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First of all it should be noted that enzymes are proteins and that they are substrate specific. Because they are proteins, they are heat sensitive and all enzymes have an optimum temperature and pH for activity.
Enzymes are biological compounds, usually proteins, which expedite the conversion of one substance into another. Enzymatic activity is pH dependent; there will be a pH optimum where maximum activity is achieved. There are 3 main groups of enzymes which are commonly encountered in baking : enzymes that hydrolyse carbohydrates (amylases, cellulase, pentosanases), enzymes that hydrolyse proteins (proteases) and enzymes affecting fats and oils (lipase, lipoxygenases).
Amylase supplementation can occur at the flour mill or at the bakery in doughs and sponges. Also cellulase belongs to the group of enzymes that will produce, as amylases, glucose because cellulose is also a polymer of glucose. Unlike starch cellulose comes in several chemical forms and requires a significantly larger number of enzymes and processes to break it down to glucose. Pentosans are polysaccharides comprised predominantly of the five-carbon sugars xylose and arabinose.
In addition to supplying amylases, malted barley flour was also once relied upon for proteolytic enzymes, but these have been replaced by proteases from plant and fungal sources. Even without this track record, enzymes are appealing functional ingredients for a variety of reasons. Nevertheless, getting the most out of enzymes in bakery products requires some planning on the part of the designer and a better understanding of what enzymes can do.
Because they consist of long amino acid chains, enzymes are classified as proteins and share many protein-like qualities. When an enzyme's active site meets with a corresponding substrate molecule, they temporarily bind to form an enzyme-substrate complex. One theory behind this suggests that amylopectin still crystallizes at the same rate with added enzymes, but that the shortened chain length maintains greater flexibility and softness when crystallized.
Because the enzyme is active in the finished baked product, it is possible for the enzyme activity to go too far. A final use for amylases in bakery products is for replacing potassium bromate, an oxidizing agent that strengthens gluten strands. Adding pentosanase to a wheat flour-based product can improve product volume by hydrolysing the pentosans present. In rye bread, the pentosans in the rye flour are critical to building structure since rye flour's gluten content isn't sufficient.
Proteases hydrolyse the peptide bond between the amino group of one amino acid and the carboxyl group of the next amino acid in a protein. In a way, lipoxygenases offer results similar to those obtained with dough strengtheners such as sodium stearoyl-2-lactylate, but they also offer additional benefits. Understanding what different types of enzymes do to bakery products is the first step in enzyme selection. Like amylases, proteases for bakery applications can be extracted from both fungi and bacteria - most often with the same species used for α-amylase production.
Serine proteases often are called alkaline proteases because their activity is optimum above pH 7.5. Because they are a naturally occurring component of soy flour, lipoxygenase activity is not as standardized as it is with the tablets, powders, etc. On top of the tremendous number of standardized tests, individual enzyme suppliers often have a custom method of determining enzyme activity. The goal of most methods of measuring enzyme activity is to determine how quickly the enzymes convert substrate molecules to product molecules. By using the level of activity per gram of enzyme as the measuring unit, product designers will have a common basis for comparing enzymes. When creating a test for comparing enzyme activity and when preparing to put enzymes to work in the formula, remember that conditions the dough encounters through the process will greatly affect enzyme activity.
When formulating, designers must not only be aware of the starting pH of the formula, but how it changes over time. Salt level can affect the enzyme's activity because salt can help stabilize certain enzymes. Enzymes are indeed a highly specific, useful collection of ingredients for bakery products. Digestion and AbsorptionDigestion is the mechanical and chemical break down of food into small organic fragments. Protein digestion is a multistep process that begins in the stomach and continues through the intestines.
Mechanical and chemical digestion of food takes place in many steps, beginning in the mouth and ending in the rectum.
The final step in digestion is the elimination of undigested food content and waste products. Diarrhea and constipation are some of the most common health concerns that affect digestion. Thu vi?n H?c li?u M? Vi?t Nam (VOER) du?c tai tr? b?i Vietnam Foundation va v?n hanh tren n?n t?ng Hanoi Spring.
