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At the end of May, a new Cochrane review was published, which looked at the evidence for probiotic treatment in the prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhoea, which is often caused by Clostridium difficile; this meta-analysis found that whilst antibiotic-associated diarrhoea (AAD) was reduced by probiotic treatment, C. In this systematic review, a total of 31 randomised controlled trials were included, and for each outcome measure assessed, the authors assessed the possibility of bias for each measure included in each trial.
The meta-analysis also looked at adverse events, as well as C. difficile infection rates (including all infections, not just those leading to diarrhoea). Meta-analysis is not just about pooling data, but also about looking at the quality and completeness of the evidence available, as alluded to with the discussion of bias estimates above. TwitterWe're still looking for students to blog as part of a new series on 'understanding claims made about treatments'. Probiotics not simply assist create this particular balance but in addition helps ensure that is stays for many years, and so the name probiotic, meaning for life. Probiotic cultures not just reduce harm from being carried out to our tissue; they reinforce our defense mechanisms and defeat down most cancers cells prior to them having a possibility associated with multiplying. Nearly all microorganisms in the bowel are not dangerous, instead perform a crucial role within normal development and growth, however, if the total amount or ph is trashed specifically in the actual intestines, main problems do structural injury to our bodies, and encouragement can often be required, far beyond a healthy diet plan. All rights reserved and all trademarks used in this Web Site belong to their respective trademark holder. Science, Technology and Medicine open access publisher.Publish, read and share novel research. Lactic Acid Bacteria as Probiotics:Characteristics, Selection Criteria and Role in Immunomodulation of Human GI Muccosal BarrierDaoud Harzallah and Hani Belhadj[1] Laboratory of Applied Microbiology, Faculty of Natural and Life Sciences, University Ferhat Abbas, Setif, Algeria1.
Discover our wide range of fridge free probiotics designed to help maintain a healthy digestive function.
Faulding® Probiotics IBS Support may assist in the symptomatic relief and management of medically diagnosed Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS).
Faulding® Probiotics Kids Protect contains the probiotics Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacteria lactis, which support the health and function of the immune system and the health and function of the gastrointestinal system of your child. Johnston led a research team which compiled findings from 3,818 patients in 20 randomized-controlled trials. While treating and preventing infections, antibiotics can also destroy healthy bacteria in the colon.
Using a Forest plot (Like the one in the Cochrane logo, explained in detail here [3]), they pooled the results from these studies to find the overall effect of treatment versus control; in this case, the results favoured the treatment, as those given probiotics were at lower risk of AAD.
In terms of adverse events, a lower risk of an event was seen in the probiotic group compared to the control. Here, funnel plots come in handy, for looking at both publication bias, and the possible effect of future studies on the effect estimate. A walk through a systematic review by Alice Buchan is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
These types of microscopic microorganisms (microflora) help the body develop long-lasting resistance to some host associated with illnesses as well as diseases, such as allergies, cranky bowels, microbe infections, and cancers. So many people are enclosed by poor influences, despite the fact that the volume of natural food lovers is rising, there is an insightful specific of defenses and organic defense towards chemicals as well as toxic meals agents that slips beyond the guards as well as invades our bodies, trying to inflict harm on the DNA. Probiotics deteriorate mutagenic task, so that your good tissue keeps successful the fights, and more importantly, the actual DNA battle. Also, probiotics may be used to counter the actual over-intake of anti-biotics so common in the typical diet plan, and this can be filled with non-organic animal meat as well as milk products which come from creatures with varying types of antibiotics. IntroductionAs it was reported by Chow (2002), the notion that food could serve as medicine was first conceived thousands of years ago by the Greek philosopher and father of medicine, Hippocrates, who once wrote: 'Let food be thy medicine, and let medicine be thy food'.
Epithelial cells lining the gastrointestinal tract are able to respond to infection by initiating either nonspecific or specific host-defence response (Kagnoff and Eckmann 1997, Strober 1998).
