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If you don’t feel stinging when applying Dermatend then you must use the emery board again to allow for the product to absorb in the skin better. Not only will this supplement you with a healthy amount of probiotics they also contain healthy amounts of calcium and other essential vitamins.
Probiotics, as defined by the World Health Organization and the Food and Agriculture Organization, are "live microorganisms, which when administered in adequate amounts confer a health benefit on the host." Although probiotics have been consumed for centuries, in part to promote health, until recently there was little research into how they exert their effects. Session 1 provided an overview of the current state of our understanding of the mechanisms responsible for probiotics benefits.
The Science and Regulations of Probiotic Food and Supplement Product LabelingBy Mary Ellen Sanders (Dairy and Food Culture Technologies, Centennial, Colorado) and Dan Levy (U.S. One of the consequences of the genetic revolution in biology has been the increasing realization that much of the genetic material found in and on the surface of the human body does not belong to us.
Nowhere is the importance of these microorganisms more apparent than in the complex ecosystem of the human gut, where an important component, known as the gut microbiota, flourishes on the food we ingest, often providing digestive capabilities that we ourselves lack.
Many of these products have been consumed for centuries in cultures all over the world, and manufacturers would like to promote them for their specific benefits. Keynote speaker Mary Ellen Sanders of Dairy and Food Culture Technologies kicked off the meeting with a succinct description of probiotics and their actions, including a number of myths and misconceptions. One factor that holds back the acceptance of pre- and probiotics as therapeutic agents is a lack of understanding of their molecular mechanisms, a deficit that is further hampered by lack of knowledge about the gut microbiota as a whole. One of the meeting organizers, Howard Young of the National Cancer Institute, noted at the beginning of the meeting that, "with this field, we really have the ability to benefit the human condition, but it needs to be done right." Although there is still much to be done, it was apparent from the wide range of research presented at the meeting that the field of probiotics is off to a great start on the task of providing the scientific and clinical evidence that will allow these useful products to be more widely disseminated and utilized for the alleviation of human health conditions.
Many parameters that could impact the effectiveness of probiotics added to foods or other products have not yet been investigated comprehensively. Probiotics are largely designed to benefit gastrointestinal conditions that for the most part do not have validated biomarkers.
Mary Ellen Sanders of Dairy and Food Culture Technologies opened the meeting with a discussion of some misconceptions surrounding probiotics.
The scarcity of research data in many of these areas has created some confusion about the uses of probiotics that are already on the market. Manufacturers of probiotics foods must meet the FDA- and FTC-specified standards of scientific proof before their products can be marketed with a claim for a benefit. Current clinical data suggests that functional bowel disorders involve changes in the gut microbiota, and that specific probiotics are useful in treating these conditions and managing related symptoms. The gut microbiota is both influenced by and influences ongoing communication between the gut and the brain in both animal models and humans.
Probiotic strains can be used to deliver vaccine antigens, leading to substantial immune responses in animal models and protection from certain pathogens.
In the first session of the meeting, researchers described the current state of probiotics research, including investigations into mechanisms, basic information about the human gut microbiota, clinical studies that suggest the potential benefits of probiotics, and the development of model systems to promote more efficient research in this area.
Yehuda Ringel of the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill provided a comprehensive look at the current state of the science regarding probiotics and their effectiveness in treating human gastrointestinal (GI) disorders. A number of observations suggest that changes in the composition of the gut microbiota may be involved in the development of functional bowel disorders. Studies in germ-free animals that lack gut microbiota, usually rats or mice raised in a sterile environment, have also provided data on the relationship between gut microbiota and bowel function.
Stress has multiple effects on the gut, including increased gastric acid production and increased GI motility, which would affect the gut environment and thus the growth and physiology of bacteria living there.
A number of other lines of research suggest a direct connection between the gut, activities of the brain, such as mood and behavior, and the gut microbiota. Mansour Mohamadzadeh and his coworkers at Northwestern University and North Carolina State University are developing methods to harness these properties of gut dendritic cells in the development of oral vaccines.
