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Int j probiotics and prebiotics list,probiotic for gas bloating indigestion,relationship of probiotics to immune system zinc - Downloads 2016

Lai CH, Tsai CC, Kuo WW, Ho TJ, Day CH, Pai Py, Chung LC, Huang CC, Wang HF, Liao PH, Huang CY. AbstractHigh-fat diets induce obesity, leading to cardiomyocyte fibrosis and autophagy imbalance.
Animal model and probiotic suspensionsWistar rats were purchased from the National Laboratory Animal Centre in Taipei, Taiwan.
Western blot analysisThe heart tissue protein concentrations were measured using Lowry's protein assay method. Masson's trichrome stainingThe rat heart tissue from each group was stored in 10% formalin for 2 weeks, dehydrated using an alcohol gradient (75%, 85%, 90%, and 100% alcohol, 5 min each) and embedded in paraffin wax.
Immunohistochemistry stainingHeart sections from the Wistar rats were stained through the use of an immunohistochemistry kit (no.760-700, Roche Life Science, Indianapolis, USA), and the target protein was identified by brown color. Statistical analysisThe data are presented as the means ± SD from three independent experiments. Masson's trichrome stain assay in heart tissue sectionsWhole heart tissue section samples from the high-fat diet-induced obese rats were stained using Masson's trichrome. Evaluation of the expression of cardiac fibrosis protein markers in the hearts of rats fed a high-fat diet with or without different doses of multi-strain probioticsThe change in the fibrosis protein marker levels in rat hearts were investigated using western blotting assay of heart tissue protein extracts.
Effect of probiotics on cardiac autophagy early stage-associated protein markersPrevious studies indicated that LC3B and ATG7 play a key role in the early steps of the autophagy molecular pathway [39]. Cardiac tissue section IHC staining analysisTo confirm whether multi-strain probiotics decreased high-fat diet-induced autophagy activation by down-regulating LC3B expression, cardiac tissue section samples from the high-fat diet-induced obese rats were stained with IHC staining.
Multi-strain probiotic effect on the cardiac hypertrophy pathway in the hearts of rats fed a high-fat dietIn this study, we determined if a high-fat diet induced heart injury through promoting cardiac hypertrophy. Recent research has determined that probiotics present the following biological effects: decreased free radical injury, anti-inflammation, and inhibition of tumors and the regulation of lipid metabolism [40-43]. This study was supported in part by the Taiwan Ministry of Health and Welfare Clinical Trial and Research Center of Excellence (MOHW105-TDU-B-212-133019).
Corresponding author: Chih-Yang Huang, PhD, Graduate Institute of Basic Medical Science, Graduate Institute of Chinese Medical Science, China Medical University and Hospital, No. Except where otherwise noted, this work is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
Background: Probiotic microorganisms are selected based on their long history of use as well as their lack of side effects. Materials and Methods: In this study, the samples were screened from traditional dairy products, such as fresh yogurt, curd, Tarhana and Ghareghoroot of Markazi Province villages.
Results: Nineteen Gram-positive and catalase-negative strains belonging to the Lactobacillus genus were isolated from the above-mentioned diary samples.
Conclusions: There are many of different species of Lactobacillus probiotics in traditional dairy products of the Markazi province, based on the findings of this study. Great attention is currently drawn to probiotics, prebiotics or their combined use as synbiotics, to improve human health via natural sources. Due to the fact that the Markazi Province is known for its abundant production of traditional dairy products, microbial collections of probiotic strains of lactic acid bacteria was performed in this area (ensuring safety of isolated strains (GRAS)).The aim of the current study was then to investigate the probiotic characteristics of these collected strains.
For this test, the isolated strains were cultivated in medium containing 0.2% sodium taurocholate. In order to determine antibiotic resistance, first 1% of strains isolated from newly cultivated samples were added to warm sterile MRS agar with half concentration of MacFarlane. The isolated strain was identified according to methods described in Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology (12). Among numerous isolated bacteria, 19 strains were isolated from dairy products (Figure 1), which were all Gram-positive and catalase-negative.
This study was conducted with financial assistance from the Arak University of Medical Sciences, Iran and we are grateful for their invaluable contribution to this study. AbstractThe reaction of the intestinal immune system to intestinal bacteria shows striking differences between various bacterial strains. Schallmey M, Singh A, Ward OP: Developments in the use of Bacillus species for industrial production. Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is an idiopathic chronic disorder with a relapsing and remitting course.1 Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) fall under IBD's umbrella, but have different pathogeneses, inflammatory profiles, symptoms, and treatment regimens. IBD may result from abnormal GI inflammatory and immune response to microbial, dietary, and autoimmune proinflammatory antigenic triggers.1 Smoking and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are among the environmental factors that can modify IBD's course. Treatment goals are to induce and maintain remission, prevent complications, minimize toxicities, and improve quality of life.3,9 Clinicians should select therapy based on disease location in the GI tract, extent, and severity. Treatment Options for Different Health Care SettingsAmbulatory Care Setting and Long-Term CareDepending on disease location, mild-to-moderate IBD is treated initially with oral or topical aminosalicylates (sulfasalazine or mesalamine) or oral corticosteroids. Corticosteroids are the mainstay of treatment for inducing remission rapidly.3,12 Dependence and adverse effects (eg, weight gain, round face, acne, muscle cramps, lower extremity edema, thin skin, decreased wound healing, and osteoporosis), however, limit their long-term use. Despite conflicting evidence, clinicians often prescribe antibiotics (metronidazole and ciprofloxacin) because enteric microflora is thought to be partly causative. All agents are administered in an outpatient setting as subcutaneous injections except infliximab and natalizumab, which are infused intravenously. Specific TNF-a antagonist safety concerns include serious infections leading to hospitalization or death and hepatitis B and tuberculosis reactivation.