Our scientific method creates a protective barrier for the probiotics, keeping them alive and stable, even out of the fridge! The strain of bacteria used in Faulding® Probiotics IBS Support, Lactobacillus plantarum, has been shown to help relieve pain and flatulence associated with medically diagnosed Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS).
Bradley Johnston, assistant professor in the Department of Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics at McMaster University and a scientist and clinical epidemiologist at SickKids Hospital in Toronto. The trials tracked rates of probiotic use in in-patients and out-patients on antibiotics and analyzed the rates of diarrheal illness associated with C.
Given that AAD is both common, and potentially severe (pseudomembranous colitis that develops into toxic megacolon can be life-threatening [2]), its prevention could have a significant impact on patient care and outcomes.
Interestingly, there was no statistically significant reduction in C. difficile infection rates in this group. For a discussion of the interpretation of funnel plots with respect to publication bias, see here [4]. However, as noted by the authors, the total number of patients included in the analysis is still relatively small; in addition to bias in studies, lack of reporting of adverse effects, and other factors, the quality of the evidence for the outcome measures examined is considered moderate or low (See here for a resource about grading evidence).
No vaccination or even prescription drugs on the planet could actually come near this safe as well as valuable method of stabilizing out your body’s billions of microorganisms. Potential and established health benefits associated with the usage of probiotics (Leroy et al., 2008).
However, during recent times, the concept of food having medicinal value has been reborn as 'functional foods'.
Bacterial adhesion to the host cell or recognition by the host cell is often an essential first stage in the disease process. Faulding® Probiotics IBS Support helps in maintaining healthy digestive microflora and supports and maintains the health of the gastrointestinal tract and the immune system. Stephanie Ma, co-author and chief resident in Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery at McMaster University. Probiotics can be easily integrated into the diets of hospitalized patients," said co-author Dr. It accounts for up to half of all diarrheal illness in hospital and is a significant cause of illness and death in hospitalized adults.
As well as being of clinical significance, this review also provides a great example to look at the way Cochrane reviews are conducted, and some of the statistical graphs commonly used in meta-analyses, especially if you are new to reading them. Key and desirable criteria for the selection of probiotics in commercial applications (Vasiljevic and Shah, 2008). The list of health benefits accredited to functional food continues to increase, and the gut is an obvious target for the development of functional foods, because it acts as an interface between the diet and all other body functions. A wide range of gastrointestinal cell surface constituents, such as several glygoconjucates, can serve as receptors for bacterial adherence (Servin and Coconnier 2003, Pretzer et al., 2005). It also helps to maintain and improve general wellbeing.This dairy free product can also help ease and prevent diarrhoea.
From 2009-2011, the Ontario Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care (OMHLTC) tracked 75 outbreaks in 47 hospitals. One of the most promising areas for the development of functional food components lies in the use of probiotics and prebiotics which scientific researches have demonstrated therapeutic evidence. Furthermore, epithelial cells express constitutively host pattern recognition receptors (PRRS), such as Toll-like receptors (TLR). Faulding® Probiotics can also balance bacteria levels that can be disrupted through medication. DeGroote School of Medicine at McMaster University and Division Director of Infectious Diseases.
This allows other causes of asymmetry (other than publication bias) to be ruled out, and also allows the examination of whether the predicted effect size is robust to future studies.
Nowadays, consumers are aware of the link among lifestyle, diet and good health, which explains the emerging demand for products that are able to enhance health beyond providing basic nutrition. Due to the patented stabilisation technology used, no refrigeration is required for the Faulding® Probiotics making them great for travel, your handbag or to have on your desk at work.
Essentially, it shows the area on the plot into which a future study would have to fall in order for the effect estimate generated to no longer be of statistical significance compared to the control.
TLRs are also found on innate immune cells, such as dendritic cells and macrophages (Vinderola et al., 2005).
They can be found in fermented products as meat, milk products, vegetables, beverages and bakery products.
