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Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. A strain of probiotic bacteria that can fight harmful bacterial infections in poultry has the ability to change its coat, according to new findings from the Institute of Food Research. The researchers at IFR, which is strategically funded by the Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council, had previously found that the probiotic Lactobacillus johnsonsii, when given to young chicks, prevents the colonisation of C. The researchers noticed when examining the bacteria that a small number of them appear smooth. By turning off one or more of the coat genes, they could see what effect this had on its ability to stick to gut tissues. Understanding the role of the slime capsule coat will inform the commercial development of this strain as a preventative treatment for C.
As there is a growing pressure to reduce the use of antibiotics in farming, new products are needed to maintain animal welfare standards, reduce the huge costs of necrosis in poultry and help keep our food safe. IFR is one of eight institutes that receive strategic funding from the Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council.
The institutes deliver innovative, world class bioscience research and training, leading to wealth and job creation, generating high returns for the UK economy.
The institutes’ research underpins key sectors of the UK economy such as agriculture, bioenergy, biotechnology, food and drink and pharmaceuticals.
IFR’s MissionOur mission is to be an international leader in research that addresses the fundamental relationships between food and health, food and the gut and the sustainability of the food chain in order to further the production of safe, healthy foods. The IFR is one of eight institutes that receive strategic funding from the Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC). Science journalism is an essential medium for keeping the general public well informed about ground breaking and exciting science.
Over the past decade, research into the microbial organisms that live in and on human beings has exploded dramatically. Figure 1~ A quick search for “Microbiome” in scienctific journals online demonstrates how significantly this field of research has been growing over the past ten years [2]. While microbial communities are present in all areas of they human body, the highly complex intestinal microbiome has become one of the core areas of research. Recently our understanding of the scope of this microbial involvement has taken a surprising turn. This microbiome-gut-brain connection has stirred up public interest as well as scientific curiosity.
In reality, while there is strong preliminary evidence (primarily in rodents) that alterations to or the entire absence of gut microbiota correlates with changes in mood and behavior, there has also been a significant amount of misleading journalism about what scientists really know. Much of the hype surrounding the human microbiome and how it may influence mental health stems from a long standing belief that manipulating the gut microbiota confers positive health benefits to the host. Last December, researchers at Oxford University conducted a trial that tested for emotional and physiological effects of prebiotics on a small group of human volunteers. The researchers gave a group of 45 healthy volunteers (22 male and 23 female) a fructooligosaccharide (FOS), Bimuno®-galactooligosaccharide (B-GOS), or a placebo (maltodextrin) every day for 3 weeks. In addition, when attention to negative versus positive words was measured, B-GOS supplementation correlated to increased focus on positive stimuli (Figure 3). From this data, the researchers conclude that the B-GOS supplement has similar effects as some anti-depressant and anti-anxiety pharmaceuticals, and that prebiotic usage has behavior effects in humans[5].
Perhaps what is most worrisome about this research is that there is a glaring conflict of interest, as a major source of funding came from Clasado Ltd. To test how the consumption of this probiotic cocktail impacted neurological function, the researchers used a combination of fMRI, which scans and monitors brain activity, and a face-matching attention task.
What they found was that the group given the probiotic supplement had a lower amount of activity in several areas of the brain during the experimental task. While the data is very preliminary and provides no direct evidence of a bacterial dependent mechanism for these changes, it is interesting to see in humans what has for sometime been observed in rodents: that the presence or absence of certain bacterial strains in the gut appear to affect the brain.
It is, however, important to note that this study on probiotics shares the same controversy in terms of conflict of interest as the previously-discussed Oxford paper on the effect of prebiotics: it was funded by the Groupe Danone, the makers of Dannon Yogurt. Setting aside a discussion about the strengths and weaknesses of these papers or their possible conflicts of interest, it is most interesting to look at how this research has been reported in the media. For instance, the prebiotics paper has been picked up by multiple news outlets around the world, in one form or another reporting that “some people feeling stressed, anxious or depressed could receive relief by downing probiotics and prebiotics,” or that “[prebiotics] may have an anti-anxiety effect”[4,8].
Of course, the critical viewpoint presented in this piece by no means renders the field meritless. Texture Technologies’ BlogWelcome to the Texture Report, a blog devoted to exciting and new developments in the world of texture analysis testing. Probiotics are one of the latest health crazes and manufacturers are cashing in on the consumer trend. Probiotic purchases tripled from 1994-2003, sales in 2005 have been estimated at $764 million and the market is currently estimated at $1.3 billion. Unfortunately for us, many of these products won’t give you the health benefits they claim.
A $300 million class-action lawsuit was brought against yogurt maker Dannon that charged them with deceptive marketing, false advertising and making unsubstantiated health claims. Probiotics are a good health investment, but only if they are packaged and processed correctly.