Hospital SettingApproximately 60% of patients will require surgery within 10 years of initial symptoms. All Health Care SettingsPatients should minimize exposure to aminosalicylates and corticosteroids during pregnancy. Antidiarrheals and antispasmodics provide symptomatic relief in mild disease, but should be used cautiously. Immune Support (Prevention and Acute) Vitamin D Probiotics Elderberry (Sambucus) Andrographis Be prepared.
Randomized trial of vitamin D supplementation to prevent seasonal influenza A (H1N1) in schoolchildren. Probiotics shorten duration The total symptom score, the duration of common cold episodes, and days with fever during an episode were lower in the probiotic-treated group than in the control group: A significantly higher enhancement of cytotoxic plus T suppressor cells (CD8+) and a higher enhancement of T helper cells (CD4+) was observed in the probiotic-treated group The intake of probiotic bacteria during at least 3 months significantly shortened common cold episodes by almost 2 days and reduced the severity of symptoms Clin Nutr. The intestine is the largest immunological organ in the body and contains 70% to 80% of all IgA-producing cells.
The Gut and EENT inteface the mucosal barrier also makes up our mouth, throat, eyes, the upper part of our lungs, nasal cavity, the urethra in men and women, and the vagina in women.
Syrup of Thyme and Ivy Leaves 1234 children and adolescents (623 boys and 611 girls) ages 2-17 with acute bronchitis and productive cough Non-interventional post-marketing surveillance study Treatment days: 0, 4 and 10 Acute bronchitis with productive cough in children and adolescents can be treated safely and effectively with the thyme and ivy syrup. Andrographis Treatment of acute infectious viral or bacterial diseases of the respiratory, urinary and GI systems. Andrographis This is a great herbs to initiate for prevention if your child has a history of ear infections, chronic bronchitis Increase the dose, triple it if on a preventive dose if child gets sick.
Long used in both Chinese and Ayurvedic medicine, this intensely bitter herb has powerful antiviral activity. SAMBUCUS NIGRA (Elderberry) Elderberry Extract Inhibits Several Strains of Influenza Controlled, double blind study 6 day outbreak of influenza B Significant improvement of symptoms in 93% of group in 2 days In vitro studies have shown inhibition of influenza types A and B J.
Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are known through ages for their wide ­applications in food, pharmaceutical and chemical industries. JavaScript is currently disabled, this site works much better if you enable JavaScript in your browser.
Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, Armed Force Taichung General Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan;2.
Multi-Strain Probiotics Inhibit Cardiac Myopathies and Autophagy to Prevent Heart Injury in High-Fat Diet-Fed Rats. In addition, no previous studies have indicated that probiotics have potential health effects associated with cardiac fibrosis and autophagy in obese rats.This study investigates the effects of probiotics on high-fat (HF) diet-induced obesity and cardiac fibrosis and autophagy in rat hearts. Diseases occur in obese patients who have hyperlipidemia, adipose tissue inflammation and oxidative stress, insulin resistance, lipid metabolic disorder and carcinogenesis [1-6]. The homogenate samples were placed on ice for 30 min with vortex every 5 min and then centrifuged at 12500 rpm for 30 min. The heart tissue protein samples were subjected to 13.5%, 10% or 8% SDS-PAGE at a constant voltage of 70 V.
As primary antibodies, LC3B Ab (#2775, Cell Signaling Technology, Maryland, USA) were used. The results showed that the heart cell arrangement was disordered with high collagen accumulation (blue color) in the HF group compared with the control group (Figure 1A and B).
Figure 2A shows that MMP2 and TGF-β expression up-regulated in the HF group after supplementation with different doses of multi-strain probiotics. In this research, we observed that rats fed with a high-fat diet induced a change in the autophagy molecular pathway (Figure 3). The results showed that LC3B was highly expressed in the HF group compared with the control group (Figure 4A and B, brown color). Histopathological analysis of cardiac tissue sections of the left ventricle from the control rats, the high-fat diet-induced obese rats, the high-fat diet-fed rats treated with low dose, medium dose and high dose of multi-strain probiotics. The fibrosis-related protein levels were increased in the left ventricular tissue of high-calorie diet-induced obese rats, whereas treatment with different doses of multi-strain probiotics reduced these fibrosis-related proteins. The autophagy-related protein levels were increased in the left ventricular tissue of high-calorie diet-induced obese rats, whereas treatment with different doses of multi-strain probiotics reduced these fibrosis-related proteins.
Figure 5 shows that after feeding a high-fat diet, the expression of upstream protein markers ERK5 and MEK5 in cardiac hypertrophy was increased compared with the control group as determined by Western blot assays. Our results indicated that a high-fat diet results in cardiac hypertrophy (Figure 1 and 2).
Nowadays, the consumption of probiotic products is growing intensively in developing countries. Samples were enriched in de Man, Rogosa and Sharpe (MRS) broth, and different strains were isolated and purified from this culture on MRS agar medium. It is recommended for researchers to isolate these strains and investigate their probiotic characteristics in order to reproduce them for use in food production as well as for medical treatment.
This attempt was a step towards addressing the increasing importance of these products as well as resolving our dependence on these microbial sources. Firstly, for isolation of the strains, samples of traditional dairy products, including yogurt, curd, Tarhana and Ghareghoroot, were collected from the Markazi province.
Then, the medium was inoculated with a certain amount of bacteria suspension for two hours at 37 A°C. The level of strains resistance was determined by comparing optical absorption of the sample with the control sample (cultivation medium without bile salts) (Diagram 2). Also, 16S rDNA sequence analysis was performed for phylogenetic recognition of the new strain. Based on biochemical and physiological tests performed according to Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, the strain was identified as Lactobacillus sp.
One of the main problems of probiotic bacteria in dairy products is their intolerance to productsa€™ ecological conditions (1-3). Survival of lactic acid bacteria in a dynamic model of the stomach and small intestine: validation and the effects of bile. Probiotic properties of human lactobacilli strains to be used in the gastrointestinal tract. Antibiotic resistance of probiotic strains of lactic acid bacteria isolated from marketed foods and drugs.
