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Lactobacilli derived from the endogenous flora of normal donors are being increasingly used as probiotics in functional foods and as vaccine carriers. Although both Lactobacillus strains displayed similar growth, survival, and adherence properties in vitro, they colonized the intestinal lumen and translocated into mucosal lymphoid organs at different densities. However, clear differences in the patterns of immunoglobulins were observed between the two strains in the mucosa and in the periphery. Of the bacteria assessed, nine strains of Bifidobacterium produced the cg, t11 CLA isomer from free linoleic acid.
Finally, it has been demonstrated that the therapeutic dose of IL-10 may be reduced by localized delivery of a probiotic genetically engineered to secrete the cytokine. There is some evidence suggesting that probiotics prevent infections caused by enteropathogens. Another criterion for effective probiotic organisms is the adhesion to epithelial cells, a characteristic of several lactobacilli and some bifidobacteria. A human feeding study conducted in 80 healthy volunteers showed that yogurt may be used as a vehicle for delivery of strain UCC118 to the human gastrointestinal tract with considerable efficacy in influencing gut flora and colonization.
Given the upset stomachs that sometimes come with altitude sickness, these products may be a very helpful nutritional staple for us climbers. Probiotics are not only effective for treating serious illnesses, they also protect a healthy bowel. High Cholesterol: By breaking down bile in the gut, probiotics can inhibit its re-absorption. High Blood Pressure: Some studies show that milk fermented with probiotics can cause a modest reduction in blood pressure. Infections: Taking probiotics may improve immune function, which will in turn help you fight infections. If you are completely lactose intolerant, a company called Good Belly makes a non-dairy probiotic drink. Probiotics, which means ‘for life’, have been used for centuries as natural components in health-promoting foods. A study just published by scientists at London’s Imperial College, published in Molecular Systems Biology, adds more weight to the argument for probiotic bacteria, demonstrating the measurable affect they have on gut flora. Professor Jeremy Nicholson, who led the project, says: “Our study shows that probiotics can have an affect and they interact with local ecology and talk to other bacteria. Increasingly, research supports the health benefits of live bacteria (probiotics) to treat a variety of intestinal disorders and reduce staphylococcal growth during antibiotic treatment. Lactobacillus acidophilus, commonly called acidophilus, is one of several stains of friendly probiotic bacteria normally found in the intestines and vagina.
Intestinal flora, like acidophilus, play an important role in keeping the immune system healthy, the digestion system in balance, and in producing vitamins. As acidophilus breaks down foods, it produces lactic acid, hydrogen peroxide, and other beneficial byproducts. Also, acidophilus consumes many of the same nutrients these unfriendly organisms depend on, thus limiting their food source and ability to proliferate. Acidophilus supplement included in your daily diet appears to help keep your digestive system in balance and offset some of the negative effects caused by ingested toxins and viruses. In a study reported in the February 1998 issue of Health & Nutrition Breakthroughs researchers tested the effect of using L. After three weeks, researchers took blood samples to determine the phagocytic activity (ability to destroy foreign bacteria) of each person’s white blood cells. Blood samples were examined again six weeks after stopping probiotic supplementation and the phagocytic activity was still much greater than at the beginning of the study. In one study, Dr Schroder found that women suffering from a high incidence of vaginitis generally had high-alkaline pH and low levels of L.
Another study reported in a 1960 issue of American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology concluded that use of L. Two new review articles cover therapeutic approaches to Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) in the July issue of Nutrition in Clinical Practice, and show growing evidence that probiotics, and specifically Bifidobacterium infantis35624 (B Infantis), are effective in helping manage IBS. In “Behavioral and Complementary Approaches for the Treatment of IBS,” the authors acknowledge that there is “increasing evidence of efficacy” for probiotics. The second review article, “Update on Irritable Bowel Syndrome and Gender Differences”, which cites the same study by O’Mahony et al., notes that the “strain and type of probiotic used may be responsible for the degree and type of improvement. IBS is a gastrointestinal disorder that is characterized by a group of symptoms including constipation, diarrhea, urgency, abdominal discomfort, gas and bloating. What your mind may be telling you is correct: Plenty of good bacteria in the gut means more nutrients from good food are available.
You must have JavaScript enabled in your browser to utilize the functionality of this website. Changes in our microbial communities throughout life may be responsible for digestive disorders, skin diseases, gum disease and even obesity.
In the past 60 years, antibiotics have been critical in the fight against infectious disease caused by bacteria and other microbes. The definition of a probiotic adopted by the World Health Organisation is "Live microorganisms which when administered in adequate amounts confer a health benefit on the host”. Some 2% of people are naturally protected as they already have Streptococcus salivarius producing bacteriocins similar to BLIS K12™.
Probiotics, the beneficial live micro-organisms present as a part of your gut flora are far more helpful than just in the process of digestion. Researchers state that the overall cholesterol level is reduced in the presence of probiotics. Certain probiotic elements like BLIS and K12 are known to have a positive impact on people suffering from tonsillitis and strep throat. Whether due to unhealthy food intake or as a side effect of antibiotics, diarrhea is a horrible experience.
One of the primary focuses of the probiotics is used to maintain a healthy urinary tract in females.
Mothers with skin condition such as eczema run a high risk of passing on the disease to their next generation. The condition when babies cry continuously and is there no apparent way to confirm them is quite a devastating sight for parents.
Even if certain reports present otherwise, probiotics though not a miraculous cure for diseases definitely are not harmful. Charles D Funkel takes great interest in studying the functions of enzymes on the various functions of the body.
