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GutZyme™ Assist is a digestive supplement is perfect for people who have adequate HCL levels but want to maximize their absorption of fats, proteins, minerals and other nutrients.
We recommend GutZyme™ Assist for people who either already have sufficient HCL levels, consume beans (and other hard to digest vegetables), or need to open the capsule to consume enzymes. Maltase breaks down the disaccharide maltose in to two glucose molecules, which are easily oxidized by the body for energy. Alpha-Galactosidase helps break down the polysaccharides and oligosaccharides found in foods that are typically more-challenging to digest such as peanuts, beans, lentils and cruciferous vegetables, such as cauliflower, cabbage, broccoli and Brussels sprouts. Beta-Glucanase represents a group of carbohydrate enzymes which break down glycosidic bonds within beta-glucan. Cellobiose (4-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-D-glucose) results from the hydrolysis of cellulose by bacteria. Gentiobiose (6-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-D-glucose) is found in many glycosides such as amygdalin. Isomaltose (6-O-α-D-glucopyranosyl-D-glucose) is formed from two glucose monosaccharides.
Lactose (4-O-β-D-galactopyranosyl-D-glucose) is the predominant disaccharide found in milk. Laminaribiose is a polysaccharide building unit for laminarin (brown algae), pachyman (fungi), paramylon (unicellular algae), and callose.
Maltose (4-O-α-D-glucopyranosyl-D-glucose) results from hydrolysis of starch by enzymes (amylases) in the mammalian digestive tract. Xylobiose is the unit found in many polysaccharides such as the xylans that constitute plant cell walls. Erythromycin A is a macrolide that has whithin its structure the amino saccharide D-desosamine and the branched saccharide L-cladinose. Streptomycin also intereferes with bacterial peptide synthesis by binding to sites on the ribosomes. Adriamycin along with the related daunomycin are anthracyclines possessing anti-Gram-positive activity.
Glycosylamines have important roles in biochemistry since most peptide-carbohydrate linkages are of the N-glycosidic type. We have said that animals obtain chemical energy from the food—carbohydrates, fats, and proteins—they eat through reactions defined collectively as catabolism.
In stage II, these monomer units (or building blocks) are further broken down through different reaction pathways, one of which produces ATP, to form a common end product that can then be used in stage III to produce even more ATP.
Carbohydrate digestion begins in the mouth (Figure 20.5 "The Principal Events and Sites of Carbohydrate Digestion"), where salivary ?-amylase attacks the ?-glycosidic linkages in starch, the main carbohydrate ingested by humans. Protein digestion begins in the stomach (Figure 20.6 "The Principal Events and Sites of Protein Digestion"), where the action of gastric juice hydrolyzes about 10% of the peptide bonds.
The pain of a gastric ulcer is at least partially due to irritation of the ulcerated tissue by acidic gastric juice.
Aminopeptidases in the intestinal juice remove amino acids from the N-terminal end of peptides and proteins possessing a free amino group.