In vitro screening of potential probiotic activities of selected lactobacilli isolated from unpasteurized milk products for incorporation into soft cheese. Beneficial interrelationships between certain microorganisms and humans: Candidate microorganisms for use as dietary adjuncts. Whereas Klebsiella pneumoniae induces a fierce proinflammatory reaction, the probiotic strain Lactobacillus rhamnosus has clear anti-inflammatory effect in gastrointestinal disease and allergy. Grandinetti is a senior clinical research pharmacist at the National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Rockville, Maryland.
Increased sanitation and westernized lifestyles appear to increase the risk of developing IBD.
CD is more than twice as likely to develop in smokers, and its recurrence rate is higher than in nonsmokers.5,6 In CD, smoking promotes fistula and stricture formation, increases exacerbation rates and corticosteroid requirements, and accelerates the need for resurgery after surgicallyinduced remissions.
Studies suggest that prostaglandin synthesis inhibition may be the mechanism.3 IBD patients should use acetaminophen rather than NSAIDs for pain relief. Aminosalicylates are limited by their adverse effects, which are generally dose-related: headache, nausea, epigastric pain, and diarrhea.
Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-a is the key inflammatory cytokine implicated in IBD's pathogenesis. Due to infusion-related and delayed hypersensitivity reactions, observe patients at least 1 hour after drug administration. Surgery is indicated in patients with life-threatening complications, who become refractory or intolerant to drug therapy, or when the goal is to reduce colon cancer risk.2 Patients with severe colitis or moderate disease who fail to respond to steroids within 2 weeks will be hospitalized. Intravenous (IV) corticosteroids are used to induce remission in patients with severe or fulminant disease or limited GI absorption. Antidiarrheals may precipitate toxic megacolon, and antispasmodics should be avoided in patients with intestinal obstruction or severe disease. In a study published in the journal Nature Immunology, researchers from the University of Copenhagen found that when a variety of white blood cells known as a T-cell comes across a pathogen (virus, bacteria, tumor, fungus) in the bloodstream, it extends a receptor in search of vitamin D. When exposed to a virus (etc) by the oral route, a secretory immune response is obtained, which is mediated by secretory IgA. A ten-day treatment using age-appropriate dosages led to a clear improvement in the symptoms or cure with very good tolerability. Bitter tonic, immune stimulant, anthelmintic, antihepatotoxin, cholagogue and anti-inflammatory.
But recently LAB have aroused interest for their ability to secrete extracellular polysaccharides or glucans. Eight-week-old male Wistar rats were separated randomly into five equally sized experimental groups: Normal diet (control) and high-fat (HF) diet groups and groups fed a high-fat diet supplemented with low (HL), medium (HM) or high (HH) doses of multi-strain probiotic powders. The proteins separated via SDS-PAGE were transferred onto polyvinylidene difluoride membranes (EMD Millipore Life Sciences) using a current of 100 V for 60 min. The tissue sections were de-paraffinized via immersion in xylene (3 times, 5 min each) and rehydrated using an alcohol gradient (100%, 90%, 85%, and 75% alcohol, 5 min each).
After supplementation with the different dosages of multi-strain probiotics, the heart arrangement was rescued with significantly decreased collagen accumulation (Figure 1C-D).
The results showed that expression of autophagy early step-associated protein markers LC3BI and ATG7 was increased in the HF group. Following treatment with low-, medium- and high-dose multi-strain probiotics, a reduction in the LC3B expression was observed (Figure 4C-E).
Treatment with different doses of multi-strain probiotics decreased ERK5 and MEK5 expression.
Other studies observed that lactic acid bacteria, a probiotic, decreased blood glucose levels and provided a protective effect in ischemic animal heart models [46, 47].
However, treatment with multi-strain probiotics prevented high-fat diet-induced cardiac hypertrophy in all of the groups supplemented with different probiotic doses. Researchers who work in the food industry and research centers pay more attention to the identification of new probiotic bacteria with better performance characteristics as well as investigation of their performance because these findings can be very effective in promoting sale and consumption of these products. Isolated strains were investigated by microscopic observations, considering the following factors: catalase capability, resistance to acid and bile, bile salt hydrolysis and antibiotic susceptibility pattern.
All isolated strains were susceptible to different antibiotics and a small percentage had the ability to hydrolyze Sodium Taurocholate.
Probiotics have become a major focus of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) research over the past 10 years, with most attention drawn to the genera Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium (2).
In the next step, the cells were isolated using centrifugation at 6000 rpm for 10 minutes and inoculated in MRS Broth cultivation medium.

The TNF-a antagonists, infliximab, adalimumab, certolizumab pegol, and etanercept, are available for the treatment of IBD. Acetaminophen, antihistamines, corticosteroids, and epinephrine should be available for immediate use in the event of a hypersensitivity reaction. Advise patients to avoid azathioprine, 6-mercaptopurine, cyclosporine, and methotrexate during pregnancy because of fetal growth retardation risk, prematurity, and congenital malformations.
Colonoscopy with biopsy is recommended every 1 to 2 years in most patients with extensive colitis of 8 to 10 years. The primary outcome was the incidence of influenza A, diagnosed with influenza antigen testing with a nasopharyngeal swab specimen.
The reduction in influenza A was more prominent in children who had not been taking other vitamin D supplements and who started nursery school after age 3 y. If the WBC encounters the vitamin, the T cell becomes "activated." If there is not enough vitamin D in the blood, the cell remains passive and no immune response occurs.
On the way through the birth canal during a vaginal deliver, a newborn gets dosed with bacteria from their mothers birth canal. It can be used for colds, influenza, sore throats, Lyme disease, hepatitis and other viral infections.
These glucans have immense commercial value because of their industrially useful physico-chemical properties.
Department of Biological Science and Technology, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan;4. Biopsy samples were then stained using Masson's trichrome stain to investigate heart morphologic and fibrotic changes; blue staining represented collagen accumulation.