Mohamadzadeh is also testing this method as a means of delivering tumor specific antigens for the treatment of breast and skin cancer, and as a means of developing vaccines against viral infections such as influenza and HIV. Simplified animal models of the gut microbiota can be used to investigate the complex intestinal ecosystem, as well as help to identify mechanisms by which pre- and probiotics exert their effects.
The probiotic organism Lactobacillus salivarius produces a bacteriocin that protects mice from listeriosis by directly killing the infectious organism Listeria. A continuous, multicompartmental culture system that replicates the human gut can be used for in vitro investigation of the mechanisms of action of pre- and probiotics and their effects on the gut microbiota.
One of the difficulties with attempting to manipulate the gut microbiota is the scarcity of knowledge about how it functions.
Justin Sonnenburg and his group at Stanford University are working to develop a simplified model system in which such questions can be addressed more readily. Starting with germ-free animals, they are colonizing mice with simplified microbial communities and looking at how the genetics of both host and microbes affect function.
For their initial experiments, they studied the genetics and metabolism of a single species Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron (B.
Taking a functional genomics approach, Sonnenburg and his group have examined how the expression of these genes changes when different foods are introduced into the mouse host's diet (Sonnenburg et al, 2005). Certain probiotics are thought to assist humans and animals in fighting infections, but the mechanisms by which they do so are still unknown. Colin Hill and his coworkers at University College Cork, Ireland, are studying probiotics that act via a mechanism of direct antagonism. These types of experiments will provide important knowledge on the specific interactions between benign and pathogenic strains of gut bacteria, eventually allowing more targeted use of probiotic strains for specific types of infections.
As in many areas of clinical research, probiotics studies will progress more quickly and cost-effectively with the development of model systems that can be used to test new ideas before they are tried in humans. Gibson and his coworkers have developed one such system, a continuous, multi-compartmental culture model whose properties have been validated against the gut contents of sudden death victims. Among other things, they are investigating a prebiotic which consists of a mixture of galactooligosaccharides, known as GOS, and has been shown to help patients with irritable bowel syndrome. In this session, researchers presented briefly on ongoing research projects designed to probe the mechanisms by which pre- and probiotics work, and intended to help move these agents along from benchtop to marketplace. Duane Charbonneau of Procter and Gamble Company reported on his work developing the strain Bifidobacterium longum subsp.
Kevin Donato of the Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, is studying the effects of probiotics on epithelial barrier function in the gut, using cultured intestinal cells. Patrick Veiga of Danone Research reported on clinical studies of the effects of a fermented milk product (yogurt) containing Bifidobacterium lactis DN-173 010 on symptoms in humans who have irritable bowel syndrome with constipation (Agrawal et al., 2009). Howard Young of the National Cancer Institute is studying the potential of probiotic strains as delivery systems for therapeutic compounds, including immunomodulatory peptides and proteins. Arthur Ouwehand of Danisco is studying the effects of probiotics on metabolic syndrome, which in humans is characterized by elevated blood triglycerides, high blood pressure, high blood glucose, increased waist circumference, and reduced HDL-cholesterol (the so-called "good" cholesterol).
February 14, 2014 By admin2 Leave a Comment This Grandma recently bought probiotics for my ninety year old mother-in-law.  Who knew that newborns should also be getting probiotics.
Italian researchers randomly assigned 468 infants less than a week old to receive either a daily oral dose of Lactobacillus reuteri or an identical tasting placebo. When the label tells you the food you are buying “contains probiotics,” are you getting health benefits or just marketing hype? Probiotics are live micro-organisms that work by restoring the balance of intestinal bacteria and raising resistance to harmful germs.
Studies show that all of these strains are associated with reducing diarrhea; LGG, among the most studied, has also shown a benefit in treating atopic eczema and milk allergy in infants and children, according to a 2008 report in The Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology. Dannon says that it settled the suit to avoid litigation and that it stands by all of its product claims. A variety of other claims for probiotics, like lowering cholesterol and blood pressure, preventing cavities and reducing cancer risk, were not reviewed by the panel.
