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Science, Technology and Medicine open access publisher.Publish, read and share novel research. Dairy Propionibacteria: Less Conventional Probiotics to Improve the Human and Animal HealthGabriela Zarate1[1] Centro de Referencias para Lactobacilos (CERELA)-CONICET, San Miguel de Tucuman, Argentina1. Propionibacteria are heterotrophic microorganisms that mean they need an organic carbon source to grow and posses a fermentative metabolism [41-43].
Have you ever wondered if you should be using prebiotics or probiotics in your chicken feed? Strict guidelines govern the certification of farms as organic, and "certified organic" farms must follow them all to earn the stamp. Hansen feeds his free-range organic chickens a mix of clover, grass and minerals to keep them healthy and happy. A new premium poultry feed from Purina promises to help give stronger starts for laying chicks. The medicated version of the feed includes a coccidiostat to help prevent a parasite infestation called coccidiosis and is intended for chicks not vaccinated against the disease. Chicken Media Summit - Cambridge, MD - April 19-21 - Coverage sponsored by National Chicken Council.
We Blog AgWired is one of the very first agricultural information blogs and has a focus on marketing.
Animal.AgWired Welcome to AgWired's home for the latest information and resources on the animal agriculture sector. The animal growth promoters market is poised to reach USD 9.66 Billion by 2020, growing at a CAGR of 5% during the forecast period of 2015 to 2020. In the coming years, the animal growth promoters market is expected to witness the highest growth in the Asia-Pacific region, with emphasis on India, China, and the Rest of Asia-Pacific.
With the given market data, MarketsandMarkets offers customizations as per the company’s specific needs. The animal performance enhancers market, based on animal, is segmented into poultry, porcine, livestock, equine, aquaculture, and other animals (cats, dogs, and rabbits).
On the basis of regions, the market is expected to be dominated by Asia-Pacific, followed by North America, Europe, and the Rest of the World (RoW).
Influence of bacterial surface components on lectins removal (a) and adhesion property (b). Transmission electron microscopy photomicrographs of the microvillous surface of the small bowel of mice fed with Con A (Group 2) (panels a-b) and those that consumed lectin plus propionibacteria (Group 4) (Panels c-d). IntroductionProbiotics are live microorganisms that confer health benefits to the host when administered in adequate amounts.
From a safety point of view, classical species have a long history of safe application on industrial processes whereas members of the cutaneous group are commonly considered opportunistic pathogens in compromised hosts. The major requirement in raising an organic chicken is that it not be fed any growth hormones or antibiotics.
The company says the enhanced formula of Purina Start & Grow Premium Poultry Feed is support immune systems and is available in both medicated and non-medicated formulas, optimized with prebiotics, probiotics and yeast to provide chicks intended for egg laying a strong start and long-term health. We've brought World Dairy Diary "in-house" and expanded our coverage to include all animal agriculture - beef, dairy, poultry, swine and more. The growth of the overall animal growth promoters market can be contributed to the rising global meat demand, need for non-antibiotic growth promoters, rise in animal epidemic outbreaks, and demand for low-cost meat.
By product, the market is categorized into antibiotics, hormonal growth promoters, beta agonist growth promoters, feed enzymes, probiotics and prebiotics, organic acids, phytogenic growth promoters, and others (clay minerals, amino acids, essential oils, and rare earth elements). Reproduced from Zarate and Perez Chaia, Food Research International (2012), 47(1): 13-22 [145]. In the last decades there has been a great interest from food and pharmaceutical industries to develop products containing probiotics due to the great demands of healthy foods and alternatives to conventional chemotherapy. In consequence, the economic relevance of propionibacteria derives mainly from the industrial application of dairy species as cheese starters and as biological producers of propionic acid and other metabolites with a more recent interest on their usage as health promoters.“Dairy or classical” propionibacteria “Cutaneous” propionibacteriaP. The production of propionic acid by these bacteria involves a complex metabolic cycle with several reactions in which substrates are metabolized to pyruvate via glycolysis, pentose phosphate or the Entner-Doudoroff pathways, generating ATP and reduced co-enzymes. Factors driving the growth of the market in Asia-Pacific include high meat consumption in China, population explosion and growing purchasing power of the middle class in India, NARO and Merck initiatives to revive market growth in Japan, and persistent use of growth promoters in Australia and New Zealand.