The multi-strain probiotics decreased the collagen accumulation in a dose-dependent manner compared with the HF group (Figure 1B-D). The fibrosis-related transcription factors SP1 expression in the hearts from the high-fat diet group was significantly increased when compared to the control group. Oral intake of the multi-strain probiotics in high-fat diet-fed rats decreased the expression of LC3BI and ATG7 in each different dose in the multi-strain probiotic groups (HL, HM and HH, Figure 3A) and in a dose-dependent manner.
This result confirmed that multi-strain probiotics regulated the autophagy pathway via inhibiting LC3B expression in a dose-dependent manner. Although there was no significant difference between the control group and HF group on uPA and ANP expression, we observed that multi-strain probiotics decreased uPA and ANP expression in different doses (Figure 5). The first world human lifestyle is characterized by the intake of high levels of fat and calories, resulting in obesity. These organisms have been widely reported to exert many beneficial effects, such as activation of the immune system, prevention of cancer cell growth, maintenance of mucosal integrity and presentation of an antagonistic environment for pathogens (2, 3). Thirdly, samples were enriched using falcons containing Broth medium in an incubator at 37 A?C with atmospheric carbon dioxide. Using BLAST analysis of 16S rDNA sequences, the nucleotide sequence was found to be identical to parts of the Lactobacillus crustorum, L. Although there are long-term safety concerns, TNF-a antagonists are used in patients who are refractory to conventional therapies.11,14 Adalimumab and certolizumab pegol are alternatives in patients refractory to infliximab.
In children with a previous diagnosis of asthma, asthma attacks as a secondary outcome occurred in 2 children receiving vitamin D(3) compared with 12 children receiving placebo CONCLUSION:This study suggests that vitamin D(3) supplementation during the winter may reduce the incidence of influenza A, especially in specific subgroups of schoolchildren. This event starts colonization in the infant's gastrointestinal (GI) tract of 'good' bacteria.
The glucans derived from LAB play crucial role in improving rheology, texture, mouth feel of fermented food formulations and conferring beneficial physiological effects on human health, such as antitumour activity, immunomodulating bioactivity and anticarcinogenicity. De Vuyst, Cell growth and bacteriocin production of probiotic Lactobacillus strains in different media. Graduate Institute of Chinese Medical Science, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan;5.
The myocardial architecture of the left ventricle was evaluated using Masson's trichrome staining and immunohistochemistry staining. The modern first world diet makes it easy to intake high-fat foods, often leading to obesity, hypertension and insulin resistance, which are common and detrimental health problems [8]. SP1 expression was down-regulated in the low-, medium- and high-dose multi-strain probiotic groups compared with the control group. Importantly, we revealed that autophagy changed in the early steps in obese rat hearts, but after oral intake of the multi-strain probiotics, only the LC3BI and ATG7 pathways were significantly decreased. These findings indicate that multi-strain probiotics prevent high-fat diet-induced cardiac hypertrophy.
Obesity is one of the metabolic diseases, with complications including diabetes, cardiovascular disease and even cancer [48, 49].
The results indicated that high-fat diet cardiac eccentric hypertrophy was induced by activating ERK5 and MEK5, which are the key upstream markers in the eccentric hypertrophy pathway. There has been an increase of interest regarding the commercial utilization of Lactobacillus strains isolated from traditional and naturally fermented dairy products, which possess health-promoting effects.
Tarhana and curd samples have hard tissues, hence cannot be easily mixed with the cultivation medium. Resistance percentage of strains to stomach acid was determined by comparing optical absorption of the samples with the control sample (pH= neutral).
After 24 hours, each plate was retrieved and measured using a metric rule for the area of inhabitation (11). Monocyte-derived immature DC were cultured in the presence of live bacteria to obtain mature DC. Natalizumab is a humanized monoclonal antibody against the cellular adhesion molecule a4 integrin. Infliximab is an alternative to IV corticosteroids, or in corticosteroid-refractory patients.
Improve adherence by choosing therapeutic regimens with less frequent dosing intervals and more palatable dosage forms (eg, oral vs rectal).2 Educating patients on their disease, drug therapy, and drug-specific adverse effects improves patient care and outcomes.
One type seeks out and destroys all traces of the infectious agent, while the other records information about the pathogen and transmits it to other parts of the immune system. 479 healthy adults (aged 18-67) were supplemented daily with vitamins and minerals with or without the probiotic bacteria. N New research now shows many caesarean-section infants have less-than-optimal health after birth. It is also used for infestations of intestinal parasites such as Giardia, Blastosistus hominis and Dientaoeba fragilis. The modulation of biochemical properties of glucans require a thorough understanding of its biosynthetic pathway and the relation between the structure of glucans and the functional effect provided by them after incorporation into the food matrix.
The obesity-induced tissue damage mechanism in an animal model fed a high-fat diet involves caspase-dependent apoptosis resulting in cardiac dysfunction [9]. Horseradish peroxidase-labelled secondary antibodies were applied, and the results were obtained using a Fujifilm LAS-4000 mini imager (GE Healthcare Life Science). Moreover, the expression of beclin-1 increased in the HF group (Figure 3A), but there was no significant difference after supplementation with multi-strain probiotics. Although the function of probiotics on metabolic syndrome has been reported [50, 51] the effect of probiotics on cardiovascular disease is unclear.In the process of apoptosis in cardiac myocytes, cell gaps are produced and fibroblast recruitment takes place resulting in collagen accumulation and cardiac fibrosis leading to heart failure [52]. Oral multi-strain probiotic administration prevented high-fat diet-induced cardiac eccentric hypertrophy by decreasing ERK5 and MEK5 expression.