And scientists continue to debate whether probiotics offer a meaningful benefit to the immune system. But the gastrointestinal tract is an important part of the immune system, and studies show that intestinal bacteria play an essential role in immune defenses. The Yale group, whose report appeared in The Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology in July 2008, concluded that the “immune response is definitely affected by the administration of probiotics.” But it did not decide whether probiotics were useful for general disease prevention and maintaining overall health, saying more study was needed. Consumers interested in probiotics should look for products that list the specific strain on the label and offer readers easy access to scientific studies supporting the claims. A mate recommended me to check out this site, great post, interesting read… keep up the good work!
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On June 11, 2010, manufacturers of products containing probiotics, researchers who are interested in the basic mechanisms by which these products exert their effects, regulatory experts, and others, met to examine the current state of the science and to identify what still needs to be done to develop probiotic products to improve health, manage and prevent diseases, or deliver other benefits. Session 2 highlighted innovative approaches to substantiation of beneficial effects of probiotics strains. It belongs instead to the huge numbers of microorganisms that call our bodies their homes; organisms that have been estimated to outnumber human cells by a factor of ten to one.
Putting two and two together, biologists and medical researchers have come to suspect that this microbiota is strongly influenced by the foods we eat, including foods that contain live microorganisms (eg. Likewise, physicians and other health care professionals who have witnessed the benefits of these products in their patients would like to see them more widely adopted, particularly in Western medicine where they are largely considered alternative, unproven therapies.


Three researchers presented basic science and clinical research intended to fill these needs, including the development of in vivo and in vitro models. A product that appears to be a food will be considered to be a drug in the eyes of the FDA if it is intended to prevent, diagnose, mitigate, treat or cure a disease. While probiotics have been used for centuries and have great potential to improve human health, the science surrounding their use is still quite new. This idea is difficult to substantiate because the normal gut microbiota is not well defined, and can differ significantly among normal individuals. These parameters include the characteristics of the product containing the probiotics, such as moisture content, oxygen, temperature, or pH. While surveys have shown that both consumers and health care professionals are aware of probiotics, many still do not have a clear idea of their intended benefits.
Sanders described some of the difficulties that are likely to be involved in conducting clinical trials in this area.
Specific probiotics have been suggested to have beneficial effects on disorders including acute infectious diarrhea, antibiotic-associated diarrhea, and functional bowel disorders such as irritable bowel syndrome. Microbiological studies have shown that patients with such disorders have gut microbiota that is altered in both quantity and composition compared to healthy individuals. Germ-free animals show multiple abnormalities in intestinal function, including delayed gastric emptying, delayed intestinal transit, and enlarged cecal size, symptoms that are relevant to irritable bowel syndrome and other functional bowel disorders.
Studies have shown that probiotics can improve measures of GI function, relieve symptoms, and confer overall improvements in health and well-being in some patients (McFarland et al, 2008). Neurophysiological states, such as stress, pain, and depression, can have effects on GI function, e.g. Stress has also been shown to causes changes in the composition of the gut microbiota in studies of infant rats and monkeys subjected to maternal separation (Bailey and Coe, 2004). Initial intestinal infection with Toxoplasma gondii, followed by localization to the brain, has been reported to have direct effects on the performance of rats in behavioral tests (Berdoy et al., 2007). Lining this cavity is a layer of cells and mucus, called the mucosa, which includes epithelial cells and multiple types of immune cells, such as T-lymphocytes, B-lymphocytes, and dendritic cells. Delivery of vaccines by mouth rather than injection is more efficient, less likely to provoke a dangerous hypersensitivity reaction, and may facilitate vaccine use in developing countries. Once introduced into the gut, these bacteria release the fusion protein, which binds to and is taken up by dendritic cells.
In another project, he and his colleagues are producing altered Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM strains that may also be used to treat GI disorders that are associated with aberrant immune activity, such as inflammatory bowel disease.
Researchers would like to know in a systemic way how the microbiota changes with changes in the host diet, how it adapts to the introduction of new species or to the loss of species, and what role is played by host genetics in its composition and function. The team has been studying carbohydrate metabolism, an aspect of metabolism in which gut microbes are quite active.