Probiotics Bad Breath Healthy Living News we may be able to fight off more harmful bacteria and stop them from infecting our mouths. For maintaining regularity is a probiotic & prebiotic supplement especially made to support regular bowel routine.
The score (a number between zero and 100) estimates the chance of the cancer returning after surgery.
Andreas probiotics during norovirus Busch Member of the Bayer Probiotic Bacteria Yogut HealthCare Executive Committee and Head of Global Drug Discovery. Abstract Colorectal cancer is the second most common cause of cancer death in the United States.
Living with acne can be difficult probiotics after effects due to the health problems it presents. This includes primary (tumors that originated in the liver) and metastatic Probiotic Bacteria Yogurt tumors (tumors that have spread to the liver). The past 20 years have witnessed remarkable progress in the early detection and the treatment of colon cancer. Restore Live Probiotic ChocBalls can assist with maintaining digestive health and supporting immunity. A growing body of evidence indicates that, in particular, lactobacilli and bifidobacteria can modulate the immune system. Braun L, Cohen, 2011, on how lactobacilli and bifidobacteria (both of which are in Restore probiotic Choc Balls) might effect immunity.
Nature's Way Restore Probiotics are 100% Australian made, using strict control processes to ensure the good bacteria remain healthy and in tact.
Restore Daily Probiotic ChocBalls deliciously roll together 3 billion friendly probiotics and include L.
To maintain digestive health and general wellbeing, it is recommended to take probiotics every day, and what better way to take probiotics than Restore Daily Probiotic Choc Balls?
Everyone aged 12 and up can potentially benefit from taking Restore Probiotic Choc Balls to support their general health, digestive health and immune function. Ingredients: Premium Chocolate [sugar, milk solids, cocoa butter, cocoa mass, emulsifiers (soya lecithin, 476), flavour], Inulin (5%) (prebiotic), L.
Science, Technology and Medicine open access publisher.Publish, read and share novel research. Encapsulation Technology to Protect Probiotic BacteriaMaria Chavarri, Izaskun Maranon and Maria Carmen Villaran[1] Bioprocesses & Preservation Area, Health Division, Tecnalia,Parque Tecnologico de Alava, Minano (Alava),, Spain1. However, a variety of studies carried out with distinct strains of lactobacilli have suggested heterogeneous and strain-specific effects (Table IV).
Therefore, despite similar in vitro probiotic properties, distinct Lactobacillus strains may colonize the gut differently and generate divergent immune responses. The cg, t11 conjugated linoleic acid isomer was also produced by some strains, but at much lower concentrations.
Intra-gastric administration of IL10-secreting Lactococcus lactis caused a 50% reduction in colitis in mice treated with dextran sulfate sodium and prevented the onset of colitis in IL-10 gene-deficient mice (139). About 47 different Lactobacillus strains have been tested in vitro for their ability to inhibit growth of a number of pathogens. The investigators in Cork, Ireland, developed criteria for in vitro selection of probiotic bacteria that may reflect certain in vivo effects on the host, such as modulation of gastrointestinal tract microflora (18).
Some studies show that probiotics aid in digestion while protecting the body from harmful bacteria.
Research shows that probiotics may increase your proportion of T lymphocytes, which are also known as Natural Killer Cells. If you eat these products with such foods as spices, tea, red wine, berries, apples and beans, their effect is multiplied. It contains the probiotic known as Lp299v, which has been shown to be effective relief for people with irritable bowel syndrome.
Many experiments and studies have linked probiotics to aiding a range of ailments, such as lactose intolerance, colon cancer, lowering of cholesterol and blood pressure and, most importantly, improving immune function. It revealed that when probiotics are consumed, the bile acids that break down fat in the gut are affected, possibly helping them to work more effectively. We’re still trying to understand what the changes they bring about might mean, in terms of overall health, but we have established that introducing ‘friendly’ bacteria can change the dynamics of the whole population of microbes in the gut. Lactobacillus acidophilus is one of the most important strains of bacterial culture and forms an important part of our digestive process. These beneficial or friendly bacteria help protect the body from hostile organisms that can cause yeast infections, intestinal toxemia, and other health problems.
This particular bacterium functions better in acidic environments than most other microorganisms. Unfortunately, this army of friendly bacteria is under constant attack by a diverse group of enemies. If you currently are not taking a probiotic supplement on a regular basis, we strongly suggest you reconsider. Schroder conducted research to determine the importance of pH in the vagina and the role beneficial bacteria played in reducing vaginitis.
A painful and embarrassing condition, IBS affects about 10 – 20 percent of the American population and is most common among women.
The body starts to see these particles, ranging from milk to wheat, as an enemy instead of a nutrient. All the water that you drink that is utilized and absorbed takes place in the colon – all nutrients are absorbed in your small intestine. These beneficial bacteria help protect the body from hostile organisms that can cause yeast infections, intestinal toxemia, and other health problems. Babies ingest mouthfuls of bacteria during birthing and pick up plenty more from their mother's skin and milk. All this killing may actually cause diseases like eczema, irritable bowel syndrome and even diabetes.
Pathogenic or disease-causing bacteria make up, at most, about 30 percent of the total bacteria in the body. However, disease-causing microbes that have become resistant to antibiotic drug therapy are an increasing public health problem.
Only certain bacteria produce BLIS, which are natural antibacterial agents that can be used to help control the undesirable bacteria implicated in diseases. It is the world’s first bacterial replacement probiotic derived from the oral cavity for specific application in the oral cavity and upper respiratory tract.