Although the great bulk of evidence concerns lactobacilli and bifidobacteria, since they are members of the resident microbiota in the gastrointestinal tract, other less conventional genera like Saccharomyces, Streptococcus, Enterococcus, Pediococcus, Leuconostoc and Propionibacterium have also been considered. The product segments described in the report are antibiotics, hormonal growth promoters, beta agonist growth promoters, feed enzymes, probiotics and prebiotics, organic acids, phytogenic growth promoters, and other growth promoters. Factors responsible for the growth of this market are the wide usage of antibiotics in animal feed in countries such as China, Russia, Brazil, and the U.S.
This is mainly attributed to the low consumption of pork in India and a number of Islamic countries (owing to religious reasons), which is why poultry products are in high demand in these regions. The latter transformation occurs via the Wood-Werkman cycle or transcarboxilase cycle which represents the key component of the central carbon metabolic pathway in propionibacteria [41]. The antibiotics segment is expected to account for the largest share of the market in 2015. However, the feed enzymes segment is expected to grow at the fastest rate during the forecast period.
Dairy propionibacteria are generally recognized as safe microorganisms whereas members of the cutaneous group have shown to be opportunistic pathogens in compromised hosts.
The most important reaction of this cycle is transcarboxylation that transfers a carboxyl group from methyllmalonyl-CoA to pyruvate to form oxaloacetate and propionyl-CoA, without ATP consumption.
In consequence, the economic relevance of propionibacteria derives mainly from the industrial application of dairy species as cheese starters and as biological producers of propionic acid and other metabolites like exopolysaccharides and bacteriocins to be used as thickeners and foods preservers, respectively. The enzyme catalyzing this reaction is a methylmalonyl-CoA carboxytransferase that has been fully characterized and its structure resolved [34; 40].
However, due to growing concerns over the use of antibiotic, hormonal, and a-agonist growth promoters, the feed enzymes segment is likely to grow at the highest rate in the forecasted period. Cytotoxic effects of lectins, and protection of colonic cells by lectin removal by propionibacteria.
However, the ability of dairy propionibacteria to improve the health of humans and animals by being used as dietary microbial adjuncts has been extensively investigated. Then, oxaloacetate is reduced to succinate, via malate and fumarate in two NADH requiring reactions. In this sense, our research group has been studying for the last two decades the probiotic properties of dairy propionibacteria isolated from different ecological niches. In the present article the current evidences supporting the potential of dairy propionibacteria to be used as probiotics are reviewed focusing in a less studied mechanism such as the protection of the intestinal mucosa by the binding of dietary toxic compounds. Methylmalonyl-CoA is also regenerated from succinyl-CoA during propionate production, thus creating the second of the two transcarboxylase cycles, and can react with a new molecule of pyruvate.
Viability was assessed by counting cells under the fluorescence microscope after propidium iodide ? fluorescein diacetate ? Hoescht staining. Nowadays there are clear evidences that propionibacteria used alone or combined with other microorganisms can exert beneficial effects in the host.
It must be emphasized that the Wood Werkman cycle used by propionibacteria to produce propionate is coupled to oxidative phosphorylation and yields more ATP than in the other bacteria producing propionic acid [42, 43].Depending on the strains, the substrate used, and the environmental conditions, propionibacteria modulate the proportions of pyruvate either reduced to propionate, or oxidised to acetate and CO2, to maintain the redox balance [43]. The most documented probiotic effects for propionibacteria within these categories include: bifidogenic effect in the human gut, improvement of nutrients utilization, hypocholesterolemic effect and anticarcinogenic potential immune system stimulation. Different studies have also described the ability of dairy propionibacteria to bind and remove toxic compounds from different environments such as the gut and food.

During lactate fermentation, aspartate is deaminated to fumarate by an aspartate ammonia lyase; fumarate is then converted to succinate, with a concomitant production of NAD and ATP.
It has been proposed that probiotic microorganisms may reduce by binding, the availability of free toxic compounds within the intestinal tract which reduces in turn, their negative effects. Various agarized media with different degrees of selectivity have been used for detection and enumeration of classical propionibacteria in dairy environments, animal and human fecal samples.