Research on Lactobacilli isolated from such traditional and naturally fermented dairy products reveals a long history of safe use (2, 4, 5).Nowadays, a variety of microorganisms, typically food grade lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and bifidobacteria have been evaluated for their probiotic potential and are applied as adjunct cultures in various types of food products or therapeutic preparations (5). Thereby, these samples were firstly dissolved in sodium citrate and were then added to MRS broth medium (9). In another study on 122 Enterococcus Faecium strains isolated from traditional cheese of Argentina, 11 strains were able to grow in acidic conditions and bile salts (9).In order to evaluate their beneficial effects in the host, probiotic bacteria must transit through the highly acidic stomach conditions in order to reach the intestine. Both micro-organisms induced maturation of immature DC as shown by CD83 and CD86 expression, but receptors involved in activation of Th1 cells were expressed predominantly on DC exposed to K.A pneumoniae. The viability of probiotics could be maintained if they are administered within a microbially produced biodegradable polymer - poly-I?-glutamic acid (I?-PGA) - matrix. These latter ("helper") cells help the immune system respond quickly should infection with a similar pathogen occur at a later date. Cellular immune parameters were evaluated in a randomly drawn subgroup of 122 volunteers before and after 14 days of supplementation. This is most likely because they are not exposed to the mother's healthy bacteria in the birth canal which would then serve to populate its own GI tract. LAB are employed in food industry for making yoghurt, cheese, sourdough bread, sauerkraut, pickles, beer, wine and other fermented foods and animal feeds like silage. Abnormal myocardial architecture and enlarged interstitial spaces were observed in HF hearts.
In genetically obese mice, the apoptotic response in cardiomyocytes was obtained from mitochondrial damage that increased and down-regulated the survival rates [10].A previous study indicated that left ventricular hypertrophy is highly associated with obesity [11]. These findings suggested that a high fat diet affected autophagy in the early stages and supplementation with multi-strain probiotics decreased the high-fat diet-induced autophagy imbalance regulated by LC3BI and ATG7 expression. Moreover, a high-fat diet induced upstream protein expression of cardiac hypertrophy; however, no significant differences were observed between the control group and the HF group in the expression of downstream proteins ANP and uPA (Figure 5). To be beneficial to human health, a probiotic must fulfill several criteria; for instance, it must survive passage through the upper gastrointestinal tract (GIT) and must be able to function in the gut environment (1, 4, 6). Probiotic bacteria should pass through the highly acidic stomach in order to reach the intestine and create proper conditions for residence. Although the antifreeze activity of I?-PGA is well known, it has not been used for maintaining the viability of probiotic bacteria during freeze drying.
Obtain blood cultures and start broad-spectrum antibiotics in patients who are febrile and have leukocytosis.
LAB can also produce a variety of functional oligosaccharides that have applications as prebiotics, neutraceuticals, sweetners, humectants, drug against colon cancer and as immune stimulator. These interstitial spaces were significantly decreased in groups provided with multi-strain probiotics compared with HF hearts. Interestingly, supplementation with different doses of multi-strain probiotics decreased uPA and ANP expression.
Probiotics also need to possess the ability to survive and be viable in the products, during food production and storage (1, 7). Therefore, the first step in screening of probiotic Lactobacilli strains is selecting those that are acid resistant (Figure 2).Probiotic bacteria should not only be tolerant to acidic conditions of the stomach but also be resistant to intestinal bile salts, so that they could survive in the digestive system. As shown in Diagram 1, the most acid-tolerant strains were respectively isolated from yogurt, Tarhana and Ghareghoroot; however, no resistant strains were obtained from curd. Stool samples were collected before and after 14 days of probiotic supplementation to quantify fecal Lactobacilli and Bifidobacteria using qRT-PCR. LAB are gram positive rods or cocci, non spore forming, acid tolerant, low GC containing, anaerobic or micro-aerophilic bacteria characterized by their ability to ferment sugar to lactic acid. Exercise and pregnancy induce reversible physiological cardiac hypertrophy, whereas inflammation, hypertension and myocardial injury result in irreversible pathologic increases in hypertrophy [12]. The entire experiment was performed according to the NIH Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals, and the protocol was approved by the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee of China Medical University, NO.101-263-B.
Fibrosis-related transcription factor SP1 and protein marker MMP2 and TGF-β were up-regulated in HF group via Western blot assays. These findings suggested that oral multi-strain probiotics might improve a protective effect on cardiac hypertrophy in the hearts of rats fed a high-fat diet.Autophagy is an important mechanism that regulates heart metabolism [54]. Therefore, a proper evaluation of each candidate probiotic strain becomes an important step for further implementation as a culture adjunct. Grown strains were isolated based on colony morphology and catalase capability and were then coded (Table 1). The results indicated that the best option for isolation of potentially probiotic Lactobacilli is from yogurt which was obtained from Nazmabad and Moradabad villages.Another key characteristic of probiotic bacteria is their resistance and ability to grow in the presence of bile salts in order to survive in the digestive system. Infants born prematurely, with chronic lung disease, immunocompromised or with some forms of heart disease are at a greater risk. The commonly known LAB genera are Lactobacillus, Leuconostoc, Pediococcus, Lactococcus and Streptococcus. Cardiac fibrosis was confirmed using Masson's trichrome staining showing that the high-fat diet induced collagen accumulation (Fig. Previous research indicated that autophagy imbalance induced cell apoptosis in different organs [55-57]. Finally, isolated strains were kept in 50% glycerol at 40 A?C until complementary tests were performed. The results showed that all of the selected strains were susceptible to antibiotics used in this test (Table 1).
Besides prolonging the shelf life, lactic acid enhances the gustatory and nutritional value, imparts appetizing flavour and texture to the food.
IL-6 and IL-6 receptor activation is induced by signaling pathways such as the mitogen-activated protein kinase 5 (MEK5) pathway, the signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) pathway and the MAPK extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway. We determined the expression of the important autophagy early stage-related protein markers LC3B and ATG7. Therefore, the following sections will be devoted to general information, taxonomy and importance of food with this important group of bacteria (1, 8). The results showed that among isolated strains Y2, Y3, Y4, Y5, Y6, T and GH were positive regarding bile salt hydrolysis (Figure 4). 10% I?-PGA was found to protect Lactobacillus paracasei significantly better than 10% sucrose, whereas it showed comparable cryoprotectant activity to sucrose when it was used to protect Bifidobacterium breve and Bifidobacterium longum.