Although 10 bacterial divisions and thousands of species are represented in the human and mouse gut microbiota, more than 90% of the microorganisms belong to the Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes divisions of bacteria, so one way to reduce complexity is by working with representatives of these two groups. They have also added another species to the system, Bifidobacterium longum, and are studying this organism's gene expression as well, to find out how these two species compete for and adapt to the ecological niches that are available under different conditions (Sonnenburg et al., 2006). Potential mechanisms that have been proposed include improving the barrier function of the gut, improving the ability of the immune system to fight infection, competition between "good" and "bad" microbes for ecological niches within the gut, and direct antagonism, in which a probiotic species directly kills an infectious species of bacteria. In the course of evolution, one of the ways that bacterial species have developed to compete amongst each other is by killing their rivals with peptides known as bacteriocins.
Listeria is a rare but important systemic foodborne pathogen that has a high rate of fatalities, often targeting individuals who are immunocompromised.
This knowledge could also be used to allow scientists to produce and use bacteriocins themselves.
Such models can be particularly challenging to develop for pre- and probiotics because the gut and the gut microbiota are such highly complex systems.
The system consists of several culture vessels whose contents replicate the sequence of volumes and pHs found in different areas of the human large intestine.
Addition of GOS to the model system had a considerable effect on the distribution of bacterial species, including a large increase in Bifidobacterium species. Normally, tight junctions between the epithelial cells in the mucosal layer of the GI tract prevent leakage of fluids, but pathogenic bacteria such as the notorious E.
They are using genetic analyses to monitor changes in the gut microbiota after consuming the probiotic yogurt.
Clinical evidence suggests that this disease is related to high levels of inflammation, promoted by a high fat diet. Parents recorded the daily frequency of bowel movements and spitting up as well as the amount of time babies cried inconsolably. Flavia Indrio, a pediatric gastroenterologist at the University of Bari, said that there are thousands of strains available as supplements. Taken in sufficient amounts, they can promote digestive health and help shorten the duration of colds. The word “probiotic” on the label is not enough information to tell whether a given product will be effective for a particular health concern. Dannon, one of the biggest sellers of probiotic yogurts, settled a class-action lawsuit this month over its Activia yogurts and DanActive yogurt drinks, which claimed to help regulate digestion and stimulate the immune system.
The company’s Web site lists numerous scientific studies of its patented probiotic strains.
After gathering at a Yale workshop to review the available evidence, a panel of 12 experts concluded that there was strong evidence that several probiotic strains could reduce diarrhea, including that associated with antibiotic use. Goldin, a Tufts professor who helped discover LGG but no longer receives royalties from the patent. These bacteria not only aid digestion but essentially help form a protective barrier inside the intestine.
The group reported that many studies suggested that certain probiotics reduced duration of colds, along with time away from work and day care. In order to post comments, please make sure JavaScript and Cookies are enabled, and reload the page. Vsl 3 Probiotics Side Effects probiotics are the mixture of beneficial bacteria found mainly in dairy products like yogurt cheese and acidophilus milk. The National Institutes of Health has established a core research program, the Human Microbiome Project, to develop the resources needed to identify the thousands of species involved, and to investigate their roles in human health and disease. Until recently, these efforts have been stymied by a lack of well conducted clinical trials needed to prove benefits. Justin Sonnenburg of Stanford University described his efforts to develop a simplified model of the gut microbiota in germ-free mice, allowing the investigation of fundamental properties and effects of host diet and genetics.
The final session of the day brought together regulatory experts with physician-researchers who have embarked on the process of understanding the fine line between probiotic foods and drugs.
It is important for investigators to examine previously held assumptions if they are to provide a solid, evidence-based footing on which to build future research. There are multiple production parameters that could be researched and optimized, including how the microbial cultures are grown, harvested, and processed for use.
Evidence-based practice guidelines for the use of probiotics have been released by professional organizations, including the World Gastroenterology Organisation, but studies have shown that physicians may be using probiotics for conditions where there is currently no evidence of benefit, such as Crohn's disease.