In this respect, in recent years we have been investigating the potential of dairy propionibacteria to protect the intestinal mucosa from the toxic and antinutritional effects of some common dietary substances like the plant lectins from the Leguminosae family. Among them it could be mentioned YELA [20], Pal Propiobac® medium, which contains glycerol, lithium lactate and antibiotics [21] or others including lithium chloride and sodium lactate in concentrations high enough to limit the growth of accompanying bacteria [22]. By in vitro and in vivo studies we have determined that certain strains are able to bind and remove different dietary lectins from media, preventing their cytotoxic effects on intestinal epithelial cells. Although these media may be successful for the isolation of classical and cutaneous strains of Propionibacterium, they have limitations for selective enumeration of bacteria in very complex ecosystems like intestinal microbiota. They can grow in a minimal medium containing ammonium as the sole nitrogen source, but a higher growth is observed in media containing amino acids [45].Although P.
Propionibacteria reduced the incidence of colonic lesions, the enlargement of organs, the disruption of brush border membranes and the decrease of their disaccharidase activities.
Since consumption of suitable propionibacteria may be an effective tool to avoid lectin-epithelia interactions, further investigations on their potential as probiotic detoxifying agents are actually ongoing With regard to animals’ health it has been reported that dairy propionibacteria directly fed to farm animals increased weight gain, food efficiency and health of many animals like chickens, laying hens, piglets and cows.
Genus and species-specific primers targeted to the genes encoding 16S rRNA for PCR-based assays were also designed for detection of dairy propionibacteria [29]. Some proteinases have been described for Propionibacterium, one cell wall associated and one intracellular or membrane bound but their activities are weak. With a wider insight, propionibacteria may be assayed as probiotics for other ruminants like goats and sheep since their milk-derived products are highly appreciated by consumers. By contrast, different peptidases such as aminopeptidases, proline iminopeptidase, proline imidopeptidase, X-prolyl-dipeptidyl-amino-peptidase, endopeptidases and carboxypeptidase, have been described. It should be emphasized that much of the health benefits described above could be related to the ability of propionibacteria to remain in high numbers in the gastrointestinal tract by surviving the adverse environmental conditions and adhering to the intestinal mucosa.On the basis of the GRAS status of dairy propionibacteria and the positive results obtained by us and other authors, further studies are encouraged in order to select the appropriate strains for developing new functional foods that include these bacteria for human and animal nutrition. A FISH protocol and oligonucleotide probes targeting the 16S rRNA of dairy propionibacteria were developed in our laboratory [32] and successfully used for enumeration of P. Amino acids, especially aspartic acid, alanine, serine and glycine, are degraded by Propionibacterium, with variations among species and strain [47]. Finally, a real-time PCR method, based on the transcription of the enzyme transcarboxylase involved in propionic fermentation, was successfully used to detect a strain of P. On the other side, cutaneous propionibacteria, have the ability to hydrolyze different proteins, like gelatin and fibronectin, and to promote damages and inflammation of the host tissues.Regarding vitamins, all propionibacteria strains require pantothenate (vitamin B5) and biotin (vitamin H). General features and taxonomyPropionibacteria are Gram positive, catalase positive, high G+C%, non spore forming and non motile pleomorphic bacteria [1, 2].
In general, microorganisms of the genus Propionibacterium are anaerobic to slightly aerotolerant and morphologically heterogeneous including rod-shaped and filamentous branched cells that may occur singly, in pairs forming a V or a Y shape, or arranged in “Chinese characters”. They have a peculiar metabolism leading to the formation of propionic acid as main end-product of fermentation. The G+C content in their DNA is in the range of 53-68 mol% and although they generally do not possess plasmids their existence has been reported in strains of P. Long term and stress survival of Propionibacteria It is known that propionibacteria are able to adapt and survive to different stresses like industrial processes and the gastrointestinal transit, as well as to remain active for long periods of time in such adverse environments [43].
Although in 1861, Louis Pasteur demonstrated that propionic fermentation was due to the biochemical activity of microorganisms, the first studies about the morphology and physiology of propionibacteria were carried out by Albert Fitz (1879) [3], who observed that organisms from cheeses with “eyes” ferment lactate to propionic and acetic acids and liberate carbon dioxide. In this sense, the manufacture of a swiss type cheese represents for microbial starters successive stresses like acidification of the curd, heating during cooking, osmotic stress due to brining, and low temperature (4 to 12 °C) during cheese ripening.