However, for the large majority that do not have this natural protection, BLIS K12™ may offer significant benefits. Though proper digestion and stomach health are the primary benefits offered by good bacteria, surprisingly they are not the sole reasons for introducing probiotics into the system. Probiotics are known to break down the bile salts formed by cholesterol thus inhibiting their re- absorption by the gut walls. As bad oral health can lead to severe conditions like diabetes, heart disease and also low birth weight, omitting the cause can ensure a better life.
A measured dose of these bacteria can have a considerable effect on the throat condition thus reducing the recurring episodes of throat disease almost by 90 percent. However, if you consume probiotics along with the antibiotics served to you, these diarrhea systems have all probability of vanishing within a very short time period. Females are mostly affected by the presence of spermicides, antibiotics, birth control pills etc due to which the balance between good and bad bacteria is completely disturbed. However, if the pregnant moms are prescribed to include a regular intake of probiotics either as diet or supplements, chances of the progeny inheriting this disease are slim. This symptom in babies can be reduced if the mother takes in probiotics as a regular part of the diet during the breast feeding period as they cannot be prescribed to infants. Eating certain berries, fruit or fermented stuff cannot exactly bring about some drastic change in your health but it definitely strengthens your body's immune system gradually. She believes that Syntol is effective in improving the metabolic functionalities of human body. In some distortion from a proven carcinoma was cloned into a mammographic image e-031 Digitally created radiographic AIM Detecting pulmonary nodules and maintaining vigilance for them is vital in chest radiology.
Kefir is a thick drink made by fermenting milk with kefir grains composed of lactic acid bacteria yeast and polysaccharides. FAQs with Zoe Bingley-Pullin:What are prebiotics probiotics and digestive enzymes used for? The doctor can prescribe pain relief medications that can be successful singly or in combination. Panitumumab in Kombination mit Strahlentherapie bei Patienten mit lokal fortgeschrittenem RAS Wildtyp Rektumkarzinom (klinische Stadien II und III).

Colon cancer may affect the large intestine’s ability to perform some of these functions causing changes in bowel habits or unexplained weight loss. Today is the day that the Doctors tell Probiotic Bacteria Yogurt me how bad my cancer is and what course of action to take.
Helpful Relief from Occasional Gas Loose Stools Constipation Sensitive Stomach and Lactose Probiotic Pearls is a unique patented probiotic dietary supplement desgned to help support it also can occur in patients with inflammatory bowel disease or cancer. Wholistic Digest-All Plus is an advanced concentrated formula of broad-range digestive enzymes & probiotics designed to support healthy digestion in your pet.
Discover the difference between friendly yeast Saccharomyces boulardii and bacterial probiotics.
Nature’s Way Probiotic ChocBalls are a delicious new way to promote general well-being and digestive health, and because they taste great, the whole family will love them! We use a special chocolate formula, not only because of it’s smooth velvelty taste, but also because studies show that it keeps probiotics alive better than dairy products. This microflora has many important roles including enhancement of the gastrointestinal barrier function, nutrient metabolism, modulating immune function and producing potential health-promoting components. Schematic diagram of a spray-dry encapsulation process and image of a Mini Spray Dryer B-290 (BUCHI), available at TECNALIA.Table 1.
Flow-Focusing technology to make droplets and Cellena® equipment from Ingeniatrics Tecnologias. Image of Inotech Encapsulator IE-50R and schematic diagram of jet destabilization and breakage for single and concentric nozzles.
Schematic diagram of the JetCutter technology and representation of fluid losses due to the cutting wire impact. Examples of two bioencapsulation process carried out at TECNALIA changing the nozzle diameter, cutting tool and inclination angle to obtain different bead size necessaries for several applications.Table 3. Gelation of an alginate bead when the Ca2+ gelling ions diffuse into the alginate-containing system. IntroductionProbiotic bacteria are used in production of functional foods and pharmaceutical products. Strains of Lactobacillus, Lactococcus, Pediococcus and Bifidobacterium were grown in medium containing free linoleic acid. Thus, the production of conjugated linoleic acid by bifidobacteria showed considerable interspecies variation.
This observation has also opened the way for the use of probiotics as live vaccine delivery vectors (140). Anyone who experiences chronic bloating and other digestive disorders may be interested in trying Dannon’s Activia. In theory, this could mean more fat passing undigested through the body – rather than being absorbed – although the study does not prove this.
150 billion microencapsulated live cells (colony forming units) per gram go into Actimint Tablets – all the benefits of a pot of yoghurt or a probiotic drink in just two easy-to-take, convenient to carry capsules. This is particularly beneficial for individuals that are lactose intolerant and can’t produce this enzyme. Infantis – has anti-inflammatory properties that help normalize gut function at a cellular level. Infantis experienced a reduction of IBS symptoms ranging from constipation, diarrhea and bloating for up to four weeks. Schoor got into the business after good bacteria saved his dad from the ravages of Irritable Bowel Syndrome.
The recent increase in childhood asthma, connected with allergies, may be one of the consequences.
A separate small study showed that a strain of Lactobacillus plantarum, may also be effective in reducing IBS symptoms.
45% of Americans consider themselves very or somewhat knowledgeable about the benefits of probiotics on digestive health, compared to 36% in 2009, according to results of an annual benchmark survey by The Dannon Company.
Probiotics are live bacteria that, when consumed in adequate amounts, provide health benefits, which can include supporting the immune system, helping regulate the digestive system, and helping maintain oral health.
Wound infections, gonorrhea, tuberculosis, pneumonia, septicemia and childhood ear infections are just a few of the diseases that have become hard to treat with antibiotics. On the contrary, human beings are greatly profited by their presence when it comes to oral health, skin conditions, metabolic activities and most importantly immunity.
Certain probiotics like the Lactobacillus reuteri kills the tooth decay bacteria and also subdues the effects of gingivitis.
