once they are activated, they can bind reversibly to a substrate and convert it to a product which is important for cell function.
However, we break down the same protein in our digestive system within a few hours, and that too at body temperature using enzymes.
The stomach is the headquarter of protein digestion, where the protein digesting enzyme, Pepsin is present.
These two natural and easily available enzymes can be used to tenderise meat by breaking down some of the tough protein structures, making meat succulent and easy to digest. Many metabolic disorders are due to enzyme defects and require enzyme supplements and in some cases even gene therapy to correct the enzyme at a DNA level.
The majority of the cells of the pancreas produce digestive juices which contain the enzymes necessary for digesting food in the intestine.
Numerous ducts of the salivary glands pierce the hard palate to release their secretions into the mouth cavity. A transverse row of simple, large and horny papillae with their tips directed towards the rear of the mouth cavity are located on the posterior end. Inside the thoracic cavity, the oesophagus enters or becomes the proventriculus which is a very glandular part of the digestive tract (often called the glandular stomach).
In pigeons the surface cells of the crop slough off during brooding to form pigeon’s milk which is used to feed the baby pigeons in the nest. The gizzard almost always contains quantities of hard objects such as gravel or other grit that aids in the disintegration of food, which is the primary function of the gizzard. Enzymes are very specific for the type of reaction that they catalyse and work in a very controlled manner. Parts of food that cannot be digested are turned into stool, which is waste material that is passed out of the body. The enzymes are secreted into smaller collecting ducts within the pancreas (side branches). The side branches empty into a larger duct, the main pancreatic duct, which empties into the intestine through the papilla of Vater in the duodenum. During passage through the ducts, bicarbonate is added to the digestive enzymes to make the pancreatic secretion alkaline. The cells and ducts producing the digestive juices comprise the exocrine part of the pancreas.Just before the main pancreatic duct enters the duodenum, it usually merges with the common bile duct that collects bile (a fluid that helps to digest fat) produced by the liver.
Some believe that there are taste buds located on the tongue, but this belief is not universally held. The union of these two ducts forms the ampulla of Vater which drains both the bile and pancreatic fluid into the duodenum through the papilla of Vater.Buried within the tissue of the pancreas, primarily in the head, are small collections of cells, termed the Islets of Langerhans. The cells of the Islets produce several hormones, for example, insulin, glucagon, and somatostatin; that are released into the blood (the islets do not connect with the pancreatic ducts) and travel in the blood to other parts of the body. These hormones have effects throughout the body, for example, insulin, which helps to regulate blood sugar levels. The hormone-secreting portion of the pancreas - the Islets - is the endocrine part of the pancreas.



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