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Probiotic Meat ProductsRenata Ernlund Freitas de Macedo1, Sergio Bertelli Pflanzer2 and Carolina Lugnani Gomes2[1] School of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine, Pontifical Catholic University of Parana, Sao Jose dos Pinhais, Parana,, Brazil[2] Food Technology Department, Faculty of Food Engineer, State University of Campinas, Campinas, Sao Paulo,, Brazil1. Santos FL, Ferreira CLLF, Costa NMB.Modulacao da colesterolemia por meio de prebioticos e probioticos. Ferreira CLLF.Grupo de bacterias lacticas- Caracterizacao e aplicacao tecnologica de bacterias probioticas. Heenan CN, Adams MC, Hosken RW.Growth medium for culturing Probiotics bacteria for applications in vegetarian food products. TRY IT OUT: Sign up for free recipes, tips and a 5-day meal plan with shopping list and prep sheet. I’ve been making dairy-free homemade probiotic coconut yogurt from fresh young coconuts for years now but have always kinda sorta wished that I was able to get MORE delicious yogurt per batch for my efforts.
Anyway, a few weeks ago I had an idea: what if I could stretch each batch of yogurt by adding canned coconut milk to the fresh coconut?
So, I grabbed a can of organic coconut milk, blended it with the fresh, waited a few days and success! Now, I’m not a huge fan of using canned foods (I talk a little bit about that here), but for now, coconut milk is my exception when I can find organic, BPA-free canned options. To learn more about fermenting and the powerful benefits of probiotic foods, check out my other immune-boosting recipes: plain kombucha, flavored kombucha, sauerkraut, kimchi, almond yogurt, coconut kefir yogurt and coconut kefir water. Note: Coconuts yield different amounts of meat—so start with less coconut water and add more after you add your canned coconut milk (which also has water in it) to reach desired consistency. I have only tried making yogurt once since going vegan and it was a fail, but this recipe has me ready to try it again! I like to use probiotic capsules found in the refrigerated section that have a nice variety of strains, and when I can find it, including S.
Probiotics can be classified as a set of functional food which has live bacteria that are beneficial and not harmful to the human beings.
Two main bacteria that are probiotic are lactobacilli and bifidobacteria; these are a component of the lactic acid bacteria and are present in fermented dairy products.
Probiotic supplements have actively taken over the market shelves when compared to other forms of probiotic food. Probiotic acidophilus is a naturally occurring antibiotic that helps enhance digestion, produces vitamin B and brings down the risk of colon cancer. Exhibits natural antibiotic characters thus reducing reproduction of bad bacteria in the GI tract and reducing infections in the respiratory, bowel, vaginal and urinary tracts. Most of the bacteria that are consumed by us die once they reach the acid conditions of the stomach. The human stomach has the least amount of probiotic bacteria because of its exceedingly acidic nature and the large intestine has the maximum amount of this bacteria. Probiotics help keep up the balance between harmful and beneficial bacteria in the gut thus maintaining a healthy digestive system. Consumption of probiotics is very useful and beneficial for people who have taken antibiotics for a long time.
Traveling abroad means facing travel induced diarrhea, probiotics help the body tackle this condition with ease. To treat this autoimmune condition, it is necessary to work on the source of hormone imbalance. Here Are Some Natural Tips For Low Thyroid Levels: Non-starchy Foods You should almost stop taking caffeine and sugar along with refined carbohydrates (flour). Increase Healthy Fat Intake Inadequate fats and cholesterol could cause hormonal imbalance including thyroid hormone. Nutrient Intake Micronutrients and minerals that are essential for the normal functioning of thyroid include iron, vitamin D, selenium, vitamin A and B, iodine, zinc, copper and omega-3-fatty acids. Take 100 Percent Gluten-free Diet The thyroid tissue molecular composition resembles that of gluten. Probiotic Addition To The Gut Thyroid functioning can be enhanced by sufficiently growing intestinal bacteria. Include Fruits And Vegetables In The Diet You should eat fresh organic produce of local and seasonal origin. Exercise It is necessary to be engaged in thyroid stimulating workouts that improve thyroid function. Take Enough Time To Rest Sufficient sleep during the nights will show impact on the thyroid levels. In addition to its probiotic capacity, tempeh is also a very good source of manganese, copper, fiber protein and vitamin B2.