Introducing probiotics in the form of supplements like Syntol and Floracor or as a part of daily diet can prove quiet effective but only after consulting a doctor.
For example breast cancer that has spread to the liver is still called breast cancer nt liver cancer. Irinotecan oxaliplatin capecitabine and 5-fluorouracil are the three most commonly used drugs. The medical community has observed the power of probiotics for everything from immune system So using mice as subjects they created three groups: one that received gastric bypass surgery one that had a The bypass group was the only to both lose weight and experience a change in microflora.
Your intestines require a healthy colony of abundant friendly bacteria to digest food eliminate waste rid the bowels of toxins and reduce the Probiotic Bacteria Yogurt potential for intestinal inflammation. Probiotics and prebiotics work together to support digestive health but when many peole think about their diet they inevitably think about weight loss. Constipation Relief for Kids constipation and the development of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) later in life. We make sure that the right levels of good bacteria reach your digestive system to provide health benefits. Growth of the bacteria in linoleic acid and conversion of the linoleic acid to conjugated linoleic acid was assessed. There was a study in Sweden in 2006 that found that employees who were given the probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri missed less work due to respiratory or gastrointestinal illness than did employees who did not receive the probiotic. Babies pick up healthy microbes – also called lactic acid bacteria, from their mothers. Too much bad bacteria encourages fungal overgrowth in the body, those yeast infections, leaving the good bacteria absent. So adequate probiotics may not only squelch allergies, but promote better immunity and nutrition.
I would always get plain yogurt and then add fresh berries, nuts, etc into the yogurt,” Kaufmann said. But that’s actually a positive, an indication that the good bacteria are flushing out bad bacteria, harmful fungus, and lingering waste matter. A century ago scientist Ilya Mechnikov found that peasants who ate sour milk with friendly bacteria lived longer than anybody in Europe.
A study focused on Bifidobacterium animalis showed a reduction in discomfort and bloating in individuals with constipation-predominant IBS, as well as helping to normalize stool frequency in said individuals. All yogurts have live bacteria because yogurt is produced by the fermentation of milk by bacteria.
When we take antibiotics, we destroy the 70 percent that is good, just in order to kill the 30 percent that is harmful. One part of the problem is that bacteria and other microbes that cause infections are remarkably resilient and have developed several ways to resist antibiotics and other antimicrobial drugs.
Here are some of those noticeable benefits brought about by the presence of helpful micro-organisms. By including the probiotics as a part of your daily diet you can easily omit the risks of tooth loss or perpetually bleeding gums. Other Ingredients: Microcrystalline cellulose Rice flour Magnesium stearate (vegetable) Gelatin. Colon cancer is expected to take more than 51000 American lives this year second to only lung cancer. That is why it is important to have regular tests to check for cancer even when you might not notice anything wrong. As an example Schnekenburger and Diederich listed protein coding genes that were frequently altered in their methylation in association with colon cancer.
Lactobacillus Acidophillus and Bifidobacterium Lactis are both beneficial probiotic strains that are naturally found within the human body, and both are included in Restore Probiotic Choc Balls. In order, to produce health benefits probiotic strains should be present in a viable form at a suitable level during the product is shelf life until consumption and maintain high viability throughout the gastrointestinal tract.
They determined whether this difference in colonization correlated with an induction of different types of immune responses, and observed that colonization with either strain induced similar germinal center formation and IgA bearing lymphocytes in the mucosa, suggesting that both strains may activate mucosal B-cell responses. The production of conjugated linoleic acid by probiotic bifidobacteria offers a possible mechanism for some health-enhancing properties of bifidobacteria and provides novel opportunities for the development of functional foods. This antagonistic activity is mediated either directly by the production of inhibitory substances such as lactic acid, hydrogen peroxide, bacteriocins, a-hydroxypropionaldehyde and other unidentified compounds or by competing with the pathogen for binding sites on the epitheliaL cell surface.
Dannon’s Activia contains a probiotic known as Bifidus Reularis, which helps regulate your digestive system by speeding up intestinal transit time. The study also found that these patients experienced a reduction of inflammatory cytokines compared with those taking placebo. And when the bacteria goes away, the yeast can literally poke a tiny hole in the intestine. This problem is due to increasing use, and misuse, of existing antibiotics in human and veterinary medicine and in agriculture. Candida yeast infection is identified with certain probiotics for babies in australia visual symptoms. Dcrire les options de traitement pharmacologique non pharmacologique et chirurgical de l’amnorrhe. Colorectal cancer is the second most common cancer in the United States striking 140000 people annually and causing 60000 deaths.
GICAPOX: Palliative Combination Chemotherapy for Metastatic Colorectal Cancer Using Oxaliplatin and Capecitabine. Many reports indicated that there is poor survival of probiotic bacteria in products containing free probiotic cells [1].
Bacterial loads were monitored for 30 days in intestinal tissues, and mucosal and systemic B-cell responses were measured.
Not all probiotics are created equal The word probiotic means for life and ThreeLac is LIFE in a stick pack What sets Most colon cancers arise from adenomatous polyps not hyperplastic polyps.
Researchers conducted a study of 327 nursing care plan for colon cancer patients with a history of ulcerative colitis. Differential diagnosis of colorectal cancer and risk assessment for hereditary nonpolyposis cancer.8,11. Providing probiotic living cells with a physical barrier to resist adverse environmental conditions is therefore an approach currently receiving considerable interest [2].The encapsulation techniques for protection of bacterial cells have resulted in greatly enhanced viability of these microorganisms in food products as well as in the gastrointestinal tract.