One particularly important barrier is posed by the fact that probiotics are largely designed to benefit gastrointestinal conditions that for the most part do not have validated biomarkers.
Ringel reviewed multiple types of studies that suggest a potential role for certain probiotics in maintaining intestinal health, focusing primarily on available research on functional bowel disorders (Carroll and Ringel, 2009). Epidemiological studies suggest that disturbance of the gut microbiota is associated with the development of these conditions, since 10% to 30% of patients who contract acute GI infections develop chronic irritable bowel-like symptoms, and 22% to 40% of individuals treated with antibiotics have irritable bowel-like symptoms 4 months after treatment.
The introduction of gut microbiota from mice raised under typical conditions can reverse these abnormalities (Husebye et al., 2001).
However, more research is needed to assess their direct effects on intestinal physiology and to identify the mechanisms by which these effects are achieved. Certain probiotics have been shown to reverse these effects in animals (Gareau et al., 2007). Certain probiotics have also been shown to have antihyperalgesic effects in animal models of pain such as acute inflammatory hyperalgesia (Rousseaux et al., 2007).
Epidemiologic studies in humans show that negative emotions are often associated with the development of acute GI infections, and conversely, chronic GI inflammation has multiple effects on mood, including symptoms of depression and fatigue. These immune cells can mount localized or systemic immune responses to antigenic materials found in the gut.
Mohamadzadeh's team is making use of probiotics as the delivery vehicle to carry such vaccines into the gut. The antigenic part of the fusion protein is then presented to T-cells, provoking mucosal immunity resulting in systemic immune responses. These studies will lead to a better understanding of the mechanisms of gut-mediated immunity, its relationship to the gut microbiota, and the possibilities of probiotic delivery systems in the development of new vaccines for humans. The Human Microbiome Project has generated large amounts of important sequence data that identifies the many bacterial species and genes involved; however, data on how this complex ecosystem functions has lagged quite a bit behind.
A complex ecosystem exists in the distal gut in which numerous bacterial species compete to break down and utilize the carbohydrates that we ingest, particularly the more complex plant carbohydrates that we are poorly equipped to metabolize on our own. This organism is a prominent member of the human microbiota that has the advantage of being easily cultivated outside the body.
Understanding which mechanism is at work in a given situation will be critical for selecting and using the appropriate probiotic for each infectious disease condition.


Many gut bacteria secrete these compounds, which have very specific abilities to kill some bacterial species and not others.
These potential new biotechnological agents could be designed as highly targeted antimicrobial therapies that kill infectious bacteria with a greatly reduced effect on beneficial gut flora, compared to the antibiotics that are used currently.
Glenn Gibson of the University of Reading, UK, provided an overview of current in vitro systems for studying the properties of these potential therapies.
This system is inoculated with mixed fecal bacteria from human volunteers and allowed to run continuously to set up an in vitro model of this area of the gut. Instead of large global shifts in microbial species they found only a few species that changed in abundance with ingestion of the probiotic product.
It was thought that delivering the interferon molecule locally in the gut might make it a more effective treatment for colitis, potentially free of systemic effects.
One hypothesis for the mechanism by which a high fat diet causes this syndrome is that increased fat in the gut breaks down its barrier function, allowing lipopolysaccharides (LPS), which are highly inflammatory compounds produced by Gram negative bacteria, to enter the blood and tissues, promoting systemic inflammation. The results were adjusted to account for the effects of breast or bottle feeding, vaginal or caesarean delivery, and other factors. But while there are thousands of different probiotics, only a handful have been proved effective in clinical trials. Just as a doctor would prescribe different antibiotics for strep throat or tuberculosis, different probiotic species and strains confer different health benefits. As part of the $35 million settlement, Dannon agreed to reimburse dissatisfied consumers and make labeling changes, among them adding the scientific names of probiotic strains it uses. Several studies have also suggested that certain probiotics may be useful for irritable bowel syndrome, with the strongest recommendation for Bifidobacterium infantis 35624, the probiotic in the Procter & Gamble supplement Align. Nutri-Health’s Flora Source Multi Probiotic capsules are formulated to promote good digestion and colon health. The cancer has spread through the blood and lymph nodes to other parts of the body, such as the lung, liver, abdominal wall, or ovary. In June 2010, representatives from these groups, as well as researchers who are interested in the basic mechanisms by which these products exert their effects, regulatory experts, and others, met to examine the current state of the science and to identify what still needs to be done to fully legitimize these products in the eyes of consumers, health care professionals, and the U.S.