Contents Functions of the Gastrointestinal and Urinary Systems Summary of the Gastrointestinal System The mouth cavity, pharynx, esophagus and stomach The Small Intestine, liver, gallbladder, and pancreas The Large Intestine Summary of the Urinary System The Kidneys The Ureters, Urinary Bladder, and Urethra Roots, suffixes, and prefixes Cancer Focus Related Abbreviations and Acronyms Further ResourcesFunctions of the Gastrointestinal and Urinary SystemsAny body system requires ENERGY, this comes from the food and liquid we INGEST. The Large IntestineOnce food is absorbed in the ileum, the residue is passed into the large intestine. The KidneysThe two kidneys are located above the waist, they contain nephrons (kidney cells) which filter blood of waste and excess substances to form urine. The Ureters, Urinary Bladder, and UrethraTwo ureters transport urine from the kidneys into the urinary bladder. Colorectal cancer (or bowel cancer) is one of the most common types of cancer in both men and women. A substantial proportion of cases are in those with a genetic predisposition to colorectal cancer. A benign growth protruding from a mucous membrane, commonly found in the nose, uterus, and rectum. Anal cancer is an uncommon cancer, in which malignant cells are found in the anus (the opening at the end of the rectum through which the body passes waste). Gastric cancer (cancer of the stomach) is a disease in which malignant cells arise in the tissues of the stomach.
Primary liver cancer is a disease in which the cells of liver become cancerous (malignant).
Hepatoblastomas are more common in patients aged under 3 years, while hepatocellular carcinomas are usually found in patients aged under 4 or between the ages of 12 and 15. Renal cell cancer (kidney cancer) is a disease in which malignant cells arise from tissues of the kidney. Conditional amino acids include arginine, cysteine, glutamine, glycine, proline, serine, and tyrosine. The digestive system is a series of hollow organs joined in a long, twisting tube from the mouth to the anus.
Two solid organs, the liver and the pancreas, produce digestive juices that reach the intestine through small tubes. When we eat such things as bread, meat, and vegetables, they are not in a form that the body can use as nourishment. The large, hollow organs of the digestive system contain muscle that enables their walls to move. This means that a given enzyme only will work on a certain substrate and only do a very particular job.
Within that range, activity increases with temperature until the denaturation point is reached. Their presence accelerates the rate of a chemical reaction and they are often specific and act upon only one substrate, or catalyse only one kind of reaction, in different, but related, substrates.
Exo-enzymes remove a single polymer unit from the end of the polymer chain, whereas endo-enzymes can rupture the internal bonds in a random manner at any point along the chain. Enzymes used in baking are usually stable at room temperature and the rate of enzyme activity doubles with each 10°C increase up to the temperature of denaturation, at which the enzyme is inactivated.
A higher concentration of enzyme will increase the reaction rate although not in direct proportion to substrate availability. It randomly cleaves starch chains at interior a-1,4-glycosidic linkages producing short chains of glucose molecules or dextrins.
They do not require coenzymes for activity, although α-amylase activity is enhanced by the presence of calcium.
The diastatic activity of the flour is expressed by the falling number or the Hagberg number. For example cellulose is converted from the crystalline form to the amorphous state, followed by conversion into cellobiose. While they are present in wheat flour in very small quantities, about 2 to 3 percent, they account for as much as one-quarter of the water absorption of dough made from wheat flour. The site of the attack is always at the peptide bond between the amino end of one amino acid and the carboxyl end of the adjacent amino acid.
As a result mixing time will be reduced, machinability will be improved as well as pan flow (the dough will fill more easily the shape of the pan). The specifity of starch degrading enzymes depends on which kind of linkages between the individual glucose units they can hydrolyse.
Addition of proteases enables high speed bread production by decreasing the mixing time needed to achieve pliable dough. While this is true for many categories, the baking industry actually has a long history of enzyme study and application. An enzyme molecule, however, is folded into a specific three-dimensional globular structure. By forming the complex, the enzyme lowers the energy required for certain reactions to take place.
Depending on its three-dimensional structure, a particular enzyme may hydrolyse or synthesize only one type of molecule.
This linkage specifically refers to the bond between one sugar molecule's reducing functional group and the -OH (hydroxyl) group of another molecule - usually a sugar molecule, as well. As a result, the presence of these enzymes in the proper proportions is critical to carbon dioxide generation. Over time, the crumb of baked products firms due to a complex set of changes that includes recrystallisation (or retrogradation) of amylopectin in the starch. Another theory is that the shortened amylopectin chains have a lesser tendency to retrograde.