Some LAB produce proteinaceous antimicrobial compounds called bacteriocins which inhibit the growth of Gram-positive pathogenic and spoilage bacteria and used as food additives. Treatment with multi-strain probiotics provides a protective function in high-fat diet-induced fibrosis by down-regulating the molecular pathway.
However, to provide health benefits, Lactobacillus strains, which are mostly delivered in a food system, must overcome physical and chemical barriers in the gastrointestinal tract, especially acid and bile stresses, and have antagonistic activity against bacterial pathogens (2). They showed, in their following studies, that tolerance to bile salts differs among strains of Lactobacillus species isolated from the intestine. Although I?-PGA is known to be non-toxic, it is crucial to ascertain the toxigenic potential of its source, B. Lactic acid bacteria as probiotics have been proven effective against diarrhoea, irritable bowel disorder, allergies, stimulation of immunity, lactose intolerance. Previous papers indicated that apoptosis is a familiar mechanism for removing redundant cells, and it always results in down-regulated cell proliferation. After supplementation with low-, medium- and high doses of multi-strain probiotics, LC3B and ATG7 expression was significantly decreased.
Growth and reproduction of bacteria in the intestines of cattle is dependent on their bile tolerance (16).Gilliland et al. Graduate Institute of Basic Medical Science, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan;12. Department of Health and Nutrition Biotechnology, Asia University, Taichung, Taiwan.* These authors contributed equally to this work. After cardiac apoptosis, the gap in cardiomyocyte arrangement is filled by fibroblasts [19].
We obtained the same result that multi-strain probiotics decreased high-fat diet-induced LC3B expression in a dose-dependent manner. Cardiac fibrosis is the last stage in the heart failure process [20], leading to severe heart dysfunction. These data suggest a high-fat diet-induced autophagy pathway imbalance.These results showed that a high-fat diet induced cardiac fibrosis, autophagy and hypertrophy. The basis of his studies was determination of the difference between lag phase of bacterial growth in the presence and absence of bile salts (17).
Kuri, Soluble and insoluble dietary fibres (non-starch polysaccharides) and their effects on food structure and nutrition.

Our experiments showed that oral administration of multi-strain probiotics provided cardiac protection via regulation of fibrosis, autophagy and hypertrophy in the hearts of rats fed a high-fat diet. Although cardiac fibrosis is an important stage in the progression of heart disease, the mechanisms underlying fibrosis development and progression are unclear [21].
Our previous study revealed that transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) activated the downstream pathway, increased matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP2) and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP9) expression and promoted transcription factor specificity protein 1 (SP1) up-regulation [22]. Moreover, a recent paper indicated that the fibrosis pathway up-regulates SP1 leading to cardiac remodeling and fibroblast proliferation, and also induces connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) expression. Another study also indicated that CTGF activation is associated with cardiac fibrosis and cardiac remodeling [23].Autophagy as an energy balance mechanism also implicated in degradation and recycling of damaged organelles, proteins and carbohydrate (glycogen), may be important for metabolism system regulation [24].
Seven acid resistant strains, considering their ability to grow in the presence of 0.2% bile salts, were evaluated. Other studies indicated that when the degradation and recycling mechanism is overloaded, the cells die by autophagy-dependent cell death [25, 26]. All of the stains were highly resistant to bile salts, where maximum resistance was equal to 152.93%. Beclin-1 is a key protein in the early stages that promotes the autophagy process [27], and LC3BI interacts with ATG7 to induce the maturity of autophagosomes [28]. Probiotic bacteria are helpful in maintaining a healthy gut and have been used for controlling several types of gastrointestinal infections (Anukam et al. One study indicated that the pathophysiology of obesity is highly associated with increased autophagy in adipose tissue [29].Probiotics have been reported to promote metabolism and adjust immune function and gastrointestinal health. This extensive range of resistance to bile salts and diversity of resistance in different strains observed in this study was reported by other researchers including, Liong and Shah (2005), Pennacchia (2004), Mishra and Prasad (2005) (18, 20, 21). Additional evidence has indicated that probiotics exert a biologic effect on the heart [30-35]. These results indicate that lactic acid strains, which are resistant to acidic conditions and bile salts, isolated from traditional fermented dairy products in Iran, could be good candidates for use along commercial primers in order to enhance health of dairy products.In conclusion, this study showed that direct screening methods with inhibition of acid-sensitive bacteria growth could be an appropriate method for isolation of potential probiotic strains. Tobacco and IBD: relevance in the understanding of disease mechanisms and clinical practice. There are some studies that indicated that probiotics regulated autophagy expression [36-38]. Moreover, this method facilitates investigation of probiotic characteristics of dairy products. In this study, we used a high-fat diet to set up an obesity animal model to investigate if oral probiotic administration prevents obesity-induced heart fibrosis and autophagy imbalance. Amongst the four different samples of traditional dairy products, 19 Lactobacillus strains were isolated, from which seven strains were able to survive at pHof2 and grow in 0.2% bile salt. The results showed that yogurt and Tarhana of Nazmabad and Ghareghoroot of Salehabad had more probiotic potential compared to the other products. Also, biochemical, physiological, morphological and molecular tests showed that Lactobacillus sp.
Research has also shown a marked reduction in total serum cholesterol in human volunteers after ingestion of Enterococcus faecium (EF) M-74 enriched with selenium (Hlivak et al.
Since these isolates were resistant to acid and bile salts, they can be used as potentially probiotic bacteria by promoting host-specific health experiments. Furthermore, strains of Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium have been shown to cure dental disorders (Allaker and Douglas 2009). Because of these beneficial effects, probiotic microorganisms have been introduced into a variety of food and drink products for administration to humans or animals.