The transit through the digestive tract also suppose stressful conditions for bacteria such as gastric acidity and the presence of other aggressive intestinal fluids like bile and pancreatic enzymes. Von Freudenreich and Sigurd Orla-Jensen (1906) [4] isolated the bacteria responsible for the “eyes” formation in Emmental cheese and some years later, the name Propionibacterium was suggested by Orla-Jensen [5] for referring to bacteria that produced large amounts of propionic acid. Although several strains were isolated during the following years these microorganisms were not included in the Bergey’s Manual of Determinative Bacteriology till the third edition published in 1930. Since then, new species were described on the basis of their morphological and biochemical characteristics such as their typical pattern of Chinese characters, propionic acid production, and carbohydrate fermentation profile. The redundancy and inducibility of this chaperone and protease machinery is in agreement with the ability of P.
In 1972, Johnson and Cummins [6], classified strains with several common features into eight homology groups based on DNA-DNA hybridization and peptidoglycan characteristics. This study was the basis for the classification of propionibacteria into “dairy or classical” and “cutaneous” groups included in the 8th edition of Bergey’s Manual of Determinative Bacteriology (1974). Acid and bile stresses, induce the synthesis of the following proteins: pyruvate-flavodoxin oxidoreductase and succinate dehydrogenase which are involved in electron transport and ATP synthesis, as well as glutamate decarboxylase and aspartate ammonia-lyase, which are involved in intracellular pH homeostasis. Bile also induces oxidative stress so that survival and activity within the gut depend on remediation of oxidative damages. The same scheme was followed in the first edition of Bergey’s Manual of Systematic Bacteriology [1]. Other inducible proteins involved in protection and repair of DNA damages include Ssb protein which is involved in DNA recombination and repair, as well as Dps which protects DNA against oxidative stress are stress-induced in P. In 1988, on the basis of 16S rRNA sequences, the species Arachnia propionica was reclassified as Propionibacterium propionicus [7]. Then, in Bergey’s Manual 9th edition (1994), the classification of previous edition was maintained but the subspecies P. Stress tolerance and cross-protection in strains of Propionibacterium freudenreichii were examined after exposure to heat, acid, bile and osmotic stresses.
By contrast, some other heterologous pretreatments (hypothermic and hyperosmotic) had no effect on tolerance to bile salts. Heat and acid responses did not present significant cross-protection and no cross-protection of salt-adapted cells against heat stress was observed for these propionibacteria [48-50].In addition, long term survival of propionibacteria on adverse environments could be due to the accumulation of storage compounds, compatible solutes, and the induction of a multi-tolerance response under carbon starvation [40]. Short chains of PolyP are synthesized when bacteria grow on glucose whereas long chains are accumulated when the main carbon source is lactate. The synthesis of PolyP is catalysed by polyphosphate kinase (PPK) that transfers the terminal phosphate of ATP to polyP. It is proposed that PolyPs enable microorganisms to tolerate adverse conditions since ppk mutants are unable to survive during stationary phase [51].
At present, the genus Propionibacterium is classified as Actinobacteria with a high G+C content, that make them more related to corynebacteria and mycobacteria than lactic acid bacteria.
Classical propionibacteria include among their main habitats: raw milk and cheese [1, 2] but have been obtained also from silages and vegetables for human consumption [15], and from ruminal content and feces of cows and calves [16]. These enzymes seem to be involved in intracellular accumulation and hydrolysis of glycogen as neither P.
Furthermore, they are not limited to the gastrointestinal tract of ruminants being also isolated from the intestine of pigs and laying hens [17].
On the other side, cutaneous species are found mainly in the human skin, but have been isolated also from the intestine of humans, chicken and pigs [1, 2, 18], being best represented by the acne bacillus, Propionibacterium acnes.
Trehalose is a non-reducing disaccharide that can be used by bacteria as a carbon and energy source and also can be accumulated as a compatible solute. All dairy propionibacteria are able, in a strain dependent manner, to synthesize and accumulate trehalose from glucose and pyruvate [53]. Both processes are enhanced at stationary phase and under oxidative, osmotic, and acid stress conditions [54].

This long-term survival in stationary phase or dormant phase could be the consequence of a multi-tolerance response that involves the synthesis and accumulation of polyP, glycogen, trehalose and the over-expression of molecular protein chaperones. Besides, a gene encoding an Rpf (resuscitation promoting factor) protein which is essential for the growth of dormant cells from actinobacteria has been described in the genome of P freudenreichii and is probably involved in long-term survival of propionibacteria [40].