Strengthened gluten produces a dough with improved gas retention and, consequently, higher volume in the finished product. At the same time, though, hydrolyzed pentosan will release water, making the dough very slack. If pentosan content is too high, though, it will compete for water with the starch and prevent it from swelling and gelatinizing properly. This won't reduce the mixing time because the enzyme will not have had enough time to hydrolyse much gluten. They break down vitamin B2, inhibit browning reactions that are desirable in baked products, and are a marketing no-no because some consumers exhibit allergic reactions to the substance. Lipoxygenases catalyse the addition of an oxygen molecule to polyunsaturated fatty acids to form peroxides such as indeterminateness acid. Although the exact mechanism behind it is not fully understood, lipoxygenase can bleach fat-soluble flour pigments to produce a whiter crumb in finished bread and rolls.


Considering how specific enzyme action is, once the desired results are determined, the enzyme to use will be a straightforward decision. They are thought to mellow gluten during long-term, low-pH fermentation of saltine cracker sponges.
This presents a challenge to product designers trying to compare activities in order to predict usage levels and cost impact. Because of this, the activity measurements often have little to do with the enzyme's activity in actual use, particularly in baked products. In addition, the activity measurement will include a weight that can be directly related to the price of the ingredient in order to determine the cost of a given degree of effectiveness. Every 18 degree F increase in dough temperature increases the enzyme activity up to two-fold. Different enzymes, and even enzymes from different sources, have optimum pH ranges under which they are most active. For example, as chemical leaveners are consumed, the overall dough pH may be altered out of the optimum range for the enzyme.
Cocoa powder and other chocolate-flavoured ingredients require an alkaline system for optimum flavour. The opposite is true, however, for proteases, which are inhibited by high salt concentrations. Enzyme activity itself is useful, and many enzyme applications offer clean-label advantages. Food needs to be broken into smaller particles so that animals can harness the nutrients and organic molecules. It is important to break down macromolecules into smaller fragments that are of suitable size for absorption across the digestive epithelium. The salivary enzyme amylase begins the breakdown of food starches into maltose, a disaccharide. Recall that the chyme from the stomach enters the duodenum and mixes with the digestive secretion from the pancreas, liver, and gallbladder. The enzyme pepsin plays an important role in the digestion of proteins by breaking down the intact protein to peptides, which are short chains of four to nine amino acids.
However, the bulk of lipid digestion occurs in the small intestine due to pancreatic lipase. Constipation is a condition where the feces are hardened because of excess water removal in the colon.
It is often in response to an irritant that affects the digestive tract, including but not limited to viruses, bacteria, emotions, sights, and food poisoning.
Digestion and absorption take place in a series of steps with special enzymes playing important roles in digesting carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids. Cac tai li?u d?u tuan th? gi?y phep Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 tr? khi ghi chu ro ngo?i l?. It travels whilst being digested through the pharynx and then down the oesophagus into the stomach. Saliva helps lubricate and moisten food, but also contains ENZYMES that begin to digest food while it is still in the mouth.
The cardiac sphincter is at the base of the oesophagus near the heart, it relaxes to allow food to enter the stomach.
The appendix is attached to the caecum, the appendix no longer serves any real function and can be removed without any ill effects.
It is also important for keeping the body in homeostasis (balance) by controlling the composition and volume of blood.
Primary liver cancer is different from cancer that has spread from another place in the body to the liver. It is an an important organ which is involved in digesting food and converting it to energy and it also filters and stores blood. Other less common kidney cancers in children include malignant rhabdoid tumours and clear cell sarcoma. In the mouth, stomach, and small intestine, the mucosa contains tiny glands that produce juices to help digest food. These waves of narrowing push the food and fluid in front of them through each hollow organ. Secondly it should be remembered that, although they take part in a chemical (enzymatic) reaction, they do not change during that reaction. The amount of time the enzyme and substrate are together directly affects the extent of reaction.
Oxidizing agents, such as bromates and iodates, and some heavy metal ions, have this effect.
Today, malted barley flour, malted wheat flour, fungal and bacterial α-amylases are used. The seemingly small difference in the bonds in cellulose make a big difference in the physical structure of the polymer and its susceptibility to enzymes. As is the case with other enzymes also here there are 2 types: exo-proteases and endo-proteases. These effects are accomplished by breaking the long protein chains, cutting peptide bonds, into smaller units. Proteinases split proteins at the CO-NH linkages, creating polypeptides, peptides and peptones. In proteins however, all the bonds are peptide bonds but a proteine is composed of about 20 different amino acids and not a single chemical unit like the glucose in starch.
Most lipase enzymes remover the two outside fatty acids, leaving the middle one attached to the glycerol. In fact, some references to the use of added enzymes in bakery foods are over 100 years old. Within these contorted folds are cavities that match the external features of a substrate molecule - a fat, protein or starch, for example - much like a key fits into a lock.
