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Firstly, dismantle the human torso model in the science laboratory and describe what you know about each part of the alimentary canal and associated glands and organs. Next, match the skulls (noting the teeth structure and position of eye sockets) with the corresponding herbivore, omnivore and carnivore digestive systems. This entry was posted in Functioning Organisms, Unit 1 Biology and tagged digestion, digestive_system on March 26, 2015 by brittgow. Obtaining and transporting nutrients is a vital function for all multicellular organisms and different species have evolved some interesting ways of gaining, storing and digesting their nutrients.
Good information about different types of digestive systems from a UK Veterinary site, Comparative Digestion. This entry was posted in Functioning Organisms and tagged bacteria, digestion, fermentation, foregut, hindgut, nutrition on April 30, 2011 by brittgow. This entry was posted in Functioning Organisms and tagged digestion, microvilli, viil on April 13, 2010 by brittgow.
This week we started the study of how organisms obtain their nutrients by looking at the mammalian digestive system.
This entry was posted in Uncategorized and tagged carnivore, digestion, herbivore, nutrition on April 12, 2010 by brittgow. They are not used up in the reaction – only a small amount of enzyme is needed for each reaction.
They are very specific to their substrate and are often named according to the chemicals they work on. This entry was posted in Functioning Organisms and tagged digestion, enzymes, podcast, proteins on May 2, 2009 by brittgow. Today we discussed the digestive systems of other animals, including flatworms, earthworms, cockroaches and birds.
This entry was posted in Functioning Organisms and tagged body_systems, digestion on April 22, 2009 by brittgow.
Today we are looking at the different digestive systems of mammals and investigating the relationship between diet, nutritional requirements and the structure and function of digestive systems. This entry was posted in Functioning Organisms and tagged carnivores, diet, digestion, herbivores on April 21, 2009 by brittgow. Kingdom Fungi Eukaryotes Cell wall made of chitin, a carbohydrate (same compound as exoskeleton of insects!!!!!) Most multicellular: mushrooms, molds Some. Characteristics of Fungi The body of a fungus is called a mycelium --a matt of thin, tangled threads. Tinea pedis (Athlete’s foot) Candida albicans (yeast infection) Usually kept in check by competition with bacteria. The growth of yeasts in moist regions of the body is kept in check by competition from a.antibiotics.
Fungi A spore stalk from a fungus that killed a carpenter ant grew upward from the ants head. Fungi Eukaryotes (have cell walls) Hyphae- threadlike tubes that make up the bodies of multicellular fungi. 6 Kingdoms Archaebacteria Eubacteria Protista Fungi Plantae Animalia These four kingdoms are believed to have evolved from the Archaebacteria. AP Biology 2007-2008 Domain Eubacteria Domain Archaea Domain Eukarya Common ancestor Kingdom: Fungi Domain Eukarya.
The LIONS have been recently and suddenly forced to migrate with the wildebeests to new web server software, so everything is kinda messed up in the LION DEN right now. This review covers the mechanisms by which the energy trapped in nutrient molecules (such as glucose) is transferred to ATP.
This image is just so that you can see the overall process and look for the main events—you are not expected to remember every detailed step!
Depending on which mechanism transports NADH into the mitochondrion, either 2 or 3 ATP are produced (per NADH).
These are theoretical yields of ATP molecules per glucose molecule that enters the pathway, assuming all conenzymes transfer their energy). There are two main pathways in which energy-containing nutrients give up their energy to regenerate ATP. If there is sufficient oxygen available for the last step of oxidative phosphorylation in the ETS, then the nutrient is processed all the way through the system. Have you ever felt the lactic acid burn your muscle tissue when your muscles are using the anaerobic pathway? Also used when you need a lot of energy FAST, as in rapid, high-strength movements such as sprinting or lifting a heavy weight. Quickly lifting a heavy weight would likely call upon the use of the anaerobic pathway to quickly regenerate ATP.