Colin Hill of University College Cork, Ireland, is investigating specific mechanisms used by probiotic bacterial strains to kill pathogenic bacteria, perhaps underlying the anti-infective properties of these agents. Cary Frye of the International Dairy Foods Association described the standards of evidence that must be met to substantiate product labeling claims for pre- and probiotics when they are intended to improve a structure or function of the body or reduce risk of disease. Researchers designing clinical trials must depend on clinical endpoints, often prolonging the research process.
Taken altogether, the microbiological, epidemiological, and physiological data now available support the idea that altered gut microbiota is an important factor in the pathophysiology of functional bowel disorders, and lead to the hypothesis that probiotics could be used to prevent or manage these conditions. In addition, studies to date have used a wide range of different probiotic preparations, containing different mixtures of microorganisms, and it is still unknown to what extent these results can be generalized. The reverse is also true: the physiological state of the gut can have effects on mood, the perception of pain, and behavior. Stress is also known to lead to changes in neurotransmitter levels, which could affect not only the gut itself but also the bacteria living there.
It is hypothesized that this antihyperalgesic effect of probiotics is related to the engagement of endogenous opioid systems. Risk factors for the development of irritable bowel syndrome include adverse life events, depression, and neuroticism. Dendritic cells play a key role in this process by sampling the lumen, capturing antigens (including whole or component parts of bacteria, viruses, and parasites), and presenting them to immune cells downstream to elicit immune responses. Preliminary studies of this system show that it performs quite well in mice, protecting them from a challenge with anthrax that kills control mice who did not receive the fusion protein.
Inulin, a dietary polysaccharide that is found in many plants, has been shown to alter the human gut microbiota, in some cases by expanding the population of Bifidobacterium species (Sonnenburg et al., 2010).
There is significant evidence to suggest that probiotics can prevent infectious diarrhea, particularly Clostridium difficile associated diarrhea, which is very dangerous and difficult to treat effectively (Hickson et al., 2007).
Hill and his group screened probiotic strains used in humans for their ability to protect mice from Listeria infection and death, and have identified a particularly effective strain, Lactobacillus salivarius UCC118. These models include both batch culture and continuous fermentation systems in which colonies of gut microbes can be grown and the effects of pre- and probiotics investigated.
Gibson and his group can add pre- or probiotics to the system to study their actions as well as their persistence in a human gut-like environment. The in vitro system thus appears to replicate the human system, and could be used to elucidate the mechanisms by which GOS raises Bifidobacterium content and alleviates irritable bowel symptoms. Donato and his coworkers are investigating the molecular details by which the bacterium Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) prevents the colonization of pathogenic bacteria and influences immune responses in the human gut.
They also found that survival of the ingested probiotic strain, as monitored in fecal samples, varied from person to person.
Ouwehand and his colleagues are testing whether the probiotic Bifidobacterium lactis 420 can protect mice fed a high fat diet from developing metabolic syndrome.
Sources of Probiotics Probiotics are in yogurt some cheeses and fermented dairy products such as kefir a cultured milk beverage that tastes similar to yogurt only thinner. The most widely used definition for probiotics, developed jointly by the World Health Organization and the Food and Agriculture Organization, is that they are "live microorganisms, which when administered in adequate amounts confer a health benefit on the host." Certain food ingredients, non-digestible by people but a food source for our native beneficial bacteria, known as prebiotics, have also been shown to have beneficial effects on health by promoting changes in the composition of the pre-existing gut microbiota. And Glenn Gibson of the University of Reading, UK, described the development and use of a fermentor-based model of the human gut to investigate pre- and probiotic effects and their mechanisms.
