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Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. Haematemesis is the vomiting of fresh red blood or old darker blood often referred to as coffee grounds. Constipation is the term given for infrequent or difficult evacuation of small, hard stools, accompanied by mild abdominal discomfort. Contents Functions of the Gastrointestinal and Urinary Systems Summary of the Gastrointestinal System The mouth cavity, pharynx, esophagus and stomach The Small Intestine, liver, gallbladder, and pancreas The Large Intestine Summary of the Urinary System The Kidneys The Ureters, Urinary Bladder, and Urethra Roots, suffixes, and prefixes Cancer Focus Related Abbreviations and Acronyms Further ResourcesFunctions of the Gastrointestinal and Urinary SystemsAny body system requires ENERGY, this comes from the food and liquid we INGEST. The Large IntestineOnce food is absorbed in the ileum, the residue is passed into the large intestine.
The KidneysThe two kidneys are located above the waist, they contain nephrons (kidney cells) which filter blood of waste and excess substances to form urine. The Ureters, Urinary Bladder, and UrethraTwo ureters transport urine from the kidneys into the urinary bladder. Colorectal cancer (or bowel cancer) is one of the most common types of cancer in both men and women. A substantial proportion of cases are in those with a genetic predisposition to colorectal cancer. A benign growth protruding from a mucous membrane, commonly found in the nose, uterus, and rectum.
Anal cancer is an uncommon cancer, in which malignant cells are found in the anus (the opening at the end of the rectum through which the body passes waste). Gastric cancer (cancer of the stomach) is a disease in which malignant cells arise in the tissues of the stomach.
Primary liver cancer is a disease in which the cells of liver become cancerous (malignant). Hepatoblastomas are more common in patients aged under 3 years, while hepatocellular carcinomas are usually found in patients aged under 4 or between the ages of 12 and 15. Renal cell cancer (kidney cancer) is a disease in which malignant cells arise from tissues of the kidney. Digestion Terminology Bolus: soft, pliable ball created from chewing and addition of saliva- slides down esophagus. In the mouth… Saliva softens food to make it easier to swallow Ptyalin in saliva converts starches into simple sugar Under nervous control- just thinking of food can cause your mouth to water. Food enters digestive system through mouth (buccal cavity) covered with mucous membrane Roof of mouth is HARD PALATE (bone) and soft palate UVULA- flap that hangs off soft palate-prevents food from going up the nose when you swallow. Gingiva – gums, support and protect teeth Mastication – chewing, teeth helps in mechanical digestion Deciduous teeth- baby teeth (#20) Adult mouth has 32 teeth (Permanent). In the Stomach… Gastric (digestive) juices are released Stomach walls churn and mix (This mixture is chyme) Small amount of chyme enters duodenum at a time controlled by pyloric sphincter Takes 2-4 hours for stomach to empty. Gallbladder Small green muscular sac secretes bile located inferior surface of the liver Stores and concentrates bile until needed by body.
Chapter 25 The Digestive System General anatomy & digestive processes Mouth through esophagus Stomach Liver, gallbladder & pancreas Small intestine Chemical.
The digestive system is made of hollow organs joined in a long, twisting tube from the mouth to the anusand other organs that help the body break down. Your digestive system has three main functions The Digestive System digestion absorption elimination.
Something to think about The food that enters your mouth, travels through you digestive system, and is eventually eliminated is never once inside your body It remains in a tube like highway with certain materials exiting the ramp at different locations in the body.
Mouth and Oral Cavity (contd) The tongues base (area of attachment) and the uvula are the barrier to the next part of the system, the pharynx.
Tongue Your tongue is a muscle that provides taste stimuli to your brain, determines temperature, manipulates food, and aids in swallowing.