These reactions may either break up the substrate molecule or join it with another molecule. Others are less specific to a given type of molecule, but promote a certain chemical reaction on entire classes of compounds sharing common structural elements. In baking applications, the general types of enzymes most commonly used are carbohydrases, proteases and lipoxygenases.
Amylases are the carbohydrases that offer the greatest number of potential functions in bakery foods.
Because starch exists as a tightly packed granule, amylases must act upon starch granules that are damaged (as many are during flour milling) or on granules that have been gelatinized by moisture and heat (such as when a dough is mixed and baked). By hydrolysing the amylopectin into smaller units, bacterial α-amylase can maintain softness and extend shelf life.
Pentosanase will help control the pentosan content so there is enough to build structure, but not so much as to interfere with the starch functionality. Still, as hydrolysis occurs through shaping, floor time and proofing, the protease will help improve the flow of the dough.
This stiffness makes it difficult to laminate the dough into layers and to sheet it to cracker thinness.
In fact, many countries have banned or are considering banning sulphate's use in bakery products.
These then will interact with a gluten side chain, making the gluten more hydrophobic and, subsequently, stronger.
Cultures of Aspergillus oryzae are extracted, concentrated and dried to yield fungal amylases. The different mechanisms primarily control how the enzyme responds to different pH conditions.
These flours often are offered with other functional ingredients such as calcium peroxide for additional oxidation, dicalcium phosphate for dough conditioning, and corn flour to improve absorption and mix tolerance.
Though these forms sport standardized activity levels, product designers still may be confused by the different methods of activity measurement. Designers will probably wish to create their own assay by testing enzymes at different levels in actual doughs.
An enzyme's catalytic reaction can, of course, be sped up by increasing the enzyme level to increase the amount of available catalyst.
On the down side, the same temperature increase also will accelerate the rate of enzyme denaturation by a factor anywhere from 10- to 30-fold. The same is true for yeast-leavened products, as the pH can change dramatically as fermentation proceeds in products such as crackers and bread. This could be the result of salt making gluten less available to the action of the enzymes. Because salt won't be added until the dough stage, the enzymes will have more time to react uninhibited. Although the number of different enzymes and the cacophony of different activity measurement methods may seem intimidating, product designers can sort through this to determine the best enzyme and the conditions that enzyme requires in the formula and during processing for maximum effectiveness. Large, complex molecules of proteins, polysaccharides, and lipids must be reduced to simpler particles such as simple sugar before they can be absorbed by the digestive epithelial cells.
As the bolus of food travels through the esophagus to the stomach, no significant digestion of carbohydrates takes place. Pancreatic juices also contain amylase, which continues the breakdown of starch and glycogen into maltose, a disaccharide.
Sucrose (table sugar) and lactose (milk sugar) are broken down by sucrase and lactase, respectively.
When chyme enters the duodenum, the hormonal responses trigger the release of bile, which is produced in the liver and stored in the gallbladder. If the lipid in the chyme aggregates into large globules, very little surface area of the lipids is available for the lipases to act on, leaving lipid digestion incomplete. It is important to consume some amount of dietary lipid to aid the absorption of lipid-soluble vitamins.
This forceful expulsion of the food is due to the strong contractions produced by the stomach muscles.
Elimination describes removal of undigested food contents and waste products from the body.
Lipids are also required in the diet to aid the absorption of lipid-soluble vitamins and for the production of lipid-soluble hormones.
This tour starts in the mouth, move down the esophagus, through the stomach, small investing, colon and rectum.
They are what we call biological catalysts that accelerate or facilitate chemical reactions. Apart from temperature and pH, enzymes are also dependent upon the availability of water, amount of enzyme used, the availability of the substrate and the time allowed for the reaction. So the substrate for the β-amylase is either starch or dextrins and the product is maltose. In order for these enzymes to function, the starch granule must be ruptured so that the individual starch molecules are available for enzymatic action.
The alfa, 1-4 bond in starch imparts a coiled, helical structure to the amylose, whereas the β, 1-4 linkage results in an extended linear cellulose polymer. In this processes, endoglucanases hydrolyse the amorphous regions by random hydrolysis of β-glucosidic bonds. Pentosanases cleave the polysaccharide chains thereby decreasing viscosity and improving loaf volume. The exo-proteases are further divided into two groups: carboxy-peptidases if they work on the carboxy end of the protein or amino-peptidases if they work on the amino end of the molecule.
Hence the characteristics of the various amino acids add an extra level of complexity to the proteins.