Survival and reisolation of the bacteria in vivo appeared to be linked to pH tolerance, adhesion, and antimicrobial properties in vitro (94). As is the case with regards to the treatment of acute diseases; this strategy may be of little worth as the most appropriate strains and doses remain to be established. Organic Cane Sugar, Organic Strawberry Puree, Water, Organic Locust Bean Gum, Pectin, Organic Lemon Juice Concentrate, Natural Vegetable Juice Color, Probiotic Blend, Natural Flavors If you find yourself in need of antibiotics, however, you might want to consider ways to reduce your risk of side effects. Encapsulation is a process to entrap active agents within a carrier material and it is a useful tool to improve living cells into foods, to protect [3, 4, 5, 6, 7], to extend their storage life and to convert them into a powder form for convenient use [8, 9, 10, 11].
The majority of the strains inhibited Yersinia entero colitica and Bacillus cereus and a few exhibited anti-microbial activities toward Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium (8). Furthermore, probiotic supplements are relatively expensive, and do not provide other nutrients that LAB foods such as yoghurt do.Anticarcinogenic properties, reduction in serum cholesterol, immune system modulation, decreasing the activity of some colonic enzymes such as azoreductase and nitroreductase.
In addition, encapsulation can promote controlled release and optimize delivery to the site of action, thereby potentiating the efficacy of the respective probiotic strain. Health benefits imparted by probiotic bacteria are strain specific, and not species- or genus specific. This process can also prevent these microorganisms from multiplying in food that would otherwise change their sensory characteristics. It is important to note that no strain will provide all proposed benefits, not even strains of the same species, and not all strains of the same species will be effective against defined health conditionsThe World Health Organization defines probiotics as “live microorganisms, which, when administered in adequate amounts, confer health benefit on the host.” Probiotics are considered part of complementary or alternative medicine (CAM).
Otherwise, materials used for design of protective shell of encapsulates must be food-grade, biodegradable and able to form a barrier between the internal phase and its surroundings.2. Probiotics are commonly called “good” or “friendly” bacteria.Some lactic acid bacteria can alleviate inflammation and therefore prevent intestinal disorders. Scientists have now decoded the biochemical mechanism that lies behind the protective effect of the bacteria. DefinitionProbiotics are defined as live microorganisms which, when administered in adequate amounts, confer health benefits to the host [12], including inhibition of pathogenic growth, maintenance of health promoting gut microflora, stimulation of immune system, relieving constipation, absorption of calcium, synthesis of vitamins and antimicrobial agents, and predigestion of proteins [13]. Several health benefits have been proved for specific probiotic bacteria, and recommendations for probiotic use to promote health have been published [14].The term ‘‘probiotic’’ includes a large range of microorganisms, mainly bacteria but also yeasts.
This new evidence might lead to new approaches for the treatment of inflammatory bowel diseases.Yoghurt has been valued for centuries for its health-promoting effects.
Because they can stay alive until the intestine and provide beneficial effects on the host health, lactic acid bacteria (LAB), non-lactic acid bacteria and yeasts can be considered as probiotics. These effects are thought to be mediated by the lactic acid bacteria typically contained in yoghurt.
LAB are the most important probiotic known to have beneficial effects on the human gastro-intestinal (GI) tract [15].The effects of probiotics are strain-specific [16, 17, 18] and that is the reason why it is important to specify the genus and the species of probiotic bacteria when proclaiming health benefits. Evidence from recent scientific studies show that some bacterial strains actually have a probiotic effect and can thus prevent disease. Dirk Haller from the Technische Universitaet Muenchen (TUM) has now discovered the mechanisms at work behind this protective effect.As the scientists observed, lactocepin degrades messengers from the immune system, known as chemokines, in the diseased tissue.
Health benefitsThere is evidence that probiotics have the potential to be beneficial for our health [22]. In chronic intestinal disorders like Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis, the otherwise highly effective defense mechanism against infectious agents is malfunctioning.
Multiple reports have described their health benefits on gastrointestinal infections, antimicrobial activity, improvement in lactose metabolism, reduction in serum cholesterol, immune system stimulation, antimutagenic properties, anti-carcinogenic properties, anti-diarrheal properties, improvement in inflammatory bowel disease and suppression of Helicobacter pylori infection by addition of selected strains to food products [23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33].The beneficial effects of probiotic microorganisms appear when they arrive in the intestinal medium, viable and in high enough number, after surviving the above mentioned harsh conditions [34].
Apart from the MBV index, daily intake (DI) of each food product is also determinable for their probiotic effectiveness. This microbiota plays an important role in human health, not only due to its participation in the digestion process, but also for the function it plays in the development of the gut and the immune system [42]. The mechanisms of action of probiotic bacteria are thought to result from modification of the composition of the endogenous intestinal microbiota and its metabolic activity, prevention of overgrowth and colonization of pathogens and stimulation of the immune system [43]. With regard to pathogen exclusion, probiotic bacteria can produce antibacterial substances (such as bacteriocins and hydrogen peroxide), acids (that reduce the pH of the intestine), block adhesion sites and be competitive for nutrients [44].Recent studies have shown differences in the composition of the gut microbiota of healthy subjects [45], underlining the difficulties in defining the normal microbiota at microbial species level. Moreover, studies suggest that some specific changes in gut microbiota composition are associated with different diseases [46, 47]. This was confirmed by the comparison of the microbiome from healthy individuals with those of diseased individuals, allowing the identification of microbiota imbalance in human diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease or obesity [48, 49].3. The benefits of encapsulation to protect probiotics against low gastric pH have been shown in numerous reports [50] and similarly for liquid- based products such as dairy products [21, 52].Encapsulation refers to a physicochemical or mechanical process to entrap a substance in a material in order to produce particles with diameters of a few nanometres to a few millimetres.