Various strains of Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium are used commonly as probiotic bacteria to benefit the health of the host (Benno and Mitsuoka 1992 de LeBlanc et al. 1992 Kailasapathy and Rybka 1997).One of the most important manufacturing steps for producing a probiotic food product is to introduce the bacteria into the foodstuff as dry cultures. Day, Gluco-oligosaccharides from Leuconostoc mesenteroides B-742 (ATCC 13146): A potential prebiotic. Working with dry cultures is advantageous since they are easier to handle and have a longer shelf life than wet cultures. However, the methods for preparation of freeze dried probiotic bacteria are often detrimental to the cell structure and viability (Saarela et al.
Therefore, there remains a need to improve the viability of probiotic microorganisms as they pass through, in particular, the freeze drying process.This research uses bacterial poly-I?-glutamic acid (I?-PGA) for protecting probiotic bacteria during freeze drying. Robyt, Isolation and partial characterization of an extracellular glucansucrase from Leuconostoc mesenteroides NRRL B-1355 that synthesizes an alterning (1–6), (1–3)-?-D Glucan.
I?-PGA is a non-toxic, non-immunogenic and biodegradable biopolymer that is produced by bacteria for use in various applications.
I?-PGA is edible and is present in a traditional Japanese dish Natto which is made by fermenting soyabean with Bacillus strains. Most commonly, strains of Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus licheniformis have been researched for its production (Buescher and Margaritis 2007 Candela and Fouet 2006 Shih and Van 2001). American Gastroenterological Association Institute technical review on corticosteroids, immunomodulators, and infliximab in inflammatory bowel disease.
This research was designed to analyse the effect of different concentrations of I?-PGA as a cryoprotectant for probiotic bacteria during freeze drying.
Therefore, this research not only assesses the potential of I?-PGA as a cryoprotectant for probiotic bacteria, but also ascertains the toxigenic potential of its source, B. Lonvaud-Funel, Characterization of gtf, a glucosyltransferase gene in the genomes of Pediococcus parvulus and Oenococcus oeni.
2010).Bacterial strainsThree probiotic bacteria (Bifidobacterium longum NCIMB 8809, Bifidobacterium breve NCIMB 8807 and Lactobacillus paracasei NCIMB 8835) were obtained from National Collection of Industrial and Marine Bacteria (NCIMB), Aberdeen, UK. Before use, the cultures were revived aseptically and grown anaerobically on Bifidobacteria Selective Medium (BSM) Agar for Bifidobacteria and MRS agar for Lactobacillus at 37A°C in anaerobic gas jars using an atmosphere generation system (Oxoid Anaerogena„?, UK) and indicator strip according to manufacturera€™s instructions. 2011) and MRS medium was used for Lactobacillus.I?-PGA as a cryoprotectantInitially, unsterilised I?-PGA was used for preliminary cryoprotection experiment.
Coppola, Behavior of variable V3 region from 16S rDNA of lactic acid bacteria in denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. The structural integrity of the polymer was determined by comparing the FTIR spectra (Genesis II FTIRa„?, UK) of the polymer before and after sterilization.To prepare cells for freeze drying, all microorganisms were cultured anaerobically at 37A°C.
After incubation, viable counts were performed on BSM agar (Bifidobacteria) and MRS agar (Lactobacillus) to determine the number of viable cells prior to freeze drying. After freeze drying, 10A ml of PBS was added to each treatment and the viability was determined. SEM analysis was performed using a Zeiss EVO50 and the images analysed using the Smart SEM software.Toxigenic analysisThe presence of major enterotoxins and virulence factors in B. Rastall, Synthesis of isomaltoligosaccharides and oligodextrans by the combined use of dextransucrase and dextranase. Phosphofructokinase A (pfkA), a housekeeping gene, was used as positive control.DNA isolation and purification5A ml of Tryptone Soya Broth was inoculated with a single colony of B. Bacterial cells were harvested by centrifugation at 1,000a€‰A—a€‰g for 5A min and the bacterial pellets were washed with sterile water. DNA was isolated using the GenElute Bacterial Genomic DNA kit (Sigma-Aldrich, UK) according to the protocol provided by the manufacturer.
The DNA quantity was determined using a Nanodrop2000 Spectrophotometer (Thermo Scientific, UK).PCR analysisThe primers for PCR analysis were purchased from Sigma-Aldrich, UK. The details of the primers used for screening the genes of interest are provided in TableA 1.
Eggink, Spontaneous formation of a mannitol-producing variant of Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides grown in the presence of fructose.
The gene sequence of pfkA was obtained from the nucleotide collection of the National Centre for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) and the primers for the gene were designed using the NCBI Primer-Blast. PCR analysis was performed on isolated and purified DNA from each microorganism as described by (Matarante et al.
Taq polymerase, deoxynucleotide triphosphates and DNA molecular weight markers were purchased from Roche, UK. Schillinger, Taxonomy and important features of probiotic microorganisms in food nutrition.
Haemolytic activity was determined at 30A°C on blood agar plates containing 5% horse blood. Lecithinase (phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C) activity was determined at 30A°C on nutrient agar supplemented with 8% egg yolk emulsion. The cell-free supernatants of each microorganism were also tested for their haemolytic and lecithinase activities by inoculating 5A I?l of each cell free supernatants into the aforementioned media (Matarante et al. 2004).Statistical analysesAll results were statistically analysed using Microsoft Excel 2010 and GraphPad Prism 5. The Bonferroni multiple comparison test was used for the non-parametric analysis of the data to determine the difference between individual groups in a data set.
Results from FTIR spectroscopy (FigureA 1) indicated that the FTIR spectra for sterilised and unsterilised polymer showed all the peaks representing the characteristic bonds in I?-PGA.
Chobert, ­Gluco-oligosaccharides synthesized by glucosyltransferases from constitutive mutants of Leuconostoc mesenteroides strain Lm28. Doxastakis, Stability and rheology of egg-yolk-stabilized concentrated emulsions containing cereal b-glucans of varying molecular size.