They are part of the microbiota on mucous membranes, such as the intestines, mouth, skin, urinary and genital organs of both humans and animals, and may have a beneficial influence on these ecosystems.
Other known recognition receptors are nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain proteins, which recognize both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria.
LAB that grow as the adventitious microflora of foods or that are added to foods as cultures are generally considered to be harmless or even an advantage for human health. Since their discovery, LAB has been gained mush interest in various applications, as starter cultures in food and feed fermentations, pharmaceuticals, probiotics and as biological control agents. Increased epithelial barrier permeability is frequently associated with gastrointestinal disorders contributing to both disease onset and persistence (Lu and Walker 2001, Berkes 2003). In food industry, LAB are widely used as starters to achieve favorable changes in texture, aroma, flavor and acidity (Leory and De Vuyst, 2004). The gatekeeper of the paracellular pathway is the tight junction, which is an apically located cell-cell junction between epithelial cells.


The tight junction permits the passage of small molecules, such as ions, while restricting the movement of large molecules, such as antigens and microorganisms, which can cause inflammation. Du to their antimicrobial and antioxidant activities some LAB strains are used in food biopreservation. Origine and safety of probiotics An old dogma of probiotic selection has been that the probiotic strains should be of “human origin”. Many of the indications for probiotic activity have been obtained from effects observed in various clinical situations.
One may argue that from evolutionary point of view, describing bacteria to be of human origin does not make much sense at all. The requirement for probiotics to be of human origin relates actually to the isolation of the strain rather than the “origin” itself. Usually, the strains claimed to be “of human origin” have been isolated from faecal samples of healthy human subjects, and have therefore been considered to be “part of normal healthy human gut microbiota”. Overview of probioticsThe most tried and tested manner in which the gut microbiota composition may be influenced is through the use of live microbial dietary additions, as probiotics. In reality the recovery of a strain from a faecal sample does not necessarily mean that this strain is part of the normal microbiota of this individual, since microbes passing the GI tract transiently can also be recovered from the faecal samples (Forssten et al., 2011). In practice it is impossible to know the actual origin of the probiotic strains, regardless of whether they have been isolated from faecal samples, fermented dairy products or any other source for that matter.
Isolation of a strain from faeces of a healthy individual is also not a guarantee of the safety of the strain—such a sample will also always contain commensal microbes which can act as opportunistic pathogens, or even low levels of true pathogens, which are present in the individual at sub-clinical levels.
However, at the beginning of this century probiotics were first put onto a scientific basis by the work of Metchnikoff (1908). He hypothesised that the normal gut microflora could exert adverse effects on the host and that consumption of ‘soured milks’ reversed this effect.
However, many species of the genera Lactobacillus, Leuconostoc, Pediococcus, Enterococcus, and Bifidobacterium were isolated frequently from various types of infective lesions. The origin of the first use can be traced back to Kollath (1953), who used it to describe the restoration of the health of malnourished patients by different organic and inorganic supplements. Later, Vergin (1954) proposed that the microbial imbalance in the body caused by antibiotic treatment could have been restored by a probiotic rich diet; a suggestion cited by many as the first reference to probiotics as they are defined nowadays.
Similarly, Kolb recognized detrimental effects of antibiotic therapy and proposed the prevention by probiotics (Vasiljevic and Shah, 2008) Later on, Lilly and Stillwell (1965) defined probiotics as “…microorganisms promoting the growth of other microorganisms”.
The idea of health-promoting effects of LAB is by no means new, as Metchnikoff proposed that lactobacilli may fight against intestinal putrefaction and contribute to long life.
Although minor side effects of the use of probiotics have been reported, infections with probiotic bacteria occur and invariably only in immunocompromised patients or those with intestinal bleeding (Leroy et al., 2008). Other definitions advanced through the years have been restrictive by specification of mechanisms, site of action, delivery format, method, or host.