So, the capsules are small particles that contain an active agent or core material surrounded by a coating or shell. Encapsulation shell materials include a variety of polymers, carbohydrates, fats and waxes, depending of the core material to be protected, and this aspect will be discussed below in the this section.The protection of bioactive compounds, as vitamins, antioxidants, proteins, and lipids may be achieved using several encapsulation technologies for the production of functional foods with enhanced functionality and stability.

Encapsulation technologies can be used in many applications in food industry such as controlling oxidative reaction, masking flavours, colours and odours, providing sustained and controlled release, extending shelf life, etc.
In the probiotic particular case, these need to be protected during the time from processing to consumption of a food product. The coating or shell of sealed capsules needs to be semipermeable, thin but strong to support the environmental conditions maintaining cells alive, but it can be designed to release the probiotic cell in a specific area of the human body. The scientific references related with probiotic encapsulation stress the degradation in the gastrointestinal tract, more than the processing conditions and the coating material usually employed can withstand acidic conditions in the stomach and bile salts form the pancreas after consumption.
In this way, the protection of the biological integrity of probiotic bacteria is achieved during gastro-duodenal transit, achieving a high concentration of viable cells to the jejunum and the ileum.The selection of the best encapsulation technology for probiotics needs to consider numerous aspects in order to guarantee the survival of bacteria during the encapsulation process, in storage conditions and consumption, as well as the controlled release in the specific desired area of gut. Spray-dryingSpray-drying is a commonly used technique for food ingredients production because it is a well-established technique suitable for large-scale, industrial applications.
The first spray dryer was constructed in 1878 and, thus, it is a relatively old technique compared with competing technologies [53].
This technique is probably the most economic and effective drying method in industry, used for the first time to encapsulate a flavour in the 1930s. However, it is not so useful for the industrial production of encapsulated probiotics for food use, because of low survival rate during drying of the bacteria and low stability upon storage.Drying is an encapsulation technique which is used when the active ingredient is dissolve in the encapsulating agent, forming an emulsion or a suspension. The solvent is commonly a hydrocolloid such as gelatine, vegetable gum, modified starch, dextrin, or non-gelling protein. The solution that is obtained is dried, providing a barrier to oxygen and aggressive agents [54].In the spray-drying process a liquid mixture is atomized in a vessel with a single-fluid nozzle, a two-fluid nozzle or spinning wheel (depending of the type of spray dryer in use) and the solvent is then evaporated by contacting with hot air or other gas. Inlet temperatures of above 60 °C resulted in poor drying and the sticky product often accumulated in the cyclone. The logarithmic number of probiotics decreases linearly with outlet air temperature of the spray-drier (in the range of 50 ?C - 80 ?C) [56]. So, the optimal outlet air temperature might be as low as possible, enough to assure the drying of the product and to avoid the sticky effect. Alternatively, a second draying step might be applied, using a fluid bed or a vacuum oven, for example, due to the optimal survival of probiotics is achieved with low water activity.The successful spray drying of Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium have previously reported for a number of different strains, including L. The atomization process and encapsulant agent cellulose acetate phthalate were effective in protecting these micro-organisms in acidic medium (hydrochloric acid solutions pH 1 and 2) during incubation for up to 2 h. Bifidobacteria in the encapsulated form showed a small reduction in their populations when exposed to acidic media and bile solutions when compared with those exposed in the free form.
Among the encapsulants tested, gelatin and soluble starch were the most effective in providing protection to the micro-organisms in acidic medium and milk was the least effective [9].
They used the spray drying process, in which entry and exit temperatures of 170 ?C and 90–85 ?C respectively, and observed a reduction of 2 log cycles in the microbial population. The presence of some prebiotics in the encapsulating material show higher count after spray drying for Bifidobacterium, depending of the physical properties of the prebiotic compound selected (thermoprotector effect, crystalinity, etc.) [62, 63] and a similar effect occurs for Lactobacillus bacteria [61, 64]. Some researchers have proposed the addition of thermo-protectants as inputs before drying with the intention of improving the resistance to the process and stability during storage [65]. In the case of Rodriguez-Huezo and collaborators [63] used a prebiotic as encapsulant (‘aguamiel’) and a mixture of polymers composed of concentrated whey protein, ‘goma mesquista’ and maltodextrin. In fact, Ross and collaborators [66] reported that neither inulin nor polydextrose enhanced probiotic viability of spray-dried probiotics. In another study, it was also observed that when quercetin was added together with probiotics, the microencapsulation yields and survival rates were lower than for the micro-organism without quercetin [67]. However, most probiotic strains do not survive well the high temperatures and dehydratation during the spray-drying process.
Loss of viability is principally caused by cytoplasmatic membrane damage although the cell wall, ribosomes and DNA are also affected at higher temperatures [74]. It was reported that the stationary phase cultures are more resistant to heat compare to cells in exponential growth phase [61].One approach used by a number of researchers to improve probiotic survival is the addition of protectants to the media prior to drying. Nevertheless, this economical and effective technology for protecting materials is rarely considered for cell immobilization because of the high mortality resulting from simultaneous dehydration and thermal inactivation of microorganisms. Spray-coolingThis process is similar to spray-drying described before in relation with the production of small droplets.
The principal difference in the spray-cooling process is the carrier material and the working conditions related with him. In the case, a molten matrix with low melting point is used to encapsulate the bacteria and the mixture is injected in a cold air current to enable the solidification of the carrier material.
It is interesting because the capsules produced in this way are generally not soluble in water.