IntroductionThe growing concern of consumers regarding the food health and safety issues has led to the development of products that promote health and well-being beyond its nutritional effect [1]. I mean, I break out “Cleve” my cleaver, the tongs, the bowls… Opening coconuts is easy for me now, but making yogurt is still a small labor of love. Open your can of coconut milk, add entire contents to the blender and blend until super smooth (about 1 minute on high). Transfer blender contents to a sterilized (fill with boiling water and rinse), clean, glass bowl. Using a dry, sterilized wooden spoon (boiled in water for 2 minutes), stir together contents of the probiotic capsule (and if you like, kombucha). Cover with a clean towel and place in a cool, dark pantry or counter top out of direct sunlight for 1–3 days. Try the yogurt on day 2 by placing a clean, dry spoon into the mixture and tasting—it should be sour and even “zingy”.
When ready to enjoy, place berries and your sweetener of choice in a blender and mix until super smooth. I like to layer some berry puree into a sterilized, clean canning car with yogurt and repeat the layering until almost filled (leave room for fermentation expansion and to keep probiotics from reaching the metal lid). If you use small, single-serving jars you can have the fridge stocked for a week or two. Save extra coconut water and use to replace plain water in homemade non-dairy milks, chia puddings and smoothies.
To strike equilibrium between beneficial and harmful bacteria in the gut a resource of beneficial bacteria has to be added in the diet. The first ever probiotic food introduced was adding acidophilus to the milk, this helped people develop better tolerance towards milk and also helped people who found it difficult to digest milk. In the world market today there are over 70 products that contain lactic acid bacteria which can be classified as probiotic food. Studies point that an average American's expenditure on these supplements has tripled from 1994 to 2003.
Among the millions of bacteria present in the digestive system, many are beneficial and many are harmful, the most beneficial among the lot is acidophilus. Helps develop better tolerance to lactose related products as acidophilus breaks down the lactose present in these products.
For any beneficial bacteria to be classified as probiotic it has to exhibit resistance to gastric, pancreatic and bile juices and should reach the colon(large intestine) alive. An average adult should have 85% of probiotic bacteria and 15% of harmful bacteria to maintain the balance.
Also improves overall digestion and in particular is good for improving digestion of fats, carbohydrates and proteins.
It releases a hormone that influences the functioning of every organ, cell and tissue in the human body. Iodine food sources include sea foods, eggs, asparagus, sesame seeds, mushrooms, garlic, spinach, summer squash, lima beans etc. So, eating gluten rich diets by the gluten intolerant individuals can enhance the autoimmune attack of the immune system on the thyroid gland. It is available in cabbage, cauliflower, broccoli, spinach, millet, kale, peanuts, radishes, peaches, soya beans, turnips etc.


Drinking plenty of water will keep your body healthy in general and makes the body to work properly.
Both manganese and copper promote wound healing and tissue strength through collagen synthesis.
Functional foods are those which promote beneficial effects to human?s health beyond nutrition. Mayo, Selection criteria for lactic acid bacteria to be used as functional starter cultures in dry sausage production: An update. Petaja, Screening of commercial meat starter cultures at low pH and in the presence of bile salts for potential probiotic use. I know that there’s a coconut opening tool out there called a Coco-Jack that claims to make coconut opening a snap, but I haven’t tried one yet. And while the young coconut meat is loaded with that, the canned may not be, but blended together? If it seems too thick, you can add a bit more coconut water until you get the consistency that you like. The probiotics will be excited about the berries—they’re sugar aka food for them—so know that prepared berry yogurts in the fridge will continue to ferment. It’s a great thing. Probiotics are beneficial bacteria that can be induced into the digestive system through food. Probiotic supplements contain diverse and numerous products that include capsules, tablets, liquids, powders and food-like products.
Acidophilus can be found in yogurt, acidophilus milk and probiotic acidophilus supplements. These beneficial bacteria attach to the wall of the intestine and multiply their numbers plus fight against the harmful bacteria thus striking a balance between harmful and beneficial bacteria. Probiotic bacteria are sold as probiotic food and probiotic dietary supplements in the United States. Some of the protein dietary inclusions are nuts, legumes, eggs, organic and grass fed meat. Healthy fats include olive oil, coconut oil, coconut milk products, flax seeds, nuts, nut butter, ghee, avocados and full fat cheese free of antibiotics. It helps the body to regulate the immune system, heal the thyroid tissue, diminish autoimmune disorders.
If you have avoided salt added foods for controlling high blood pressure, an iodine supplement can be used. Tempeh also contains significant amounts of fiber and protein, but is very calorie?dense, and so should be eaten in moderation.
Their effects are due to the addition of active ingredients, the removal or the replacement of undesirable compounds in its composition [2].The marketing of food for health benefits began in 1960s.