The roots of the word “probiotic” mean “for life.” Probiotics refers to the “friendly” flora living in our digestive tracts that help us to break down our foods and gain nutrition from them. Food preservation before the use of refrigeration was the reason the practice of fermentation and the use of “friendly” flora emerged. If probiotics are contained in many foods, why should we take more in the form of specific foods or supplements? One of the biggest reasons for investing in probiotics is that few of us eat traditional foods or maintain a traditional diet any longer. Stay away from general health claims and consider how much information is really on a label. Bacteria type: “Live and active cultures” does not necessarily mean that the kinds of bacteria the product holds has been proven as beneficial.
Probiotics can help your normal digestive system absorb more nutrients which plays a key role in maintaining your health. This is my obligatory disclaimer: The information on this website is based upon my research and personal use of Young Living Essential Oils. Learn from a nurse practitioner sharing information about Young Living Essential Oils for healthy living! Nestle files patent for the combination of probiotic strains Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG and Bifidobacterium lactis BB12 with myo-inositol. Nestle has filed an international patent for the combination of myo-inositol and probiotic strains for pregnant and lactating women and women looking to get pregnancy – a move which marks the second pregnancy probiotic filing from the company in a year. Get FREE access to authoritative breaking news, videos, podcasts, webinars and white papers.
Roundtable discussion: A lighter world: whose fault is globesity and what is being done to combat it? Months of experiments gave Meredith White ample time to observe her laboratory subjects: scallops.


Clams and cockles bury themselves in the sand, oysters cement themselves to a rock or reef, and mussels use their “beards” of strong byssal threads to anchor themselves on rocks or pilings. Since the Industrial Revolution, humans have pumped huge amounts of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere, and the ocean has soaked up 30 percent of the excess. Twelve to 24 hours after fertilization, the larvae begin the critical task of using calcium and carbonate to calcify a shell. White grew up spending summers exploring the shores around her family’s rustic cottage in Harpswell, Maine, with a keen eye to the tides to maximize time scooping up sea urchins and other animals in shallow waters.
White isolated spawning scallops in deli-style plastic containers to capture the eggs and sperm and carefully raised water temperatures. White measured the survival rate and shell size in larvae to test whether larvae spending their first days of life in normal seawater fared differently than larvae spending their first days in seawater acidified with high carbon dioxide. Across the board, “any exposure to the acidified seawater consistently decreased survival,” White said.
Larvae raised in ambient seawater, as well as larvae that had been switched from acidic to ambient seawater before calcification began, had bigger shells than larvae raised in the acidified seawater or switched into acidified water before calcification began.
White’s research was supported by a WHOI Interdisciplinary Award to Mullineaux and McCorkle and by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. They identified genes responsible for making a special coat, or slime capsule, which the bacteria surround themselves in.
It also receives funding from government agencies and departments, the EU, charities and industry, from the UK and overseas. But in the process of translating complex research into attractive material for general consumption important details and subtleties are often lost. Collectively termed the human microbiota, it is estimated that there are perhaps 10x more microbial than human cells cohabiting our bodies[1]. Scientists have already demonstrated that the gut microbiome is importantly involved in the development of the human immune system, and that abnormalities in microbial diversity are correlated with several inflammatory diseases, as well as colon cancer, diabetes, and obesity [1]. The past few years has seen a significant increase in scientific publications that examine if and how the microbiome may also influence our mood and behavior.
The suggestion that our intestinal bacteria are involved in behavior and mood has been particularly marketable, as it is an appealingly simple explanation for depression, anxiety, eating behavior, and even memory. There are two primary ways of altering the intestinal microbiota, either with probiotics, which are live microorganisms, or prebiotics which are essentially bacterial food sources that cannot be metabolized by the host organism. Looking at two very recent studies that report a link between human intestinal microbiota and the brain we can start to get an idea. The amount of time it took participants to complete that task gave researchers an idea of how much attention volunteers paid to the different types of stimuli. In general, we experience a significant increase in cortisol levels within the first hour of getting up in the morning, theorized to be a physiological means of preparing for anticipated stress during the day [6]. The majority of other emotional tests showed no significant difference in response between the test groups. These are bold claims, and while they openly acknowledge that their findings are preliminary, the suggestion that prebiotic consumption will effect human behavior is simply not conclusive from the correlations they observe. Brain activity was monitored during a resting state and while subjects performed tasks that had them identify certain emotions in human faces [7]. In particular they note there were noticeable changes in the periaqueductal gray region of the midbrain, a region of the midbrain that is involved in pain regulation[7]. Dannon both funded part of this research as well as provided the probiotic milk product that this trial tested. Though popular articles may describe some of the particulars and vagaries of the research, they seriously misrepresent the correlations and data by presenting preliminary evidence as something close to proven fact. There is promising evidence that the microbiome is intimately involved in human health, including brain function and behavior. In order to post comments, please make sure JavaScript and Cookies are enabled, and reload the page.