Dairy starters for Swiss-type cheeses and other productsThe main industrial application of the genus Propionibacterium is the usage of “classical propionibacteria” as dairy starters for the manufacture or Swiss type cheeses. However, propionibacteria can also be used in the manufacture of various cheeses without eyes just to enhance flavour formation [58].In swiss type cheeses, propionibacteria may be present either as contaminants of raw milk or as components of starter cultures. The typical starter for this variety includes Streptococcus thermophilus, Lactobacillus helveticus, Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsps.
During manufacture and early stages of ripening, the thermophilic bacteria develop at expense of lactose of milk being responsible for lactic acid production, and also contributing to casein hydrolysis during pressing of the cheese. Interactions between microbiota and milk throughout ripening lead to biochemical changes that result in the development of the typical texture and flavor. During maturation in the cold room (15 °C) most of lactic starter lyse and release peptidases that produce free amino acids, which are precursors of many flavor compounds.
The subsequent period of warm room ripening is characterized by a marked growth of propionibacteria that metabolize the lactate produced by the lactic acid bacteria into propionate, acetate and CO2.
As described above, the end-products of propionic fermentation are considered as flavour compounds in cheese whereas the co-metabolism of aspartate leads to additional CO2 production.
However, strains with a high ability to metabolise aspartate can be associated with undesirable slits and cracks [60].Propionibacteria degrade branched-chain amino acids to branched-chain volatile compounds mainly 2-methylbutanoic acid and 3-methylbutanoic acid, which derive from isoleucine and leucine degradation, respectively [61]. These important flavour compounds are almost entirely produced in cheese by propionibacteria that synthesize them in closely related manner to that of cell membrane fatty acids [62]. Two esterases, one extracellular and other surface-exposed seem to be involved in lipolysis of milk glycerides [63, 64]. Other dairy products such as yogurt and fermented milks seem to be less appropriated for delivery of propionibacteria due to their weak proteolitic activity, the presence of inhibitory substances and the low pH attained by lactic acid fermentation that do not allow their development.
Currently, yogurt is used to deliver probiotic propionibacteria to the host’s intestine or to produce nutraceuticals, but in both cases inoculums higher than those used for cheese manufacturing are necessary.
Antimicrobials production: Propionic acid and bacteriocinsPropionic acid and its salts, as well as Propionibacterium spp strains, are widely used as food and grain preservatives due to their antimicrobial activity at low pH. They are commonly incorporated in the food industry to prolong the shelf-life of many products by suppressing the growth of mold and spoilage microorganisms in bread and cakes, on the surface of cheeses, meats, fruits, vegetables, and tobacco. Most commercial propionic acid is produced by petrochemical processes since biosynthesis by microbial fermentation is limited by low productivity, low conversion efficiency, by-product formation (acetic acid and succinic acid) and end-product inhibition. However, different attempts have been made to improve biological production of propionic acid for industrial applications [68].
In this sense, it has been determined that the most appropriated species for bioproduction of propionic acid from carbohydrate-based feedstock, including glucose and whey lactose, is P.acidipropionici [69, 70]. Since the use of glycerol as the principal carbon source enables the production of propionic acid without acetic acid, recent investigations have focused on the optimization of this particular homopropionic fermentation by propionibacteria [71, 72].
Two commercial products that include propionibacteria or their metabolites aimed for controlling spoilage microorganisms are currently available at market. Microgard™ is a food grade biopreservative obtained by fermentation of skim milk with Propionibacterium shermanii that is active against some fungi and Gram negative bacteria, but not against Gram positive ones [73]. Besides, they exert anticarcinogenic effects by inducing apoptosis of neoplastic cells but not of healthy mucosa [77].
Finally, SCFA may exert hypocholesterolemic effects, since propionate lowers blood glucose and alters lipid metabolism by suppressing cholesterol synthesis in the liver and intestine [78].Bacteriocins are antimicrobial peptides or proteins encoded by plasmid or chromosomal DNA of a wide range of Gram positive and negative bacteria. They have an antagonistic activity against species genetically related to the producer strain, but many of them exhibit a rather wide spectrum of activity and inhibit the growth of spoilage and pathogenic bacteria belonging to other genera [79].Both starters and naturally occurring bacteria on food have the ability to produce bacteriocins.