Holley, Microbiological and sensory quality of dry fermented sausages containing alginate-microencapsulated Lactobacillus reuteri. Kulozik, Microencapsulation of probiotic cells by means of rennet-gelation of milk proteins. Kulozik, Influence of casein-based microencapsulation on freeze-drying and storage of probiotic cells. Itoh, UV-induced Lactobacillus gasseri mutants resisting sodium choride and sodium nitrite for meat fermentation.
Probiotics added to food that we consume are usually taken from human, animal or vegetable source. Food items that contain probiotic bacteria are mainly dairy products such as probiotic added fluid milk and yogurt. Conventionally probiotics are consumed as yoghurt all over but of late probiotics have been introduced in drinks, capsule, tablet and freeze dried forms. Probiotic supplements have to be manufactured and stored in such a manner that the bacteria can stay workable in dried form and reach the intestine alive when eaten. The body temperature, heart rate, rate of metabolism and production of protein are regulated by the thyroid gland.The major causes of hypothyroidism are iodine and selenium deficiency, radiation and heavy metal exposure toxicity, hormonal balance due to stress, more carbohydrates and less fat in the diet, and intolerance to gluten and A1casein. Soya bean is not recommended as it obstructs receptors in the cell and damages the functional loop in the entire endocrine system. Glutathione is produced in the body by taking foods like garlic, spinach, broccoli, asparagus, peaches, avocado, raw eggs and grape fruit. Some of the iodine sources include eggs, yogurt, brownish sea vegetables, milk and seafood and fish. In 1970s the trend was to eliminate or reduce the harmful constituents like sugars and fats from food. Kotzekidou, Characterization of lactic acid bacteria isolated from a Greek dry-fermented sausage in respect of their technological and probiotic properties. Bulgaricus, Streptococcus thermophilus, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Bifidobacteria, Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, and Propionibacteria. Henriksson, Application of nontraditional meat starter cultures in production of Hungarian salami. Also, the warmth the blender generates makes this mixture a nice temperature for the probiotics to thrive.
Probiotic supplement should also contain the right amount of moisture to give out the best effect.
If you let it go too long and you actually see steam, it’s too hot, let it cool a bit to warm before step 5. Numerous varieties of lactobacilli and bifidobacteria are used to manufacture probiotic supplements. Almost 90 percent of people with hypothyroidism suffer from autoimmune condition termed as Hashimoto’s thyroid. However, lately, those meat products are considered unhealthy by a part of population because of their fat content and the use of additives and spices in their formulation. Kondo, Effect of intestinal Lactobacillus starter cultures on the behaviour of Staphylococcus aureus in fermented sausage.
Villani, Selection of Lactobacillus strains from fermented sausages for their potential use as probiotics.
Casaburi, Technological and probiotic characteristics of Lactobacillus and coagulase negative Staphylococcus strains as starter for fermented sausage manufacture. Baldi, Evaluation of functional aspects in Lactobacillus strains isolated from dry fermented sausages. Yamanaka, Lactobacillus acidophilus group lactic acid bacteria applied to meat fermentation. Therefore, the addition of probiotics to the fermented sausages could promote the health benefits associated with lactic acid bacteria and contribute to the increase in the consumption of such products [7, 8].The use of probiotics seems more promising in raw fermented meat products like salami as they are made with raw meat and consumed without prior heating, which would kill the probiotic bacteria [9, 10]. Suihko, Flavour profiles of dry sausages fermented by selected novel meat starter cultures. Cordoba, Screening of lactic acid bacteria and bifidobacteria for potential probiotic use in iberian dry fermented sausage.
Budde, Identification of potential probiotic starter cultures for Scandinavian-type fermented sausage. Internet], 2009updated 2001; cited 2009 May 25] Evaluation of health and nutritional properties of probiotics in food including powder milk with live lactic acid bacteria. These supplements are mainly used to prevent urinary tract infections in women, antibiotics-induced diarrhea and improve immunity in children. However, the incorporation of probiotic bacteria to these products also represents a technological challenge because of the known sensitivity of probiotic to curing salts, spices and other ingredients used in the formulation of the fermented sausages [11]. Dosage of these supplements depends on the number of live organisms present in the product. Cantor, Functional properties of novel protective lactic acid bacteria and application in raw chicken meat against Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella enteritidis. Fermented sausagesFermented sausages are defined as a mixture of ground lean meat and minced fat, curing salts, sugar and spices, which are embedded into a casing and subjected to fermentation and drying [6, 13, 14].The quality of fermented sausages is closely related to the ripening process that gives color, flavor, aroma, and firmness to the product which are developed by a complex interaction of chemical and physical reactions associated with the fermentative action of the microbiological flora present in the sausage.