An issue of concern regarding the use of probiotics is the presence of chromosomal, transposon, or plasmid-located antibiotic resistance genes amongst the probiotic microorganisms. At this moment, insufficient information is available on situations in which these genetic elements could be mobilised, and it is not known if situations could arise where this would become a clinical problem (Leroy et al., 2008).
The mechanism of action of probiotics (e.g, having an impact on the intestinal microbiota or enhancing immune function) was dropped from the definition to encompass health effects due to novel mechanisms and to allow application of the term before the mechanism is confirmed.
Furthermore, certain mechanisms of action (such as delivery of certain enzymes to the intestine) may not require live cells.
In vitro safety screenings of probiotics may include, among others, antibiotic resistance assays, screenings for virulence factors, resistance to host defence mechanisms and induction of haemolysis. In relation to food, probiotics are considered as “viable preparations in foods or dietary supplements to improve the health of humans and animals”. According to these definitions, an impressive number of microbial species are considered as probiotics.
ConclusionThe individual diversity of the intestinal microflora underscores the difficulty of identifying the entire human microbiota and poses barriers to this ?eld of research. Selection of probioticsMany in vitro tests are performed when screening for potential probiotic strains.
The first step in the selection of a probiotic LAB strain is the determination of its taxonomic classification, which may give an indication of the origin, habitat and physiology of the strain.
It is also apparent that even a single strain of probiotic may exert its actions via multiple, concomitant pathways.
All these characteristics have important consequences on the selection of the novel strains (Morelli, 2007). Probiotics have long been used as an alternative to traditional medicine with the goal of maintaining enteric homeostasis and preventing disease. This conclusion was brought forward due to uncertainty of the origin of the human intestinal microflora since the infants are borne with virtually sterile intestine. Clinical trials have shown that probiotic treatment can reduce the risk of some diseases, especially antibiotic-associated diarrhea, but conclusive evidence is impeded owing to the wide range of doses and strains of bacteria used. However, the panel also underlined a need for improvement of in vitro tests to predict the performance of probiotics in humans.
While many probiotics meet criteria such as acid and bile resistance and survival during gastrointestinal transit, an ideal probiotic strain remains to be identified for any given indication. Many studies, as discussed above, have shown that probiotics increase barrier function in terms of increased mucus, antimicrobial peptides, and sIgA production, competitive adherence for pathogens, and increased TJ integrity of epithelial cells.
Furthermore, it seems unlikely that a single probiotic will be equally suited to all indications; selection of strains for disease-specific indications will be required (Shanahan, 2003). Current investigation into the mechanism of action of speci?c probiotics has focused on probiotic-induced changes in the innate immune functions involvingTLRs and its downstream systems Like NF-?B, and other pathways (Yoon and Sun, 2011).
Although the immunomodulatory effects of probiotics have been demonstrated in experimental animal models of allergy, autoimmunity, and IBD, information from clinical trials in humans is scarce. The ability to adhere to the intestinal mucosa is one of the more important selection criteria for probiotics because adhesion to the intestinal mucosa is considered to be a prerequisite for colonization (Tuomola et al., 2001).
The table below (Table 2) indicates key creteria for sellecting probiotic candidat for commercial application, and figure 1 presents major and cardinal steps for sellecting probiotic candidats.It is of high importance that the probiotic strain can survive the location where it is presumed to be active.
Therefore, more research, especially in the form of well-designed clinical trials, is needed to evaluate the ef?cacy and safety of probiotics (Ezendam and Van Loveren, 2008). For a longer and perhaps higher activity, it is necessary that the strain can proliferate and colonise at this specific location.
Probably only host-specific microbial strains are able to compete with the indigenous microflora and to colonise the niches. Besides, the probiotic strain must be tolerated by the immune system and not provoke the formation of antibodies against the probiotic strain.
On the other hand, the probiotic strain can act as an adjuvant and stimulate the immune system against pathogenic microorganisms. Basic initial characterization of strain identity and taxonomy should be conducted, followed by evaluation with validated assays both in studies of animal models and in controlled studies in the target host. In vitro assays are frequently conducted that have not been proved to be predictive of in vivo function.