Hence, they may have potentially important applications as food biopreservatives or bacteriocin-producer probiotics to inhibit intestinal pathogens [80]. Nutraceuticals production: CLA, vitamins, EPS and trehalosePropionibacteria are able to produce many biological compounds that enhance the human health so they can be used as “nutraceuticals cell factories” for food enrichment. In this regard, propionibacteria have already been considered as rich sources of conjugated linoleic acid, vitamins, exopolysaccharides and trehalose.Many health benefits have been attributed to consumption of CLA-containing foods such as anticarcinogenic, antiatherogenic, antidiabetogenic and antioxidative properties, immune system modulation and reduction of body fat gain [94].
CLA-isomers are formed by biohydrogenation of LA in the rumen and through conversion of vaccenic acid by ?9-destaurase in the mammary gland so that ruminant meats and milk-derived products are main dietary sources of CLA. However, some microorganisms like Bifidobacterium, Lactobacillus, Enterococcus and Propionibacterium posses a linoleic acid isomerase that allow them to form CLA as a detoxification mechanism [95].
In consequence, they have been intended, either as starter or adjunct cultures, to increase the CLA level and nutritional value of some fermented products like yoghurt and cheese. In this regard, several studies have shown the potential of propionibacteria for producing CLA enriched products.
By varying the source of LA for conjugation and the fermentation conditions it has been observed that P.
Besides, it has been observed that CLA formation and growth of dairy propionibacteria in fermented milks were enhanced in the presence of yogurt microorganisms whereas organoleptic attributes obtained with yogurt starter cultures were not affected by co-cultures with the propionibacteria [100]. Vitamin B12 also called cobalamin, is an essential nutrient for the human body that plays a key role in the normal functioning of the brain and nervous system, the formation of blood and also the metabolism of every cell, especially affecting DNA synthesis and regulation, fatty acid synthesis and energy production. The pathway of vitamin B12 synthesis in Propionibacterium freudenreichii has been completely elucidated [40, 102]. This microorganism synthesizes cobalamin as a cofactor for propionic acid fermentation [41] and is the only bacteria, among B12 producers that possess the GRAS status of the United States Food and Drug Administration.In consequence dairy propionibacteria are the preferred microorganisms for the industrial production of this vitamin and many efforts have been made to improve the production process by using genetic engineering [102, 103] and other biotechnological strategies like fermentation manipulations [104, 105].
Vitamin B2, also known as riboflavin, is the central component of the cofactors FAD and FMN, and is therefore required by all flavoproteins. As such, vitamin B2 is required for a wide variety of cellular reactions and is involved in vital metabolic processes in the body. Vitamin K (a group of 2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone derivatives), is an essential cofactor for the formation of ?-carboxyglutamic acid-containing proteins that bind calcium ions and are involved in blood coagulation and tissue calcification.
Its deficiency has been associated with low bone density and increased risk of fractures from osteoporosis and intracranial hemorrhage in newborns [109]. Vitamin K1 or phylloquinone is present in plants, and vitamin K2, also called menaquinone, is produced in animals and bacteria that live in the intestine. It has been reported that Propionibacterium freudenreichii produces large amounts of tetrahydromenaquinone-9 (MK-9 (4H)) and the precursor 1,4-dyhidroxy-2-naphtoicacid (DHNA) which is a known bifidogenic factor [110-112]. In order to improve the production of these metabolites, different laboratory culture protocols that could be applied to an industrial scale have been assayed finding out that DHNA production is markedly influenced by carbon source limitation and the oxygen supply. An improvement in DHNA production could be obtained by a cultivation method that combines anaerobic fed-batch and aerobic batch cultures [112, 113].
Both homopolysaccharide [116, 117] and heteropolymers [118] were described and it has been reported that production of EPS by propionibacteria is a strain-dependent property (due to an IS element in the gtf promoting sequence) that is influenced by the medium composition and the fermentation conditions [119, 120]. Further studies are needed to elucidate the role of these polymers and their potential applications.Trehalose has been proposed as a healthy sugar substitute in foods because of its anticariogenic and dietetic properties. As described in paragraphs above, propionibacteria synthesize trehalose as a reserve compound and as a stress-response metabolite [52-55]. With respect to the production of this sugar in situ in food products, it has been observed that P. It contributes to the typical flavor and the development of characteristic “eyes”[56, 57], [59].AntimicrobialsP.

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