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Are sucrose transporter expression profiles linked with patterns of biomass partitioning in Sorghum phenotypes?
Sorghum bicolor is a genetically diverse C4 monocotyledonous species, encompassing varieties capable of producing high grain yields as well as sweet types which accumulate soluble sugars (predominantly sucrose) within their stems to high concentrations. The storage of organic carbon as non-structural carbohydrates by plants is of biological and commercial interest. During sugar accumulation within stems, sucrose produced in photosynthetic source leaves is transported within phloem sieve element-companion cell (SE-CC) complexes to an array of sinks (non-photosynthetic organs) comprising developing vegetative and reproductive organs (growth sinks) as well as the stem storage sink. In the C4 species maize (Zea mays), closely related to Sorghum, sucrose loading of SE-CC complexes occurs apoplasmically (Slewinski et al., 2009).
Import of sucrose into cells across their plasma membranes is mediated by sucrose transporters (SUTs). Here we investigate the expression of Sorghum SUTs in source and sink organs during vegetative growth and at anthesis in two cultivars of Sorghum, cv. Tissue samples were cryogenically ground in stainless steel grinding jars cooled on dry ice with a cooled stainless steel ball bearing agitated for 1 min at 30 Hz using a Retsch TissueLyser II (QIAGEN, Chadstone Centre, VIC, Australia). Transformed yeast strains harboring Sorghum SUTs, empty pDR196 and PsSUT1 were grown in liquid culture to an OD600 of 0.8 in synthetic dropout media lacking uracil.
Full-length coding sequences of each SUT from both Sorghum cultivars were amplified by PCR, cloned, and then sequenced. A phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that the Sorghum SUTs clustered into four clear groups (Figure 3). All SUTs were expressed at measurable levels in all organs examined apart from SbSUT3, consistent with previous observations (Qazi et al., 2012). This means that you will not need to remember your user name and password in the future and you will be able to login with the account you choose to sync, with the click of a button. This page doesn't support Internet Explorer 6, 7 and 8.Please upgrade your browser or activate Google Chrome Frame to improve your experience.
Sucrose produced in leaves (sources) enters the phloem and is transported to regions of growth and storage (sinks).
Within growth sinks carbohydrates are invested primarily into the biosynthesis of cellular structures. Plants were exposed to a photoperiod of 14-h light and 10-h dark cycle with supplementary lighting provided by tungsten incandescent lamps.
Products from standard PCR were sequenced to ensure that correct gene fragments were amplified. Twelve trans-membrane domains were predicted for each SUT using the TMHMM (Hidden Markov model-based transmembrane) predictive algorithm, and a graphical representation of the membrane topology of SbSUT5 is shown (Figure 2). This is consistent with phylogenetic analyses of other grass species including the C3, Lolium perenne (Berthier et al., 2009) and the C4 Zea mays (Braun and Slewinski, 2009).
SbSUT1 transcripts were detected in both source and sink organs with higher levels observed in cv.
It is likely that sucrose transporter (SUT) proteins play pivotal roles in phloem loading and the delivery of sucrose to growth and storage sinks in all Sorghum ecotypes. Sweet Sorghum cultivars are capable of accumulating soluble sugars up to 60% of their internode dry weight (Hoffmann-Thoma et al., 1996). In stems of sugarcane and Sorghum, sucrose is transferred radially from their SE-CC complexes into storage parenchyma cells.
Therefore, Sorghum SUTs are of interest because they may play key roles in apoplasmic phloem loading of sucrose in source leaves and apoplasmic unloading of sucrose into stem storage sinks (see above).
Leaves were extracted using the plant RNeasy® kit (QIAGEN) whilst stems and inflorescences were extracted using the plant RNA reagent (Life Technologies, Mulgrave, VIC, Australia).
Amplified products were cloned into the pGEM-t easy vector (Promega, Sydney, NSW, Australia) and at least three clones were sequenced from separate cDNA samples.