Cara Fiore of the Office of Vaccines Research and Review at the FDA discussed the conditions under which a probiotic may be labeled as a drug intended to treat a specific medical condition.
This may change, however, if the Human Microbiome Project is able to identify a core human gut microbiota, as well as changes in the microbiota that can be correlated with human health or disease conditions. Emeran Mayer of the University of California at Los Angeles reviewed considerable evidence suggesting that gut microbiota may play an integral role in this ongoing conversation between gut and brain.
For example, the neurotransmitter norepinephrine has been shown to promote virulence in highly pathogenic strains of Escherichia coli and in another intestinal pathogen, Campylobacter jejuni (Waldor and Sperandio, 2007, Cogan et al., 2007). At the same time, however, studies in germ-free mice have shown that the presence of the gut microbiota is necessary for the development of a hyperalgesic state, perhaps because in the normal gut, the presence of bacteria stimulates the production of interleukin-10, a cytokine involved in suppressing the inflammatory response (Amaral et al., 2007). A recent study of the neurobiological and immunomodulatory effects of a probiotic strain of Bifidobacteria infantis in rats suggests that this probiotic could have antidepressant effects in this model (Desbonnet et al., 2008). Their studies show that, among other beneficial effects, the mice who receive the fusion protein produce large amounts of antibodies against the anthrax antigen. These studies will help to elucidate the mechanisms of pre- and probiotics, and to identify whether changes in gut microbiota are the cause or the result of a given disease state. Many of the probiotic strains used in these studies belonged to the Lactobacillus genus, species of which are known to produce bacteriocins, so Hill and his group set out to investigate the role of these peptides in the anti-diarrheal effect.
They have developed multiple lines of evidence to show that the bacteriocin produced by this strain protects mice by killing Listeria almost as soon as these microorganisms are introduced (Corr et al., 2007). A number of laboratories have developed complex, multistage fermentation systems that are intended to replicate different areas of the human GI tract.
Ultimately, studies of pre- and probiotics must be done in humans before it will be possible to make health or disease related claims for these agents, but the information provided by in vitro models will provide valuable guidance on what might or might not be fruitful when tried in humans. When tested in intestinal cell tissue culture, LGG attenuates barrier dysfunction, apparently by reducing the attachment of pathogenic bacteria and modulating pro-inflammatory epithelial cell signaling (Donato et al., 2010). They are conducting ongoing research to find out what causes this variation and how is it might be related to whether or not individuals with irritable bowel syndrome experience relief from symptoms after consumption of the specific probiotic product.
Young and his coworkers are continuing to investigate the molecular mechanisms of this unexpected result.
They have found that this probiotic reversed diabetic changes and reduced fat mass in mice, while at the same time reducing blood levels of LPS and markers of inflammation. This session was followed by a data blitz that provided snapshots of many types of probiotic research currently going on around the world.
The physician-researchers, Dan Merenstein of Georgetown University and Patricia Hibberd of Tufts University, described their groundbreaking experiences with conducting studies of probiotics under the "Investigational New Drug Application" regulatory framework and provided insights that might ease others through the process and perhaps stimulate changes in FDA regulations to facilitate this type of research.
These types of studies are useful for establishing the impact of probiotics on balance in the microbial ecosystem.
Whether such markers are developed or not, clinical trials will be needed to convincingly establish a scientific basis for health benefits.
These findings illustrate the intimate nature of the connections between gut, brain and gut microbiota, and suggest that the uses of probiotics might someday go well beyond maintenance of intestinal health alone. This compares to fewer than one hundred such enzymes in humans, who have on the order of 25,000 genes. The insights derived from these experiments should someday allow more precise manipulation of the human gut microbiota, which will be important once a better understanding of its optimal content has been achieved. They are also using this system to study the effects of another bacteriocin, thuricin, which is known to be active against C. It is also recommended that probiotic supplements be taken with lots of water to dilute minimize stomach acid and bile exposure. These mice are called "mono-associated." Green indicates a deviation below the mean level of expression, and red indicates deviation above the mean level for mono-associated mice.




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