In handmade production processes of fermented sausages, fermentation occurs spontaneously by the action of in nature bacteria present on meat. In industrial processes the microbiological flora, responsible for the fermentation process, is known as starter culture [6]. Starter cultures are defined as preparations containing live microorganisms capable of developing desirable metabolic activity in meat.


They are used to increase the microbiological safety, to maintain stability by inhibiting the growth of undesirable microorganisms and to improve the sensory characteristics of fermented sausages [1]. Starter cultures are formed by mixing of different types of microorganisms, where each one has a specific function.
Lactic bacteria are used in order to generate controlled and intense acidification which inhibits the development of undesirable microorganisms, and provides increased safety and stability to the product. Typically, the species used as the starter culture are selected from strains naturally predominant in meat products and hence, well adapted to this environment. Therefore, these species present a tendency to have greater metabolic capacity which is reflected on the development of the proper sensory and physical-chemical characteristics on the product [6].Given the adverse conditions of the meat matrix for a number of microorganisms, including those considered probiotics, several studies suggest the selection of probiotic properties in lactic bacteria from commercial starter culture traditionally used in fermented meat products and therefore, already adapted to grow in these conditions.
These cultures will provide to the product the same sensory and technological characteristics than the traditional starter cultures, and exert beneficial effects to health [8, 15, 18]. Probiotic fermented sausagesAlthough the concept of including probiotics in meat products is not entirely new, only a few manufacturers consider the use of fermented sausages as vehicles for probiotics [7, 17].
Several meat products containing probiotics with claims for health bene?ts have been commercialized. A salami containing three intestinal LAB (Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus casei and Bi?dobacterium spp.) was produced by a German company in 1998. In the same year, a meat spread containing an intestinal LAB (Lactobacillus rhamnosus FERM P-15120) was produced by a Japanese company [26-28].Fermented sausages are suitable for the incorporation of probiotic bacteria since mild or no heat treatment is usually required by dry fermented meat products, thus providing the suitable conditions required for the survival of probiotics [3, 14, 26]. The sausage has to be designed in such a way as to keep the number and viability of probiotic strain in the optimum range. Those cultures are called protective starter cultures and do not promote significant changes in physical and sensory characteristics of the product.
On the other hand, probiotic cultures are, by definition, those that after ingestion in sufficient number employ health benefits in addition to their nutritional effects [6, 8, 15]. However, often, the probiotic cultures have also been used in meat products as protective cultures, since both of these cultures have the ability to survive in adverse environments and to produce organic acids and bacteriocins [18].
Likewise, probiotics added to meat products are also known as functional starter cultures since they contribute to safety, can provide sensory and nutritional benefits and promote health [6].The success of probiotics in other types of foods, especially dairy products, is based on scientific evidence of beneficial effects provided by some microorganisms. In meat products, the beneficial effects must be proven with the consumption of these products. From the good results obtained with dairy products it is not possible to conclude that a probiotic species will have the same effect on another type of product. This is due to the fact that the performance and properties of microorganisms are environment-dependent. Most used probiotic cultures in meat productsProbiotics are mainly the strains from species of Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus. Other than these, some species of Lactococcus, Enterococcus, Saccharomyces and Propionibacterium are considered as probiotics due to their ability to promote health in the host [32].In fermented meat products several studies have demonstrated the feasibility of using probiotic Lactobacillus.
Criteria for the selection of probiotic cultures for meat productsThe criteria for a microbial culture to be considered probiotic are the stomach acidity resistance, lysozyme and bile resistance and the ability to colonize the human intestinal tract using mechanisms of adhesion or binding to intestinal cells [7, 8, 23, 35]. Other authors have also included the ability to tolerate pancreatic enzymes as a required characteristic of probiotic cultures [16].Additionally to the criteria described above, the probiotic bacteria need to have GRAS (Generally Recognized as Safe) status [36]. Currently, this concept also includes the antibiotic resistance evaluated by Qualified Prediction Security Program suggested by EFSA (European Food Safety Authority).
The ability of probiotic bacteria used in meat products to resist to some antibiotics can be genetically transmitted to other bacteria. Scientific studies report genetic determinants for bacterial resistance to chloramphenicol, erythromycin and tetracycline [14].
Normally, the lactic acid bacteria are sensitive to penicillin G, ampicillin, tetracycline, erythromycin, chloramphenicol and aminoglycosides, quinolones and glycopeptides [18].