Did you notice the EXTRA menu bar at the top of each Learning Outline page with extra helps? The ultimate goal of digestion and absorption of sugars and starches is to dismantle them into small molecules that the body can absorb and use—chiefly glucose. In the Mouth • In the mouth, vigorous chewing of high-fiber foods slows eating and stimulates the flow of saliva. In the Stomach • The swallowed bolus mixes with the stomach's acid and protein-digesting enzymes, and these digest the salivary enzyme amylase. In the Small Intestine • The small intestine performs most of the work of carbohydrate digestion. The mechanical action of the mouth crushes and tears fiber in food and mixes it with saliva to moisten it for swallowing. Fibers delay the absorption of carbohydrates and fats in the small intestine, conferring benefits on health that a later section describes further. The small fraction of starches that escapes digestion and absorption in the small intestine is known as resistant starch. Like resistant starches, fibers in the large intestine attract water, which softens the stools for passage without straining. The blood then circulates through the liver, whose cells take up fructose and galactose and convert them to other compounds, most often to glucose, as shown in Figure 4-11. This description of the way the body receives carbohydrate should help explode a myth perpetrated by advertisers of high-sugar foods and beverages. In the digestion and absorption of carbohydrates, the body breaks down starches into disaccharides and disaccharides into monosaccharides; it then converts monosaccharides mostly to glucose to provide energy for the cells' work. Normally, the enzyme lactase ensures that the disaccharide lactose found in milk is both digested and absorbed efficiently.


Symptoms • When more lactose is consumed than the available lactase can handle, lactose molecules remain in the intestine undigested, attracting water and causing bloating, abdominal discomfort, and diarrhea—the symptoms of lactose intolerance. Prevalence • The prevalence of lactose intolerance varies widely among ethnic groups, indicating that the trait is genetically determined.8 The prevalence of lactose intolerance is lowest among Scandinavians and other northern Europeans and highest among native North Americans and Southeast Asians. Dietary Changes • Managing lactose intolerance requires some dietary changes, although total elimination of milk products is usually not necessary. Starches and sugars are called available carbohydrates because human digestive enzymes break them down for the body's use. In many cases, lactose-intolerant people can tolerate fermented milk products such as yogurt and acidophilus milk.
Many lactose-intolerant people use commercially prepared milk products that have been treated with an enzyme that breaks down the lactose. Because people's tolerance to lactose varies widely, lactose-restricted diets must be highly individualized. People who consume few or no milk products must take care to meet riboflavin, vitamin D, and calcium needs. Lactose intolerance is a common condition that occurs when there is insufficient lactase to digest the disaccharide lactose found in milk and milk products.
SabineHow does nutrition absorbed by the capillaries of the small intestine travel to the liver? Describe the diet of each organism, explaining your reasoning in terms of teeth structure, size of stomach and length of intestines, any enlarged organs and corresponding diet.
Amongst herbivores, for example, almost all have cellulose digesting bacteria within their gut that live symbiotically, assisting with the break down of vegetation. These microbes consume glucose from cellulose but produce fatty acids that the animal can use for energy. These tiny, finger-like projections increase the surface area of the organ to allow greater absorption of nutrients.
We discussed the comparison between carnivores and herbivores in terms  of their skeletal structure, teeth and alimentary canal. Remember that mechanical digestion does not change the food chemically, it just increases the surface area to volume ratio of the food to allow the enzymes to work better.
Often they grow in soil that is deficient in specific inorganic nutrients, such as nitrates and phosphoros, and can get these essential elements from the dead animals that are attracted by sweet and sticky liquids. You will learn the meaning of the terms fermentation, hind-gut and fore-gut fermenters, ruminants, caecum and colon. The outer ring on this food web diagram shows how decomposers link all levels of the food web.
What do you think is the main mechanism or strategy used by this fungi to disperse its spores? Fungi are eukaryotic heterotrophs that digest food externally and absorb the the digested materials through their body walls. Similarities and Differences in the Protist Kingdom All are eukaryotes (cells with nuclei). The large starch molecules require extensive breakdown; the disaccharides need only to be hydrolyzed once.
When a person eats foods containing starch, enzymes hydrolyze the long chains to shorter chains, the short chains to disaccharides, and, finally, the disaccharides to mono-saccharides.