You can find “healthy probiotics” labeling on more than yogurt; this marketing ploy is appearing on products like relish and even pizza! Of the hundreds of probiotic products in the supermarket today, only “15-20 have clinical studies behind them,” says a microbiology professor from Lawson Research Institute.
German sauerkraut, Russian kefir, Korean kimchee, the cured meats and cheeses in France, soy sauce, pickles, sourdough breads, beer… even ketchup was originally a fermented fish sauce!
The bacteria strain should consist of 2 names and two letters: the genus, species and strain. Most probiotic products don’t list the amount of bacteria their product contains and the amount that is effective depends upon many qualifiers. The Food Standards Code claims that at least one million live bacteria per gram are necessary in yogurt and other fermented drinks to provide the 10 billion CFU needed for health effect.
Josh Axe has helped thousands of people transform their health and life through his strategies in advanced nutrition, burst training, weight loss, superfoods, healthy recipes and anti-aging. There are many varieties of probiotics on the market today and there are also a wide variety of qualities. In her research as a graduate student in the MIT-WHOI Joint Program in Oceanography, she got well acquainted with scallops’ idiosyncrasies. But scallops rest on the seafloor and use their formidable (and delicious) adductor muscle to clap themselves through the water by opening and closing their shells. A scallop may become restless sitting in one spot and will swim around the tank to scout a new location. That not only makes seawater more acidic, it makes carbonate less readily available for corals, shellfish, and some plankton to build their calcium-carbonate shells or skeletons. Some coastal waters, however, already surpass the acidity prognosis for 2100 because of a double-whammy of human impacts: excessive atmospheric carbon dioxide and excessive nutrients entering the ocean from fertilizer, sewage, and septic tank runoff. These decomposing organisms crank up their metabolism the same way we do, gobbling up oxygen and releasing carbon dioxide, which acidifies waters to a pH as low as 7.4 in summer months. Importantly, this task is fueled by the energy reserves put into the egg by the parent scallop; the larvae can’t eat, because they have yet to develop mouths!
White bundled up in chest-high neoprene waders, layers of sweatshirts, and gloves for wintertime expeditions to collect scallops on Cape Cod shores. She initiated their fertilization in an aquarium environment in which she could monitor and control carbon dioxide levels and acidity. She also wanted to learn if any impacts are reversible, since larvae in coastal waters can be swept between polluted, acidic coastal areas and open ocean areas within spans of days or even hours.
Among the larvae that survived in all experiments, she found striking differences in their shells. Even though all the larvae subsequently grew at similar rates, the ones with initially stunted shells never fully compensated for those undersized shells later on.
This delicately orchestrated process relieves larval scallops from the threats they face as helpless plankton, so acidic waters that cause them to be smaller effectively extend their most vulnerable period. Measuring shells so small that it took a scanning electron microscope, White noticed that some shells had an unusual dark spot. White received a National Defense Science and Engineering Graduate Fellowship through the American Society for Engineering Education. Now, in research published in the journal PLOS ONE, they have found that the probiotic bacteria have the ability to alter their coat.


This protects the bacteria from stomach acids and bile salts, and helps them come together to form biofilms. This competitive exclusion could be one reason why the probiotic strain prevents the growth of other harmful bacteria. Through the technology transfer company Plant Bioscience Ltd, the strain has been patented and is now in large-scale farm trials to assess its efficacy. Unfortunately these losses can result in misleading representations of science, communicating preliminary and correlative data as nearly proven fact.
Scientists have become increasingly interested in studying the human microbiota because these organisms contribute a huge amount of genetic material to the overall human genome.
The idea being that the microbial cultures in our guts are interacting with our nervous systems through the molecules and proteins they secrete. If there is a link between the intestinal microbiota and the brain then pre and probiotics present exciting avenues for psychological therapies. By examining their methods, conclusions, the various interest groups involved, and the accompanying media coverage we can get a sense of both what is known, where the research is headed, and the aspects that have been skewed in the media. Immediately after waking on the mornings of the first and final days of the trial, participants self-collected samples of saliva.