This diagram illustrates where in a peptide the different peptidases we have discussed would catalyze hydrolysis the peptide bonds. Lipid digestion begins in the upper portion of the small intestine (Figure 20.9 "The Principal Events and Sites of Lipid (Primarily Triglyceride) Digestion").
The monoglycerides and fatty acids cross the intestinal lining into the bloodstream, where they are resynthesized into triglycerides and transported as lipoprotein complexes known as chylomicrons. The further metabolism of monosaccharides, fatty acids, and amino acids released in stage I of catabolism occurs in stages II and III of catabolism. In what section of the digestive tract does most of the carbohydrate, lipid, and protein digestion take place? Aminopeptidase catalyzes the hydrolysis of amino acids from the N-terminal end of a protein, while carboxypeptidase catalyzes the hydrolysis of amino acids from the C-terminal end of a protein. During digestion, carbohydrates are broken down into monosaccharides, proteins are broken down into amino acids, and triglycerides are broken down into glycerol and fatty acids. Using chemical equations, describe the chemical changes that triglycerides undergo during digestion.
What are the expected products from the enzymatic action of chymotrypsin on each amino acid segment? What are the expected products from the enzymatic action of trypsin on each amino acid segment? Chymotrypsin is found in the small intestine and catalyzes the hydrolysis of peptide bonds following aromatic amino acids. Pepsin is found in the stomach and catalyzes the hydrolysis of peptide bonds, primarily those that occur after aromatic amino acids. Bile salts aid in digestion by dispersing lipids throughout the aqueous solution in the small intestine. Emulsification is important because lipids are not soluble in water; it breaks lipids up into smaller particles that can be more readily hydrolyzed by lipases.
This digestive supplement is perfect for people who are following the GAPS Diet, or are restricting their grains and carbohydrate intake, and are looking not only to restore their HCL levels but want to maximize their absorption of fats, proteins, minerals and other nutrients. It includes all the same enzymes as the original GutZyme™, plus additional enzymes to assist the digestion of beans and other carbohydrates. The broad-spectrum combination of enzymes in GutZyme™ maximizes the breakdown, absorption, and utilization of macronutrients from the widest spectrum of foods, including proteins and protein peptides, carbohydrates, lipids and fats. If two monosaccharides are linked through their anomeric centers the disaccharide formed is a non-reducing disaccharide.
We can think of catabolism as occurring in three stages (Figure 20.4 "Energy Conversions"). The secretion of ?-amylase in the small intestine converts any remaining starch molecules, as well as the dextrins, to maltose.
Gastric juiceA mixture of water, inorganic ions, hydrochloric acid, and various enzymes and proteins found in the stomach. Pancreatic juice, carried from the pancreas via the pancreatic duct, contains inactive enzymes such as trypsinogen and chymotrypsinogen.


Figure 20.8 "Hydrolysis of a Peptide by Several Peptidases" illustrates the specificity of these protein-digesting enzymes. A hormone secreted in this region stimulates the gallbladder to discharge bile into the duodenum. Phospholipids and cholesteryl esters undergo similar hydrolysis in the small intestine, and their component molecules are also absorbed through the intestinal lining. Chymotrypsin catalyzes the hydrolysis of peptide bonds following aromatic amino acids, while trypsin catalyzes the hydrolysis of peptide bonds following lysine and arginine. As such, GutZyme™ can serve as an important dietary adjunct for individuals requiring maximal nutrient uptake and for those with compromised gastrointestinal function such as maldigestion, malabsorption, dysbiosis, or intestinal inflammation. In stage I, carbohydrates, fats, and proteins are broken down into their individual monomer units: carbohydrates into simple sugars, fats into fatty acids and glycerol, and proteins into amino acids. HCl helps to denature food proteins; that is, it unfolds the protein molecules to expose their chains to more efficient enzyme action. The amino acids that are released by protein digestion are absorbed across the intestinal wall into the circulatory system, where they can be used for protein synthesis. The principal constituents of bile are the bile salts, which emulsify large, water-insoluble lipid droplets, disrupting some of the hydrophobic interactions holding the lipid molecules together and suspending the resulting smaller globules (micelles) in the aqueous digestive medium. One part of stage I of catabolism is the breakdown of food molecules by hydrolysis reactions into the individual monomer units—which occurs in the mouth, stomach, and small intestine—and is referred to as digestionThe breakdown of food molecules by hydrolysis reactions into the individual monomer units in the mouth, stomach, and small intestine.. Disaccharides such as sucrose and lactose are not digested until they reach the small intestine, where they are acted on by sucrase and lactase, respectively. The principal digestive component of gastric juice is pepsinogen, an inactive enzyme produced in cells located in the stomach wall. The major products of the complete hydrolysis of disaccharides and polysaccharides are three monosaccharide units: glucose, fructose, and galactose. When food enters the stomach after a period of fasting, pepsinogen is converted to its active form—pepsin—in a series of steps initiated by the drop in pH. Chymotrypsin preferentially attacks peptide bonds involving the carboxyl groups of the aromatic amino acids (phenylalanine, tryptophan, and tyrosine). Trypsin attacks peptide bonds involving the carboxyl groups of the basic amino acids (lysine and arginine).
It has a fairly broad specificity but acts preferentially on linkages involving the aromatic amino acids tryptophan, tyrosine, and phenylalanine, as well as methionine and leucine.
Pancreatic juice also contains procarboxypeptidase, which is cleaved by trypsin to carboxypeptidase.
The latter is an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of peptide linkages at the free carboxyl end of the peptide chain, resulting in the stepwise liberation of free amino acids from the carboxyl end of the polypeptide.



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