The salivary enzyme amylase starts to work, hydrolyzing starch to shorter polysaccharides and to maltose. A major carbohydrate-digesting enzyme, pancreatic amylase, enters the intestine via the pancreatic duct and continues breaking down the poly-saccharides to shorter glucose chains and disaccharides. Fructose and galactose can eventually become glucose after being processed in the liver, as explained later. Starch may resist digestion for several reasons, reflecting both the individual's efficiency in digesting starches and the food's physical properties.4 Resistant starch is common in whole lentil beans, raw potatoes, and unripe bananas. Thus all disaccharides not only provide at least one glucose molecule directly, but they can also provide another one indirectly—through the conversion of fructose and galactose to glucose. The fibers help to regulate the passage of food through the GI system, but contribute little, if any, energy. Lactase activity is highest immediately after birth, as befits an infant whose first and only food for a while will be breast milk or infant formula. The undigested lactose becomes food for intestinal bacteria, which multiply and produce irritating acid and gas, further contributing to the discomfort and diarrhea.
Lactase deficiency may also develop when the intestinal villi are damaged by disease, certain medicines, prolonged diarrhea, or malnutrition; this can lead to temporary or permanent lactose malabsorption, depending on the extent of the intestinal damage. In contrast, fibers are called unavailable carbohydrates because human digestive enzymes cannot break their bonds.
The bacteria in these products digest lactose for their own use, leaving these foods relatively low in lactose. A completely lactose-free diet can be difficult because lactose appears not only in milk and milk products but also as an ingredient in many nondairy foods such as breads, cereals, breakfast drinks, salad dressings, and cake mixes.
Later chapters on the vitamins and minerals offer help with finding good nonmilk sources of these nutrients.
Microbes can also be digested further along the digestive tract as they are also a source of protein.
Each villus has capillaries into which the nutrients (glucose and amino acids) are absorbed and a lacteal, which absorbs lipids (fats and oils) and drains into the lymph ducts.
In general, herbivores have much larger and more complex digestive systems, with fermentation chambers to allow the break down of tough cellulose and fibrous materials. Bile is actually an emulsifier (like detergents) – it breaks the lipids down into smaller globules to allow the  lipases (enzymes that act on fats and oils) to work better. That is, it's an adenine (nitrogen base), ribose (sugar), and phosphate group with an EXTRA 2 phosphates. Because food is in the mouth for only a short time, very little digestion takes place there. To a small extent, the stomach's acid continues breaking starch down, but its juices contain no enzymes to digest carbohydrate.
This process generates water, gas, and short-chain fatty acids (described in Chapter 5).* The short-chain fatty acids are absorbed in the colon and yield energy when metabolized. Concentrated sugars do offer energy, but clearly, the best pick-me-ups are carbohydrate-containing foods that deliver vitamins, minerals, and fiber along with their energy. In the great majority of the world's populations, lactase activity declines dramatically during childhood and adolescence to about 5 to 10 percent of the activity at birth.7 Only a relatively small percentage (about 30 percent) of the people in the world retain enough lactase to digest and absorb lactose efficiently throughout adult life.


Lactose intolerance differs from milk allergy, which is caused by an immune reaction to the protein in milk. Hard cheeses and cottage cheese are often well tolerated because most of the lactose is removed with the whey during manufacturing. The enzyme hydrolyzes much of the lactose in milk to glucose and galactose, which lactose-intolerant people can absorb without ill effects. People on strict lactose-free diets need to read labels and avoid foods that include milk, milk solids, whey (milk liquid), and casein (milk protein, which may contain traces of lactose). Because treatment requires limiting milk intake, other sources of riboflavin, vitamin D, and calcium must be included in the diet.
The outer layer is formed by connective tissue that separates the digestive tube from surrounding tissues and organs.
These animals are less effecient at digesting their food and can sometimes be observed practising coprophagy (eating faeces). Forgut fermentation, or rumination, is a slower digestive process, but has the advantage of providing more nutrients and wasting less energy. The relative size and structure of incisors, canine and molar teeth will indicate whether an organism is better adapted to a diet of meat or plant materials. Carnivores have shorter and simpler digestive systems as their diet is more energy-dense and nutrient-rich than food of plant origin.
So bile works mechanically rather than chemically – the product is the same chemically as the reactants.