However, the addition of lyophilized culture can delay the fermentation time and reduce the culture viability in the final product. This procedure is also indicated when probiotic strains are inhibited by ingredients of the sausage composition [6, 38].Microencapsulation increases the viability of bacteria due to the protective effect of a polymeric membrane formed around the bacterial cells.
The methods used for microencapsulation of lactic acid bacteria are extrusion and emulsification.
Extrusion produces microcapsules with 2-3 mm in diameter which are 60 times greater than the microcapsule formed by emulsification.
The materials most commonly used for the microencapsulation of probiotics include alginate, starch, k-carrageenan, guar gum, xanthan gum, gelatin and milk whey proteins. Muthukumarasamy and Holley [38] tested the microencapsulation of Lactobacillus reuteri ATCC 55730 in alginate for use in fermented meat product and found no adverse effect on the sensory quality of the product.
Despite the microcapsules were visible to naked eye, they were detected as fat particles by the panelists due to their size and color similarity.
Rivera-Espinoza and Gallardo-Navarro [17] encapsulated Bifidobacterium longum and Lactobacillus reuteri in alginate to increase the survival of probiotics in fermented meat. Recently, Poulin, Caillard, and Subirade [39] created succinylated ?-lactoglobulin tablet to protect B. Heidebach, Forst and Kulozik [40] reported higher viability of Lactobacillus F19 encapsulated with casein during freeze storage compared to Bifidobacterium Bb12.
Furthermore, the same authors [41] microencapsulated these two strains with rennet-induced gelation of milk, obtaining higher yields and improved survival rates. Lactic acid productionOne of the most important characteristics of Lactobacillus in fermented meat products is the production of lactic acid. The acidification has positive effects on safety and on the sensory characteristics of the product. The pH decrease in fermented sausages provides the coagulation of myofibrillar proteins, resulting in the increase of firmness and cohesiveness of the final product, and contributes to the flavor and red color. Inhibition of spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms is also provided by the fast decrease of pH and lactic acid production in appropriate quantities. The fast decrease in pH values during fermentation of sausages can also contribute to the prevention of the accumulation of biogenic amines, which are harmful to health [14].However, it is important to confirm that the lactic acid bacteria used as probiotic produce the L(+) isomer lactic acid and do not produce the D(-) isomer lactic acid, due to the higher inhibitory effect on undesirable microorganisms of the L(+) lactic acid. Resistance to salt (NaCl) and nitrite (NO2)According to Arihara and Itoh [43] and Sameshima et al. Thus, the use of cultures resistant to curing salts is the first condition for the production of sausage with probiotic properties [23].Sameshima et al. Bacteriocin production in meat productsBacteriocins are peptides or proteins produced by microorganisms which destroy or inhibit the growth of gram positive bacteria, in particular Listeria monocytogenes.
The use of bacteriocin-producing cultures in meat products may represent a considerable benefit to the consumers health and safety of the product, since bacteriocins do not pose toxicological hazards arising from their consumption and act as a natural form of preservation in the products.
The production of bacteriocins has been detected in several lactic acid bacteria isolated from meat products such as L. Such inhibition is related to a reduction in intracellular pH of the bacteria caused by non-dissociated lactic acid form, which due to its lipophilic nature, it diffuses through the cell membrane and causes collapse of the electrochemical gradient, promoting bacteriostatic or bactericidal effects [14, 36].The survival of the probiotic to the gastric juice depends on its ability to tolerate low pH.
Meat, as well as milk, has buffers characteristics in acid environment and can thereby protect the probiotic from the adverse environment of the stomach [1].Erkkila and Petaja [22] reported the resistance of species of Lactobacillus pentosus, L. The authors found that from a total of 14 lactic acid bacteria that survived at pH 2.5 during 3 hours, 5 belonged to the Lactobacillus casei group. These authors also mention studies on the resistance of 20 strains of Lactobacillus isolated from infant faeces to acidic conditions and report the high viability rate of 3 strains of L. The intensity of its inhibitory effect on microorganisms is determined by the concentration of salts in the bile composition [47]. Bile salts act by destroying the lipid layer and the fatty acids of the cell membrane of microorganisms.
However, some Lactobacillus strains are able to hydrolyze bile salts by excreting bile salt hydrolase enzyme that weakens the detergent power of the bile [23].
Lactobacillus bile resistance has also been associated with other factors such as the stress response system as well as with the elements that involve the maintenance of cellular wall integrity, the energetic metabolism, the amino acid transport and the fatty acid biosynthesis [48].According to Erkkila and Petaja [22] and Pennacchia et al.
During meat sausage processing, Lactobacillus added to the batter are encapsulated by the matrix consisting of meat and fat.



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