For example, if patients were able to count the number of stars in the same location as the positive stimulus more quickly that those in the location of the neutral stimulus, this indicated that they were more attentive to positive stimuli. This correlation between prebiotic consumption and lower cortisol levels may demonstrate a connection between the gut microbiome and the human nervous system. Such a situation is common across industry-funded research, and underlines the persistent tension between financial and academic interests threatening scientific objectivity. Kristen Tillisch an associate professor of medicine at UCLA in 2013, the study involved 36 women given either a milk product supplemented with probiotics, milk without probiotics, or no intervention over the course of 4 weeks. Forbes magazine wrote that this research showed how “brains of people ingesting a probiotic for four weeks had less activity in brain areas associated with excessive anxiety”[9]. But there is equally clear evidence that media coverage walks far ahead of the scientific work it intends to report, too often condensing preliminary, correlative and complex data into pat headlines. Prebiotic intake reduces the waking cortisol response and alters emotional bias in healthy volunteers. Depression, anxiety come from the gut: Surprising new research suggests ‘prebiotics’ can help. Knowing what to look for on labels can help you to boost your immunity and correct certain health conditions. Many of the products we buy are processed for speed-to-market and uniformity and in the cheapest, most profitable ways. If the label lists two names, it could be any one of hundreds of bacteria without research or proven health benefits behind it. Health benefits can occur with 50 million colony-forming units (CFU) for certain conditions, and may take as many as 1 trillion CFU for others.
When using a probiotic you want to be sure the probiotic is made up of an active or live strain. Products and techniques mentioned are not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease and they have not been evaluated by the FDA. Resting in their trays, drawing water across their gills for food and oxygen, the scallops reveal rows of shiny eyes ringing the edge of their shells. Plants and animals that have evolved in an ocean where the pH hadn’t changed for millennia may not readily adapt to rapid shifts. As the larvae float in the ocean, growing and transforming their minuscule bodies, they simultaneously face a gantlet of predators, limited food reserves, and dwindling time to find a place to settle down and grow. She used a plexiglass “look-box” to get a clear view down to the sandy bottom and towed a floating basket for her specimens. She targeted her investigations on the critical 12-hour window in which the larvae initiate shell calcification. And even if they make it to the juvenile stage, they may still be at a disadvantage because of their relatively later start as juveniles.
These were strange indentations at the shell’s hinge, and this hinge deformity was always more frequent among scallops that had been in acidified water during their first 12 hours of life, before calcification even begins. As these bacteria have previously been used in the food chain and are considered safe for human consumption, this probiotic strain could become new way of controlling C.
The genomes of our microbiota, and the way they interact with the human host, are collectively termed the microbiome.
Altogether, the accumulating body of scientific literature has provided early glimpses at potential links between our gut bacteria and conditions such as anxiety, depression, schizophrenia, and autism [3]. Subjects were then given a series of emotional processing tasks in which attention to positive versus negative stimuli was measured. Researchers observed that those given prebiotics tended to be less attentive to negative stimuli [5]. The researchers suggest that this correlation may point to prebiotics having an anti-anxiety affect that is similar to existing pharmaceuticals. Fecal samples from the volunteers were analyzed for Bifidobacterium lactis, which was the active probiotic in the supplement, such that potential control subjects were screened to be B.
While the general idea is accurate, making the connection to anxiety is still a stretch and grossly oversimplifies the research. My blog may contain some affiliate links to help support the continued education from this blog. In particular, she focused on how changing ocean conditions might affect scallops during their sensitive, crucial larval stages. The natural appearance of smooth mutants could be a ploy used by the bacteria to introduce variation into its populations, making them able to take advantage of different environments. There are many examples of media distorting or overselling science, but right now there is probably no better example than much of the coverage of research on the human microbiome and how its manipulation might impact human mental health. The fundamental hypothesis that is driving, and increasingly validated by, human microbiome research is that all of this microbial activity adds up to a significant impact on human physiology.  More and more we are developing an understanding of what kinds of microbes are living where, and how they are intimately involved in human health and disease.
The likely end result is the degradation of public trust in the integrity and validity of scientific research. The addition of sugar and pasteurization limit the health benefits of probiotics in our foods. He traveled to London as a member of the Wellness Advisory Council for USA Wrestling and Weight Lifting team.
For a high intensity workout you can do in 20 minutes a day, check out his burstFIT DVD program .
Fisk determined that presence of edible films in the tested bakery products did not change the products’ textural properties. The culture count matters as well and Young Living’s proprietary blend contains 10 billion which means 10 billion beneficial cultures per serving bypassing the stomach improving overall efficacy of the probiotic.



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Comments to “Probiotic research in usa”

  1. dracon:
    Distributor (Amerifit Brands) of the probiotic.
  2. TeNHa_H:
    European Food Safety Authority has pCR-based DGGE analysis digestive Enzymes Supplement. That daily.
  3. KOROL_BAKU:
    I have been using supplements studies are needed.
  4. 626:
    Lactis can improve digestive comfort, while whole.