Quantitative PCR was carried out on a Rotor-Gene Q (QIAGEN) using the QuantiFast SYBR green PCR kit (QIAGEN) and a two-step cycling program according to the manufacturer’s instructions.
Comparison of cycle threshold values (Ct) and absolute expression levels (data not shown) revealed both housekeeping genes were quite stably expressed within each organ examined. The predicted trans-membrane regions of the SbSUT5 transporter from sweet Sorghum (Rio), identifying which amino acids differ between cv.
All Sorghum SUTs were expressed in the yeast strain SEY6210 and grown on media containing (A) 100 mM glucose or (B) 25 mM sucrose as the sole carbon source. Rio accumulate sucrose within vacuoles, cytosols, and apoplasmic spaces of their storage parenchyma cells (Lingle, 1987). Intracellular compartmentation of stored sucrose in Sorghum is presumed to be similar to that of sugarcane.
SUTs are known to function in phloem loading of maize source leaves (Slewinski et al., 2009) but the role of SUTs in stem storage is less certain. Pot water levels were maintained at field capacity with a programmable drip irrigation system delivering water to each pot for two min, three times per day. Rio (sweet) were destructively harvested approximately 60 and 90 days after germination, respectively. Digestion of contaminating genomic DNA was performed post RNA isolation using the Ambion®TURBOTM DNase kit (Life Technologies). SUTs were then amplified from plasmids using the Stratagene Pfu Ultra II polymerase (Integrated Sciences, Chatswood, NSW, Australia) by primers incorporating restriction sites at the start and stop codons as shown in Table 1 and recommended cycling profile using a 55°C annealing temperature. This was repeated three times and plates were photographed using a ChemiDocTM XRS system (Bio-Rad, Gladesville, NSW, Australia). Sequence analysis (not shown) revealed that a number of conserved features are present in Sorghum SUTs. The SEY6210 strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae supported growth on media containing sucrose as the sole carbon source, when complemented with each SUT (Figure 4). Homologues of these SUTs were cloned and sequenced from the sweet cultivar Rio, and compared with the publically available genome information. Here, the bulk of sucrose accumulates within vacuoles of their storage parenchyma cells to concentrations that equal or exceed sucrose concentrations of the phloem sap. Here the final sucrose concentration within stems can be a balance between import and remobilization to provide a supplementary source of organic carbon to support grain filling when leaf photosynthesis has been depressed by stressful conditions (Blum et al., 1994, 1997).
Osmocote exact slow release fertilizer (Scotts Australia Pty Ltd, Sydney, NSW, Australia) was applied at a rate of 20 g per pot 2-weeks post germination and was supplemented with liquid fertilizer (Wuxal Liquid Foliar Nutrients; AgNova Technologies Pty Ltd, Eltham, VIC, Australia) at fortnightly intervals. RNA isolation and genomic DNA digestions were performed according to the manufacturer’s instructions. Media lacking uracil was used for selection as the pDR yeast expression vectors contain the uracil synthesis gene. Gene expression was measured relative to the housekeeper, Sorghum bicolor elongation factor 1-alpha (SbEF-1α).
BTx623 (D–F) during vegetative growth (A,D), at anthesis (B, E), and within the upper flag internode and inflorescence components at anthesis (C, F). The Sorghum SUTs aligned closely with SUTs from other C4 monocotyledonous species such as maize, sugarcane, and Setaria viridis (Figure 3). Accession numbers are shown along with gene identifications (Brachypodium, Setaria, and Sorghum). This indicates that the introduced SUT mediated sucrose import from the media to support yeast growth. During the vegetative stage of development, fully expanded leaves exhibited the highest level of expression, followed by expanding leaves and stems (Figure 5A).
For these reasons, sweet Sorghum, a C4 monocotyledonous plant with high yield potential, is regarded as an ideal feedstock to provide sugar for bioethanol production. However, remobilization of stem reserves in a number of Sorghum cultivars has been reported to be minimal under favorable environmental conditions (Gutjahr et al., 2013).


DNA was extracted from yeast post transformation, then plasmids were transformed into Escherichia coli (strain DH5α), and were harvested using a Plasmid Mini Kit (QIAGEN). Box and whisker plots represent minimum to maximum Ct value, with upper and lower quartile from five biological replicates. Only SbSUT4 contained an LXXLL motif in the N-terminal domain, indicating it may be targeted to the tonoplast (Yamada et al., 2010). At anthesis, fully expanded leaves exhibited substantially higher (fourfold) levels of expression than stems and inflorescences (Figure 6A). Two of the remaining five SUTs exhibited single variations in their amino acid sequences (SbSUT1 and SbSUT2) whilst the rest shared identical sequences. Since the pathway of phloem unloading follows a symplasmic pathway in sugarcane stems (Jacobsen et al., 1992), any concentrating step must be localized to tonoplasts of their storage parenchyma vacuoles.
Rio produces a small panicle with fewer grains, but may grow to a height of 3 m with a stout culm for sugar storage.
Expression levels were similar between cultivars in upper portions of their flag internodes along with rachis branches, but were greater in cv. Complementation of a mutant Saccharomyces yeast strain (SEY6210), unable to grow upon sucrose as the sole carbon source, demonstrated that the Sorghum SUTs were capable of transporting sucrose. A high sugar variety may yield 500 g of sugar per kg of stem dry weight, and total soluble sugar yields can reach 10 t ha-1 (Zhao et al., 2009). Differences in SUT expression between cultivars may correlate with phloem loading, long distance transport, and ultimately partitioning of sucrose to reproductive sinks in cv.
These yields equate to theoretical ethanol yields of up to 5414 L ha-1 (Zhao et al., 2009). However, whether an energy-dependent transport step operates in parallel with facilitated diffusion into vacuoles, as reported for sugar beet (Saftner et al., 1983), remains to be resolved for sugarcane. The flag leaf and leaf 7 (numbered acropetally), the flag internode, internode 2 and whole inflorescences were harvested.
Rio in spikelets (Figure 7A).SbSUT2 was expressed in all organs examined in both cultivars.
In contrast, SbSUT2 and SbSUT5 were expressed most strongly in sinks consistent with a possible role of facilitating sucrose import into stem storage pools and developing inflorescences.
In the case of Sorghum, the phloem unloading pathway of sucrose into stem storage parenchyma cells appears to include an apoplasmic component (Tarpley and Vietor, 2007) and hence an additional reliance on movement across plasma membranes arranged in series with tonoplast transport. During vegetative growth, expression was slightly higher in young elongating stems compared to other organs (Figure 5B). Complementation of the deficient Saccharomyces cerevisiae SEY6210 strain by Sorghum SUTs is also explored as a first step toward detailed functional characterization of these transporters.
These were upper portion (5 cm) of the flag internodes and inflorescences separated into spikelets, anthers, and rachis branches.
However, in all cases this variation was insignificant relative to the observed genotypic differences in the relative expression levels of the genes of interest and hence had no impact on the conclusions drawn.
SbSUT5 exhibited the most variation between the two cultivars with nine amino acid differences. Rio SUT5, and were predicted to lie in the N-terminal region of the transporter (Figure 2).
BTx623 than in rachis branches and upper portions of flag internodes of either cultivar (Figure 7B). These amino acid sequence differences in the SUTs between the two cultivars are summarized in Table 2.



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