Their action has much the same effect as reducing agents, except their effect is permanent; it cannot be reversed by the addition of an oxidizing agent.
Monounsaturated fatty acids contain only one double bond and polyunsaturated fatty acids have more than one. In both cases, designers can obtain the functional benefits of the enzyme while maintaining a "clean label" image for the finished product. In addition, the complex will limit the reaction to specific bonds on the substrate molecule. Whatever the reaction, the enzyme itself will remain unchanged and this is why enzymes are considered catalysts. These hydrolyse amylose and amylopectin in starch, as well as starch derivatives such as dextrins and oligosaccharides. With their ability to immobilize water reduced, the damaged granules release free water which softens the dough and makes it more mobile.
For even greater assurance against overdosing, amyloglucosidase or pullulanase may be added along with the α-amylase. Other oxidants -- such as ascorbic acid - can promote comparable volume, but they don't provide a direct match for bromate.
These non-starch polysaccharides are highly hydrophilic and contribute significantly to the water absorption properties of a dough. If the dough is too slack, not only will it be difficult to machine, but the volume-building benefits of the pentosanase will not occur.
If the protease is allowed to hydrolyse a portion of a dough early in the process - added to the sponge of white pan bread, for example - it will reduce the mixing time necessary to develop the dough.
This procedure might be used to eliminate short pan fills in a straight (non-sponge) dough system or to help the pan flow of buns and English muffins. Sodium sulphates hydrolyse the disulfide bridges on the gluten molecule, reducing its resistance to extension and making the resulting dough more plastic.
Adding a protease to the formula and allowing sufficient time for the enzyme to act (sulphates, by comparison, react more rapidly) can achieve the desired workability in the dough without the negative side effects. With stronger gluten, the dough will have better gas-retention properties and increased tolerance to mixing.
These include the enzyme source and form, the strength of the enzyme activity and how much to use, and the conditions under which the enzyme will be used and handled. When a cereal kernel becomes moist and germinates, it experiences a dramatic increase in α-amylase. These are available both in ready-to-use tablet form and blended to a predetermined activity with flour or starch to yield a powdered form.
Bacterial amylases, however, tend to be more thermally stable and are, therefore, useful for maintaining softness in finished baked products. The amylose activity of malt extracts and syrups, for example, is typically expressed as degrees Lintner, while concentrated amylase sources are often expressed in Sandstedt-Kneen-Blish (SKB) units.
However, this can be expensive and, in the case of bacterial amylases for shelf life extension, be impossible due to detrimental effects in the finished product. At a high enough temperature, the rate of denaturation catches up with the reaction rate, slows it and eventually stops it.
So the usefulness of a given enzymatic activity depends in part on matching the pH optimum of the enzyme with the pH of the dough.
Colour development is strongly related to pH, and any alterations will affect a product's crust colour. Salt also can be added to later steps in multiple-stage mixing procedures for other products, but the time between stages isn't nearly as significant as it is between a sponge and a dough.
The disaccharides are broken down into monosaccharides by enzymes called maltases, sucrases, and lactases, which are also present in the brush border of the small intestinal wall.
Trypsin elastase, carboxypeptidase, and chymotrypsin are produced by the pancreas and released into the duodenum where they act on the chyme.
By forming an emulsion, bile salts increase the available surface area of the lipids many fold. The semi-solid waste is moved through the colon by peristaltic movements of the muscle and is stored in the rectum. Many bacteria, including the ones that cause cholera, affect the proteins involved in water reabsorption in the colon and result in excessive diarrhea. While most absorption occurs in the small intestines, the large intestine is responsible for the final removal of water that remains after the absorptive process of the small intestines. However, the acidity does effect the ionization of groups at the active site of the enzyme, rendering the enzyme more or less effective, depending upon the pH of the dough. Fungal amylase is the least temperature stable, followed by cereal amylase, while bacterial amylase is stable at higher temperatures. Bacterial amylase do denature at relatively high temperatures and some will remain in the bread after baking. Enzymes also are specific to a particular function, eliminating concerns about undesired effects. These enzymes don't contribute to anti-staling when used alone, but help prevent gumminess when combined with the amylase. To compensate, α-amylase can be added with ascorbic acid to improve the volume and increase the quality of the crumb. These may be added to high-fibre bakery products to help improve their eating qualities by breaking up the long cellulose chains that contribute to gritty mouth feel. Early addition of a protease to a complete dough, however, will cause the gluten to become too weak to build structure properly, resulting in a course, uneven crumb. Consequently, malting grains such as barley and wheat can serve as the basis for many α-amylase-containing ingredients.