However, due the thermal conditions of the process, the spray-cooling is used rarely for probiotics encapsulation.
As example of successful development, the patent US 5,292,657 [81] present the spray-cooling of probiotics in molten lipid atomized by a rotary disk in a cooling chamber. Fluid-bed agglomeration and coatingThe fluid-bed technology evolved from a series of inventions patented by Dr.
Wurster and colleagues at the University of Wisconsin Alumni Research Foundation (WARF) between 1957 and 1966 [82, 83, 84, 85]. These patents are based on the use of fluidising air to provide a uniform circulation of particles past an atomising nozzle. This nozzle is used to atomize a selected coating material (a melt product or an aqueous solution) which solidifies in a low temperature or by solvent evaporation. A proper circulation of the particles is recognised as the key to assure that all particles in the fluid-bed achieve a uniform coating. As particles flow is spray direction countercurrent, collisions involving wet particles are more probable and these collisions agglomerate particles. Bur the particles agglomerate become heavier and have less fluidization, so this phenomenon selectively agglomerates smaller particles and promotes agglomerate uniformity.Placement of the nozzle at the bottom of a fluid bed provides the most uniform film on small particles and minimises agglomeration of such particles in the coating process compared with any other coating technique. This uniform coating is achieved because particles move further apart as they pass through the atomised spray from the nozzle and into an expansion region of the apparatus.
This configuration allows the fluidising air to solidify or evaporate coating materials onto particles prior to contact between particles. This technique is among all, probably the most applicable technique for the coating of probiotics in industrial productions since it is possible to achieve large batch volumes and high throughputs.
As example, Lallemand commercialize ProbiocapTM, and these particles are made in a fluid bed coating of freeze-dried probiotics with low melting lipids [87].Specifically, Koo and collaborators [88], reported that L.
Later, Lee and researchers [69] showed that the microencapsulation in alginate microparticules coating with chitosan offers an effective way of delivering viable bacterial cells to the colon and maintaining their survival during refrigerated storage.Fluidized-bed drying was recently investigated by Stummer and collaborators [89] as method for dehydration of Enterococus faecium. This study concludes to use fluidized-bed technology as a feasible alternative for the dehydration of probiotic bacteria by layering the cells on spherical pellets testing different protective agents as glucose, maltodextrin, skim milk, trehalose or sucrose, preferably skim milk or sucrose.
This drying technique is a dehydration process which works by freezing the product and then reducing the surrounding pressure to allow the frozen water to sublimate directly from the solid phase to the gas phase. The process is performed by freezing probiotics in the presence of carrier material at low temperatures, followed by sublimation of the water under vacuum. One of the most important advantages is the water phase transition and oxidation are avoided.
In order to improve the probiotic activity upon freeze-drying and also stabilize them during storage, it is frequent the addition of cryoprotectans.One of the most important aspects to decide is the choice of the optimal ending water content. This decision have to be a compromise between the highest survival rate after drying (higher survival rate with higher water content) and the lowest inactivation upon storage (better at low water activity, but not necessarily 0% of water content). According with King and collaborators [90], the loses in survival rates of freeze-dried probiotic bacteria under vacuum may be explained with a first-order kinetic and the rate constants can be described by an Arrhenius equation.
But this equation might be affected by other factors as phase transition, atmosphere and water content.In any case, the lyophilisation or freeze-drying is a very expensive technology, significantly more than spray-drying [56], even if it is probably most often used to dry probiotics. However, most of freeze-drying process only provide stability upon storage and not or limited during consumption. The freeze-drying is useful to dry probiotics previously encapsulated by other different techniques, as emulsion [91] or entrapment in gel microspheres [92].
In this way it is possible to improve the stability in the gastrointestinal tract and optimize the beneficial effect of probiotic consumption.The Vacuum-drying is a similar process as freeze-drying, but it takes place at 0 - 40 ?C for 30 min to a few hours. The advantages of this process are that the product is not frozen, so the energy consumption and the related economic impact are reduced.
Emulsion-based techniquesAn emulsion is the dispersion of two immiscible liquids in the presence of a stabilizing compound or emulsifier. Emulsions are simply produced by the addition of the core phase to a vigorously stirred excess of the second phase that contains, if it is necessary, the emulsifier (Figure 4). Nevertheless, even if the technique readily scalable, it produce capsules with an extremely large size distributions.
The technique is a modification of the basic technique in which an emulsion is made in of an aqueous solution in a hydrophobic wall polymer. This emulsion is the poured with vigorous agitation, into an aqueous solution containing stabilizer. The loading capacity of the hydrophobic core is limited by the solubility and diffusion to the stabilizer solution. The principal application of this technology is in pharmaceutical formulations.Entrapment of probiotic bacteria in emulsion droplets has been suggested as a means of enhancing the viability of microorganism cells under the harsh conditions of the stomach and intestine. For example, Hou and collaborators [93] reported that entrapment of cells of lactic bacteria (Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp.
The study was performed with Lactobacillus paracasei and their entrapment in the oil phase of protein-stabilized emulsions protected the cells when exposed to GI tract enzymes, provided that the emulsions were freshly prepared.
Following, however, treatment of aged for up to 4 weeks emulsions under conditions simulating those of the human GI environment, the microorganism did not survive in satisfactory numbers.
Moreover, even if the emulsion techniques described before are easily scalable, these techniques have an important disadvantage to be applied in an industrial process because are batch processes. The static mixers are small devices placed in a tube consisting in static obstacles or diversions where the two immiscible fluids are pumped [118, 119].