Technological robustness must also be determined, such as the strain’s ability to be grown to high numbers, concentrated, stabilized, and incorporated into a ?nal product with good sensory properties, if applicable, and to be stable, both physiologically and genetically, through the end of the shelf life of the product and at the active site in the host. Assessment of stability can also be a challenge, since factors such as chain length and injury may challenge the typical assessment of colony-forming units, as well as in vivo function (Sanders, 2008). Dose levels of probiotics should be based on levels found to be ef?cacious in human studies. Furthermore, the impact of product format on Figure 1.Scheme of the Guidelines for the Evaluation of Probiotics for Food Use.
The common quality-control parameter of colony-forming units per gram may not be the only parameter indicative of the ef?cacy of the ?nal product. Other factors, such as probiotic growth during product manufacture, coating, preservation technology, metabolic state of the probiotic, and the presence of other functional ingredients in the ?nal product, may play a role in the effectiveness of a product. Potential mechanisms of action of probioticsA wide variety of potential beneficial health effects have been attributed to probiotics (Table 3). Claimed effects range from the alleviation of constipation to the prevention of major life-threatening diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease, cancer, and cardiovascular incidents.
Some of these claims, such as the effects of probiotics on the shortening of intestinal transit time or the relief from lactose maldigestion, are considered well-established, while others, such as cancer prevention or the effect on blood cholesterol levels, need further scientific backup (Leroy et al., 2008).
The mechanisms of action may vary from one probiotic strain to another and are, in most cases, probably a combination of activities, thus making the investigation of the responsible mechanisms a very difficult and complex task. In general, three levels of action can be distinguished: probiotics can influence human Probiotic organisms can provide a beneficial effect on intestinal epithelial cells in numerous ways.
Gut microbiotaThe human gastrointestinal tract is inhabited by a complex and dynamic population of around 500-1000 of different microbial species which remain in a complex equilibrium.
It has been estimated that bacteria account for 35–50% of the volume content of the human colon. These include Bacteroides, Lactobacillus, Clostridium, Fusobacterium, Bifidobacterium, Eubacterium, Peptococcus, Peptostreptococcus, Escherichia and Veillonella.
The bacterial strains with identified beneficial properties include mainly Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus species.


The dominant microbial composition of the intestine have been shown to be stable over time during adulthood, and the microbial patterns are unique for each individual. However, there are numerous external factors that have potential to influence the microbial composition in the gut as host genetics, birth delivery mode, diet, age, antibiotic treatments and also, other microorganisms as probiotics.
The intestine is one of the main surfaces of contact with exogenous agents (viruses, bacteria, allergens) in the human body.
It has a primary role in the host defense against external aggressions by means of the intestinal mucosa, the local immune system, and the interactions with the intestinal microbiota (resident and in transitbacteria). Gut microbiota influences human health through an impact on the gut defense barrier, immune function, nutrient utilization and potentially by direct signaling with the gastrointestinal epithelium (Collado et al., 2009). In healthy adults, 80% of phylotypes belong to four major phylogenetic groups, which are the Clostiridium leptum, Clostridium coccoides, Bacteroides and Bifidobacteria groups. Also, studies have found that mucosal microbiota is stable along the distal gastrointestinal tract from ileum to rectum, but mucosa-associated microbiota is different from fecal microbiota.
The number of bacterial cells present in the mammalian gut shows a continuum that goes from 101 to 103 bacteria per gram of contents in the stomach and duodenum, progressing to 104 to 107 bacteria per gram in the jejunum and ileum and culminating in 1011 to 1012 cells per gram in the colon (Figure 3a). In addition to the longitudinal heterogeneity displayed by the intestinal microbiota, there is also a great deal of latitudinal variation in the microbiota composition (Figure 3b). The intestinal epithelium is separated from the lumen by a thick and physicochemically complex mucus layer. The microbiota present in the intestinal lumen differs significantly from the microbiota attached and embedded in this mucus layer as well as the microbiota present in the immediate a: variations in microbial numbers and composition across the length of the gastrointestinal tract. For instance, Bacteroides, Bifidobacterium, Streptococcus, members of Enterobacteriacea, Enterococcus, Clostridium, Lactobacillus, and Ruminococcus were all found in feces, whereas only Clostridium, Lactobacillus, and Enterococcus were detected in the mucus layer and epithelial crypts of the small intestine (Sekirov et al., 2010). Upon passage through the birth canal, infants are exposed to a complex microbial population.