Tongue The tongue pushes the food into a ball-like mass, called a bolus, so it may be swallowed - passed to the pharynx. Clinical Application: Sublingual Medication The area under the tongue has many blood vessels. Clinical Application: Sublingual Medication (contd) Nitroglycerine dilates arteries, improving blood supply and oxygenation – hopefully relieving angina symptoms. Salivary Glands There are 2 pairs of salivary glands controlled by the autonomic nervous system. Teeth The first set of teeth you grow as a baby are the deciduous teeth, falling out in time. Types of Teeth Incisors are located at the front of the mouth, are blade shaped, and are used to cut food.
Tooth Structure (contd) The next layer is connective tissue, pulp, located in the pulp cavity. The Root The root is nestled in a bony socket and is held in place by fibers of the periodontal ligament. Pharynx There are 3 parts to the pharynx: – The nasopharynx is primarily part of the respiratory system, blocked by the soft palate.
Esophagus (contd) Rhythmic contractions, called peristalsis, pushes food down the esophagus.
Esophageal Sphincters A muscular ring at the top of the esophagus, called the pharyngoesophageal sphincter, relaxes to open the esophagus so food can enter.
Walls of the Alimentary Canal Four basic types of tissue line the entire alimentary canal from the esophagus onward.
Walls of the Alimentary Canal (contd) The submucosa is the next layer, and is composed of soft connective tissue. Walls of the Alimentary Canal (contd) The next layer is called the muscularis externa, and is composed of two layers of smooth muscle. The source is generally the upper gastrointestinal tract if the blood is fresh or from the stomach with the darker blood.
When the condition is chronic, it may include nausea, stomach rumbling, appetite loss, and malaise.
It travels whilst being digested through the pharynx and then down the oesophagus into the stomach.
Saliva helps lubricate and moisten food, but also contains ENZYMES that begin to digest food while it is still in the mouth.
The cardiac sphincter is at the base of the oesophagus near the heart, it relaxes to allow food to enter the stomach. The appendix is attached to the caecum, the appendix no longer serves any real function and can be removed without any ill effects.
It is also important for keeping the body in homeostasis (balance) by controlling the composition and volume of blood.
Primary liver cancer is different from cancer that has spread from another place in the body to the liver. It is an an important organ which is involved in digesting food and converting it to energy and it also filters and stores blood. Other less common kidney cancers in children include malignant rhabdoid tumours and clear cell sarcoma.
Major Activities of Digestive System Ingestion Ingestion Mechanical Processing Mechanical Processing Digestion. INTRODUCTION n DIGESTIVE SYSTEM IS RESPONSIBLE FOR THE PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL BREAKDOWN OF FOOD SO IT CAN BE TAKEN INTO THE BLOOD STREAM. 6.1 Holozoic Nutrition Nutrition is the intake of food and processes of converting food substances into living matter.

Gastrointestinal System (GI) Takes in (ingests) raw materials Breaks them down (digests) both physically and chemically. The uvula aids in swallowing, directing food toward the pharynx and blocking food from entering your nose. As the tongue moves food around in the oral cavity, saliva is added to moisten and soften it, while teeth crush the food. The lingual frenulum, a membrane under the tongue, keeps you from swallowing your tongue and aids in speaking.
This sublingual blood vessel network readily absorbs substances and is a rapid means of administering medication. The submandibular salivary glands are located along both sides of the inner surface of the mandible, or lower jaw.
Small amounts of saliva keep the mouth moist, but the idea or presence of food increase production significantly. The crown is the part you normally see and is covered by the hardest biologically manufactured substance, enamel.
In addition, cementum covers the dentin of the root, aiding in securing the periodontal ligament. It extends from the pharynx, through the thoracic cavity, through the diaphragm, connecting to the stomach in the peritoneal cavity. The esophageal walls are lined with stratified squamous epithelium that secrete mucus to make the walls slippery. At the entrance to the stomach is the lower esophageal sphincter, or cardiac sphincter, opening the door to the stomach and closing to prevent acidic gastric juices from splashing into the esophagus – causing heartburn.
The innermost layer of muscle encircles the canal, while the outer layer of muscle is longitudinal in nature, so it lies in the direction of the canal. The first sign may be a sudden, severe abdominal pain above the navel, which travels through to the back. This tour starts in the mouth, move down the esophagus, through the stomach, small investing, colon and rectum. In between these two points are the pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestines, and large intestines. The mouth receives, tastes, mechanically breaks down, and begins the process of chemical breakdown of food, adding saliva. Saliva is 99.4% water, and contains antibodies, buffers, ions, waste products, and enzymes. After eating, saliva cleans the oral surfaces, reducing the amount of bacteria that grows in your mouth. The epiglottis covers the trachea to prevent food from entering the lungs, forcing food into the opening for the esophagus. This layer is composed mostly of surface epithelium with some connective tissue and has a thin smooth muscle layer surrounding it. Accessory organs of digestion include the teeth, salivary glands, liver, pancreas, and gallbladder. Angina develops as a result of poor oxygen supply to the myocardium because of diminished blood flow. The mucosa also possesses cells that secrete digestive enzymes to break down foodstuffs and goblet cells that secrete mucus for lubrication. Epithelial cells form a tight seal around the tooth to prevent bacteria from coming into contact with the tooths cementum.

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