Fibers linger in the stomach and delay gastric emptying, thereby providing a feeling of fullness and satiety. Next time you need an energy boost, why not have a delicious peanut butter and banana sandwich, a tall, cool glass of milk, and a fresh, juicy orange? They also need to check all drugs with the pharmacist because 20 percent of prescription drugs and 5 percent of over-the-counter drugs contain lactose as a filler. The absorptive cell, or microvilli, are also in the epithelium and function to absorb nutrients. The exception may be honey-eaters, which do not require a complex system for digestion, as their food is already energy dense and in a form easily absorbed into the blood stream. In the upper sections muscle layer is formed by striated and in the middle of the esophagus - by smooth muscle tissue.
The walls of oral cavity are lined with mucous membrane that contains numerous small glands that secrete saliva.Two rows of teeth (dentes) divide oral cavity to front mouth cavity and mouth.
Approximately from 5-6 month after the birth develops the first generation of teeth - milk teeth that from 6 years begin to be replaced with permanent teeth. The bulk of the tooth include dentin, in the crown area tooth is covered with enamel, in the neck (in mammals) - with cement.
Inside the tooth is cavity - root canal filled with tooth flesh or pulp.The tongue of man (and other mammals) is formed with striated muscle tissue, covered with mucous membrane, in which are located taste buds. The tongue of human children (and mammals cubs) provides an extremely important role in the sucking of mother's milk. At the top of the tongue are located receptors that perceive sweet taste, the sides of the tongue - salty and sour, the roots - bitter. It is wide tube length of about 6 inches, flattened in the anteroposterior direction that narrows at the transition into the esophagus.
Pharyngeal wall consists of an inner layer - the mucosa, which is covered with ciliated epithelium in the field of nasal and multilayered - in the mouth and throat parts, and a layer of striated muscles. At the level of the 6th cervical vertebra the throat turns into the esophagus.The esophagus is cylindrical muscular tube length of 9-10 inches.
The upper third of the esophagus is composed of striated muscle, and the rest of the length - two layers of smooth muscle: the outer - longitudinal and internal - ring. Stomach form and capacity depends on the characteristics of the constitution and can vary in the same person. There are also the following parts of the stomach: the top - bottom, middle - body and lower - pylorus.
In place of transition of the stomach into the duodenum annular layer thickens and forms a sphincter.After the stomach is located small intestine (intestinum tenue) length of 5-7 meters. The mucous membrane has a huge number (up to 30 million) of microscopic outgrowths - villous height of 0,3- 1,2 millimeters, which increase sucking surface of the small intestine in 1000 times.
Between the main cells of this membrane, acting as suction function are located goblet cells which secrete mucus.
Muscle membrane is composed of the small intestine of smooth muscles, they create internal (circular) and external (longitudinal) layers. Serous membrane covering also the whole small intestine, and create ripples of the small intestine in which located vessels and nerves.The initial section of the small intestine - duodenum has a length of 10 inches, with diameter - 2 inches, Duodenum has a form of the horseshoe bend, It has open ducts of the liver and pancreas. Glands of the small intestine wall secrete intestinal juice that is the turbid viscous liquid. Reaction of the small intestine environment is alkaline: in it neutralized acidic environment of stomach contents that comes here. Intestinal juice contains more than 20 enzymes that cleave proteins, fats, carbohydrates and nucleic acids, and enterokinase enzyme which converts inactive trypsinogen to active trypsin.Behind the stomach in the duodenum bend is located pancreas.
Along the whole gland passes duct through which pancreatic juice is secreted into the duodenum. It contains enzymes that break down proteins (proteases), fats (lipase), carbohydrates (amylase and maltose) and nucleic acids (nucleases). Pancreas - gland of mixed secretions because its special cells produce hormones that regulate carbohydrate metabolism.Liver (hepar) - the largest digestive gland of human organism, its weight of 1,5-2 kg. At the bottom of the liver, in the center, are located liver gates through which pass the blood vessels, nerves and bile ducts.
In the deepening on the bottom surface is located the gallbladder (vesica fellea) with volume of 40-70 ml. The basic structural and functional unit of the liver is the liver particles, which form the parts. Through the common bile duct bile secretes to the duodenum.The small intestine goes into large intestine (intestinum crassum) length of 1,5-2 m. In this intestine section is a huge number of microorganisms, among which dominates escherichia coli.



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