After the initial establishment of the intestinal microbiota and during the first year of life, the microbial composition of the mammalian intestine is relatively simple and varies widely between different individuals and also with time.
Survival and antagonism effects of probiotics in the gutThe intestinal epithelium is the largest mucosal surface in the human body, provides an interface between the external environment and the host. The gut epithelium is constantly exposed to foreign microbes and antigens derived from digested foods.
Thus, the gut epithelium acts as a physical barrier against microbial invaders and is equipped with various elements of the innate defense system. In the gut, two key elements govern the interplay between environmental triggers and the host: intestinal permeability and intestinal mucosal defense.
Resident bacteria can interact with pathogenic microorganisms and external antigens to protect the gut using various strategies.According to the generally accepted de?nition of a probiotic, the probiotic microorganism should be viable at the time of ingestion to confer a health bene?t.
Although not explicitly stated, this de?nition implies that a probiotic should survive GI tract passage and, colonize the host epithelium. A variety of traits are believed to be relevant for surviving GI tract passage, the most important of which is tolerance both to the highly acidic conditions present in the stomach and to concentrations of bile salts found in the small intestine. These properties have consequently become important selection criteria for new probiotic functionality.
One of the mechanisms by which the gut ?ora resists colonization by pathogenic bacteria is by the production of a physiologically restrictive environment, with respect to pH, redox potential, and hydrogen sul?de production. Probiotic bacteria decrease the luminal pH, as has been demonstrated in patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) following ingestion of the probiotic preparation VSL#3. Several bacteriocins produced by different species from the genus Lactobacillus have been described.
The inhibitory activity of these bacteriocins varies; some inhibit taxonomically related Gram-positive bacteria, and some are active against a much wider range of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria as well as yeasts and molds. Lacticin 3147, a broad-spectrum bacteriocin produced by Lactococcus lactis, inhibits a range of genetically distinct Clostridium dif?cile isolates from healthy subjects and patients with IBD. A further example is the antimicrobial effect of Lactobacillus species on Helicobacter pylori infection of gastric mucosa, achieved by the release of bacteriocins and the ability to decrease adherence of this pathogen to epithelial cells (Gotteland et al., 2006).
The pretreatment of intestinal (T84) cells with lactic acid-producing bacteria reduced the ability of pathogenic E.
Adhesion and invasion of an intestinal epithelial cell line (Intestine 407) by adherent invasive E. Probiotics and the mucous layerMost mucosal surfaces are covered by a hydrated gel formed by mucins. Mucins are secreted by specialized epithelial cells, such as gastric foveolar mucous cells and intestinal goblet cells, Goblet cells are found along the entire length of the intestinal tract, as well as other mucosal surfaces. Of the 18 mucin-type glycoproteins expressed by humans, MUC2 is the predominant glycoprotein found in the small and large bowel mucus. The NH2- and COOH-termini are not glycosylated to the same extent, but are rich in cysteine residues that form intra- and inter-molecular disul?de bonds. These glycan groups confer proteolytic resistance and hydrophilicity to the mucins, whereas the disul?de linkages form a matrix of glycoproteins that is the backbone of the mucous layer (Ohland and MacNaughton, 2010). Although small molecules pass through the heavily glycosylated mucus layer with relative ease, bulk fluid flow is limited and thereby contributes to the development of an unstirred layer of fluid at the epithelial cell surface.