This system improves the size distribution, reduce shear and allows keeping the aseptic conditions because it might be a closed system (Figure 5). CoacervationThis process involves la precipitation of a polymer or several polymers by phase separation: simple or complex coacervation, respectively. Simple coacervation is based on “salting out” of one polymer by addition of agents as salts, that have higher affinity to water than the polymer. It is essentially a dehydration process whereby separation of the liquid phase results in the solid particles or oil droplets (starting in an emulsion process) becoming coated and eventually hardened into microcapsules. With regard to complex coacervation, it is a process whereby a polyelectrolyte complex is formed. This process requires the mixing of two colloids at a pH at which both polymers are oppositely charged (i.e. But it is not the only use of this technique and the complex coacervation is also suitable for probiotic bacteria microencapsulation.
And the most frequent medium used might be a water-in-oil emulsion [120].Oliveira and collaborators [121] encapsulated B.
The process used and the wall material were efficient in protecting the microorganisms under study against the spray drying process and simulated gastric juice; however, microencapsulated B. However, the scale-up of coacervation is difficult, since it is a batch process that yields coacervate in an aqueous solution. Extrusion techniques to encapsulate in microspheresThe methods of bioencapsulation in microspheres include two principal steps: (1) the internal phase containing the probiotic bacteria is dispersed in small drops a then (2) these drops will solidify by gelation or formation of a membrane in their surface. Before this section, there are described emulsion systems and coacervation as different methods to obtain these drops and even the membrane formation, but also extrusion technology is useful in order to produce probiotic encapsulation in microspheres. There are different technologies available for this purpose and the selection of the best one is related with different aspects as desired size, acceptable dispersion size, production scale and the maximum shear that the probiotic cells can support.When a liquid is pumped to go through a nozzle, first this is extruded as individual drops.
Increasing enough the flow rate, the drop is transformed in a continuous jet and this continuous jet has to be broken in small droplets. So, the extrusion methods could be divided in two groups, dropwise and jet breakage (Figure 6), and the limit between them is established according to the minimum jet speed according to this equation (eq.
Moreover, the flow is around several millilitres by hour and the method is not interesting for an industrial application.
For example, in the Figure 7 is showed a cell immobilization process carried out at TECNALIA using the method of dripping by gravity. Drop generation by gravity using a 160 µm nozzle.? Air o liquid coaxial flow and submerged nozzlesApplying a coaxial air flow around the extrusion nozzle it is possible to reduce the microsphere diameter between a few micrometres and 1 mm. The air flow might be replaced for a liquid one: with a suitable selection of the liquid flow the control of the surface tension is improved. Drops produced in air are generated as aerosols, while the drops produced, for example, in water are made as emulsions.
An example of the former consist of a static cup immersed in a water-immiscible oil such as mineral oil or vegetal oil and a concentric nozzle as is schematically showed in the Figure 9.
Each droplet consist of core material being encapsulatd totally surrounded by a finite film of aqueous polymer solution, as gelatine, for example. Ltd in Japan These capsules are composed of three layers: a core freeze-dried probiotic bacteria in solid fat, with an intermediate hard fat layer and a gelatin-pectin outer layer [122]. The droplet generation improves replacing the dragging forces by a high electrostatic potential between the capillary nozzle and the harvester solution. Even if the capsules size is appropriated and the size distribution is narrow enough, this technique is more expensive than other extrusion ones and it is not fast enough to be scaled.? Vibration technology for jet break-upApplying a vibration on a laminar jet for controlled break-up into monodisperse microcapsules is one among different extrusion technologies for encapsulation of probiotic bacteria. The vibration technology is based on the principle that a laminar liquid jet breaks up into equally sized droplets by a superimposed vibration (Figure 10).
He showed that the frequency for maximum instability is related to the velocity of the jet and the nozzle diameter (eq.
The possibility of working with a wide range of materials (hot melt products, hydrogels, etc.) is also an important aspect to be considered, as well as the design with also concentric nozzles in the lab scale devices and with this kind of nozzles it is possible to produce capsules with a defined core region (solid or liquid) surrounded by a continuous shell layer. On the other side, the principal disadvantage of this technology is the limit in the viscosity for the liquid to be extruded.But may be one of the most important advantage of the vibration devices commercialized is that the scale up of this technology is relatively “simple” and it consist in the multiplication of the number of nozzles, developing multinozzle devices. The only challenge is that each nozzle of a multinozzle plant must operate in similar production conditions: equal frequency and amplitude, and equal flow rate. The droplet generation is based on a mechanical impact of the cutting wire on the liquid jet.
Some techniques as emulsion, simple dropping, electrostatic-enhanced dropping, vibration technique or rotating disc and nozzle techniques have in common that the fluids have to be low in viscosity, and not all of them may be used for large-scale applications.
Directly underneath the nozzle the jet is cut into cylindrical segments by a rotating cutting tool made of small wires fixed in a holder (Figure 11). Driven by the surface tension the cylindrical segments form spherical beads while falling further down, where they finally can be harvested. The size of beads can be adjusted within a range between approximately 200 µm up to several millimetres, adjusting parameters as nozzle diameter, flow rate, number of cutting wires and the rotating speed of cutting tool.Bead generation by a JetCutter device is achieved by the cutting wires, which cut the liquid jet coming out of the nozzle. The device is designed to recover these losses, but it is important to minimize de lost volume selecting a smaller diameter of the cutting wire and angle of inclination of the cutting tool with regard to the jet (Figure 11). According with Pruesse and Vorlop [124], a suitable model of the cutting process might help to operator in the parameters selection. One of the most important parameters is the ratio of the velocities of the fluid and cutting wire, necessary to determinate the proper inclination angle (eq.

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