Experiments were conducted in triplicate (na€‰=a€‰3).SEM analysisFreeze dried bifidobacteria with and without I?-PGA as a cryoprotectant were analysed using SEM to understand how the cells may be protected.
The thickness of I?-PGA coating could be potentially calculated with further testing using transmission electron microscopy (TEM).Figure 3SEM image of a) Freeze driedB. Bielecki, Immobilization of dextransucrase and its use with soluble dextranase for glucooligosaccharides synthesis.
Of the six genes coding for toxin production, four (nheB, entFM, sph, piplc) were present in the control organism B. No band was seen in any of the negative control experiments lacking DNA.Figure 4PCR patterns ofB. Hols, High-level production of the low-calorie sugar sorbitol by Lactobacillus plantarum through metabolic engineering.
The cell-free supernatants of both these bacteria showed similar results.Figure 5Physiological analysis of the haemolytic and lecithinase activities ofB. Goyal, Rheological and gelling properties of a novel glucan from Leuconostoc dextranicum NRRL B-1146.
This study is the first to assess the effect of I?-PGA on the viability of probiotic bacteria during freeze drying.On conclusion of the cryoprotectant tests, it was seen that L. Goyal, Application of response surface methodology for glucan production from Leuconostoc dextranicum and its structural characterization. Similar results have been found for members of Bifidobacterium species and strains (Lian et al.
Based on the above, it could be concluded that resistance to the freeze drying process varies between species and even strains of the same species.
It has been shown that heating an aqueous solution of I?-PGA can reduce its molecular weight (Goto and Kunioka 1992). Previous studies have also demonstrated that I?-PGA with a lower molecular weight has a higher antifreeze activity than a high molecular weight polymer (Mitsuiki et al. FTIR analysis revealed that the structural integrity of the polymer remained intact after steam sterilization (FigureA 1). Since I?-PGA could protect lactobacilli better than sucrose in this study, it could indicate that I?-PGA is a better cryoprotectant than trehalose and sorbitol as well.
Boehm, Dosage-related bifidogenic effects of galacto- and fructooligosaccharides in formula-fed term infants. Nata, a bacterial cellulose produced by Acetobacter xylinum, has also been used to protect different lactobacilli during freeze drying (Jagannath et al. However, the protection offered by I?-PGA, trehalose, sorbitol and nata during freeze drying of Lactobacilli needs to be directly compared under identical conditions.Following the discovery and use of B.
However the detection of toxins and the genes that produce them in some strains of Bacillus (Beattie and Williams 1999 Phelps and McKillip 2002) has questioned the use of Bacillus sp. There have been reports where the production of emetic toxins by different Bacillus sp., including B. However, it is important to note that the authors concluded that the tendency of toxin production in strains of Bacillus other than B.
Santos, Metabolic characterization of Lactococcus lactis deficient in lactate dehydrogenase using in vivo 13 C-NMR. Therefore, to make I?-PGA applicable in the probiotic food industry as a cryoprotectant, it was crucial to analyse the I?-PGA producing strain for the presence of genes that are known to produce toxins. Moreover, there is presently no report on the toxigenic potential of Bacillus subtilis natto, which was used for the production of I?-PGA in our study.Therefore, the toxigenic potential of B.
Also, physiological analysis showed the absence of haemolytic and lecithinase activities in B. Airi, Metabollic engineering of Lactobacillus helvicticus CNRZ32 for production of pure, L(+) Lactic acid.
Our results are in accordance with another study that investigated the cytotoxic potential of other strains of B. Yebra, Sorbitol synthesis by an engineered Lactobacillus casei strain expressing a sorbitol-6-phosphate dehydrogenase gene within the lactose operon. 2002).In conclusion, this study has established that I?-PGA could be used successfully to improve the survival of probiotic bacteria when during freeze drying. Goyal, Structural analysis and biomedical applications of dextran produced by a new isolate Pediococcus pentosaceus screened from biodiversity hot spot Assam. It was also seen that Lactobacillus was more resistant to the freeze drying process than Bifidobacteria. While choosing an agent to protect probiotic bacteria, it is essential to choose one that protects them during the different stages of their production and upon incorporation into food products.
Therefore, future work will involve studying the ability of I?-PGA to protect probiotic bacteria during storage in a foodstuff and during passage through the gastrointestinal tract.For I?-PGA to be used in health and food products, it is important to analyse I?-PGA producing strains for the presence of genes that are known to produce toxins.
Kunka, Novel dextran produced by Leuconostoc dextranicum NRRL B-18242, United States Patent 4,933,191, 1990R.K. Goyal, Identification, effective purification and functional characterization of dextransucrase from Leuconostoc mesenteroides NRRL B-640. Goyal, Structural analysis and properties of dextran produced by Leuconostoc mesenteroides NRRL B-640.
Ray, Bacteriocins of starter culture bacteria as food biopreservative, in Food Biopreservatives of Microbial Origin, ed.
Nakamura, Production of mannitol and lactic acid by fermentation with Lactobacillus intermedius NRRL B-3693. Knapp, Structural analysis of dextrans from strains of Leuconostoc and related genera, that contain 3-O-a glucosylated-D-glucopyranosyl residues at the branched points or in consecutive linear position. Fahey Jr., Dietary galactooligosaccharides affect ileal and total-tract nutrient digestibility, ileal and fecal bacterial concentrations, and ileal fermentative characteristics of growing pigs. European Commission, Health and Consumer Protection Directorate-General (SCAN) Scientific Committee on Animal Nutrition; 2000.
Ngoddy, Structural analysis by13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy of glucan extracted from natural palm wine.
Lopez, Pediococcus parvulus gtf gene encoding the GTF glycosyltransferase and its application for specific PCR detection of D-glucan-producing bacteria in foods and beverages.

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Comments to “Int j probiotics and prebiotics list”

  1. Vuqar:
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