As the unstirred layer is protected from convective mixing forces, the diffusion of ions and small solutes is slowed (Turner, 2009).
This gel layer provides protection by shielding the epithelium from potentially harmful antigens and molecules including bacteria from directly contacting the epithelial cell layer, while acting as a lubricant for intestinal motility.
Mucins can also bind the epithelial cell surface carbohydrates and form the bottom layer, which is ?rmly attached to the mucosa, whereas the upper layer is loosely adherent. The mucus is the ?rst barrier that intestinal bacteria meet, and pathogens must penetrate it to reach the epithelial cells during infection (Ohland and MacNaughton, 2010).Probiotics may promote mucus secretion as one mechanism to improve barrier function and exclusion of pathogens.
In support of this concept, probiotics have been shown to increase mucin expression in vitro, contributing to barrier function and exclusion of pathogens.
Several studies showed that increased mucin expression in the human intestinal cell lines Caco-2 (MUC2) and HT29 (MUC2 and 3), thus blocking pathogenic E. However, healthy rats did not display increased colonic TFF3 expression after stimulation by VSL#3 probiotics (Caballero-Franco et al., 2007). Furthermore, mice treated with 1% dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) to induce chronic colitis did not exhibit increased TFF3 expression or wound healing when subsequently treated with VSL#3.
This observation indicates that probiotics do not enhance barrier function by up-regulation of TFF3, nor are they effective at healing established in?ammation. Therefore, use of current probiotics is likely to be effective only in preventing in?ammation as shown by studies in animal models (Ohland and MacNaughton, 2010).5. Interaction of probiotic bacteria with gut epitheliumThe composition of the commensal gut microbiota is probably influenced by the combination of food practices and other factors like the geographical localization, various levels of hygiene or various climates.
The establishment of a normal microbiota provides the most substantial antigenic challenge to the immune system, thus helping the gut associated lymphoid tissus (GALT) maturation.
The intestinal microbiota contributes to the anti-inflammatory character of the intestinal immune system.
Several immunoregulatory mechanisms, including regulatory cells, cytokines, apoptosis among others, participate in the control of immune responses by preventing the pathological processes associated with excessive reactivity. An interesting premise for probiotic physiological action is their capacity to modulate the immune system.
Consequently, many studies have focused on the effects of probiotics on diverse aspects of the immune response.
Following consumption of probiotic products, the interaction of these bacteria with intestinal enterocytes initiates a host response, since intestinal cells produce various immunomodulatory molecules when stimulated by bacteria (Delcenseri et al., 2009).
Furthermore, The indigenous microbiota is a natural resistance factor against potential pathogenic microorganisms and provides colonization resistance, also known as gut barrier, by controlling the growth of opportunistic microorganisms.
It has been suggested that commensal bacteria protect their host against microbial pathogens by interfering with their adhesion and toxic effects (Myllyluoma, 2007).A fraction of ingested probiotics are able to interact with intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) and dendritic cells (DCs), depending on the presence of a dynamic mucus layer. Probiotics can occasionally encounter DCs through two routes: DCs residing in the lamina propria sample luminal bacterial antigens by passing their dendrites between IECs into the gut lumen, and DCs can also interact directly with bacteria that have gained access to the dome region of the gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) through specialized epithelial cells, termed microfold or M cells. The interaction of the host cells with microorganism-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs) that are present on the surface macromolecules of probiotic bacteria will induce a certain molecular response. The host pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) that can perceive probiotic signals include Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and the C type lectin DC-specific intercellular adhesion molecule 3-grabbing non-integrin (DC-SIGN).
Some molecular responses of IECs depend on the subtype of cell, for example, Paneth cells produce defensins and goblet cells produce mucus. Important responses of DCs against probiotics include the production of cytokines, major histocompatibility complex molecules for antigen presentation, and co-stimulatory molecules that polarize T cells into T helper or CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells in the mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs) or subepithelial dome of the GALT.
Host interactions of probiotic bacterial surface molecules: comparison with commensals and pathogens.



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