Fungal amylases can be used to standardize wheat flour, but are most often added at the production facility to aid with dough conditioning. Just as the time and enzyme amount must be optimally balanced, so must the time and temperature.
In vertebrates, the teeth, saliva, and tongue play important roles in mastication (preparing the food into bolus). The animal diet needs carbohydrates, protein, and fat, as well as vitamins and inorganic components for nutritional balance. Further breakdown of peptides to single amino acids is aided by enzymes called peptidases (those that break down peptides).
Emulsification is a process in which large lipid globules are broken down into several small lipid globules.
The pancreatic lipases can then act on the lipids more efficiently and digest them, as detailed in [link].
As the rectum expands in response to storage of fecal matter, it triggers the neural signals required to set up the urge to eliminate.
The cells that line the large intestine absorb some vitamins as well as any leftover salts and water.
The usefulness of a given enzymatic activity depends in part on matching the pH optimum of the enzyme with the pH of the dough.
New intermediate stability enzymes have been developed that are active above the gelatinization temperature of starch (60°C), but are totally inactivated at the later stages of baking (80-90°C).
Through starch modification, amylases improve moisture retention, have a crumb-softening effect and decrease staling. The cis form is commonly found in naturee while the trans form, the less chemically reactive of the two, is normally the result of a hydrogenation process. Bakeries may either add α-amylase and ascorbic acid separately or select a custom blend featuring an optimise mixture of the two components. Malt flour is most frequently used by millers to standardize the α-amylase content of wheat flour, although it is also often found as an ingredient in crackers and certain breads. A longer reaction time can actually increase the efficiency of the enzyme conversion at a lower temperature. While the food is being mechanically broken down, the enzymes in saliva begin to chemically process the food as well. Other disaccharides, such as sucrose and lactose are broken down by sucrase and lactase, respectively.
Specifically, carboxypeptidase, dipeptidase, and aminopeptidase play important roles in reducing the peptides to free amino acids. These small globules are more widely distributed in the chyme rather than forming large aggregates. The objective is to maximize the anti-staling effect without creating a gummy, sticky product. As starch is one of the main players in the staling mechanism, bacterial enzymes are used as crumb softeners because they will continue to work while the bread sits on the shelf of the supermarket. This illustrates the selectivity of enzymes in terms of their ability to bind to and hydrolyse only specific substrates with an unique spatial orientation. It is made from wheat or barley that has been germinated, dried and ground to flour fineness.
The combined action of these processes modifies the food from large particles to a soft mass that can be swallowed and can travel the length of the esophagus. Lipids are hydrophobic substances: in the presence of water, they will aggregate to form globules to minimize exposure to water. These molecules can pass through the plasma membrane of the cell and enter the epithelial cells of the intestinal lining. However there is a danger to it : the bread becomes softer and softer, it becomes more and more gummy and it is not uncommon that it will flatten, collapse while it sits on the shelf in case there is too much bacterial amylase left in the bread. The monosaccharides (glucose) thus produced are absorbed and then can be used in metabolic pathways to harness energy. Bile contains bile salts, which are amphipathic, meaning they contain hydrophobic and hydrophilic parts. The bile salts surround long-chain fatty acids and monoglycerides forming tiny spheres called micelles. Rather than grinding the kernels after drying, these ingredients are made through a series of liquid extraction and concentration steps that preserve the grain's α-amylase activity. The monosaccharides are transported across the intestinal epithelium into the bloodstream to be transported to the different cells in the body.
Thus, the bile salts hydrophilic side can interface with water on one side and the hydrophobic side interfaces with lipids on the other. The micelles move into the brush border of the small intestine absorptive cells where the long-chain fatty acids and monoglycerides diffuse out of the micelles into the absorptive cells leaving the micelles behind in the chyme. The long-chain fatty acids and monoglycerides recombine in the absorptive cells to form triglycerides, which aggregate into globules and become coated with proteins. This causes diastatic syrups to have less of the malt flavour contributed by regular syrups and extracts, yet provide the same level of enzyme activity. The non-diastatic malt syrup process is similar, but produces an ingredient without the amylase activity.
Chylomicrons contain triglycerides, cholesterol, and other lipids and have proteins on their surface. This is then used for non-enzyme related benefits such as flavour and improved crust colour. Together, they enable the chylomicron to move in an aqueous environment without exposing the lipids to water.



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