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This is a€?Digestion and Absorption of Carbohydratesa€?, section 4.2 from the book An Introduction to Nutrition (v. This content was accessible as of December 29, 2012, and it was downloaded then by Andy Schmitz in an effort to preserve the availability of this book. PDF copies of this book were generated using Prince, a great tool for making PDFs out of HTML and CSS.
For more information on the source of this book, or why it is available for free, please see the project's home page. DonorsChoose.org helps people like you help teachers fund their classroom projects, from art supplies to books to calculators. Sweetness is one of the five basic taste sensations of foods and beverages and is sensed by protein receptors in cells of the taste buds. Salivary glands secrete salivary amylase, which begins the chemical breakdown of carbohydrates by breaking the bonds between monomeric sugar units.
When people do not have enough of the enzyme lactase, lactose is not sufficiently broken down resulting in a condition called lactose intoleranceA condition in which there is incomplete digestion of lactose. The cells in the small intestine have membranes that contain many transport proteins in order to get the monosaccharides and other nutrients into the blood where they can be distributed to the rest of the body.
Glucose levels in the blood are tightly controlled, as having either too much or too little glucose in the blood can have health consequences. Insulin-secreting cells in the pancreas sense the increase in blood glucose and release the hormonal message, insulin, into the blood. Almost all of the carbohydrates, except for dietary fiber and resistant starches, are efficiently digested and absorbed into the body. Ita€™s Thanksgiving and you have just consumed turkey with mashed potatoes, stuffing smothered in gravy, green beans topped with crispy fried onions, a hot roll dripping with butter, and cranberry sauce. A typical American Thanksgiving meal contains many foods that are dense in carbohydrates, with the majority of those being simple sugars and starches. The glycemic responses of various foods have been measured and then ranked in comparison to a reference food, usually a slice of white bread or just straight glucose, to create a numeric value called the glycemic index (GI)A measurement of the effects of carbohydrate-containing foods on blood-glucose levels.. The carbohydrate type within a food affects the GI, but so does its fat and fiber content (which reduce the GI). Instead of canned green beans with cream of mushroom soup and fried onions for a side dish, combine butter beans and green peas for a colorful, low-GI food. Carbohydrate digestion begins in the mouth with the mechanical action of chewing and the chemical action of salivary amylase. Even though fiber contains calories, albeit less than half of other carbohydrates, why do we generally discount its caloric contribution from our diets? How long a person feels full after eating a carbohydrate-rich meal depends on the type of carbohydrate consumed and what other nutrients are in the meal.
Histology of Digestive Tract Stratified squamous –Mouth, pharynx & esophagus Simple Columnar –Stomach thru L.I.
From mouth (b) Segmentation: Nonadjacent segments of alimentary tract organs alternately contract and relax, moving the food forward then backward. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Chyme enter- ing duodenum causes release of cholecystokinin (CCK) and secretin from duodenal cells.
THE GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT DIGESTION IS THE BREAKDOWN OF FOOD INTO SIMPLER MOLECULES THAT CAN BE ABSORBED AND USED BY THE BODY. THE DIGESTION SYSTEM INCLUDES THE MOUTH, PHARYNX, ESOPHAGUS, STOMACH, SMALL INTESTINE, AND LARGE INTESTINE. SEVERAL MAJOR ORGANS, ( EXOCRINE GLANDS), ALONG THE DIGESTIVE TRACT AID DIGESTION, INCLUDING THE SALIVARY GLANDS, THE PANCREAS, AND THE LIVER, ADD THEIR SECRETIONS TO THE DIGESTION SYSTEM, BUT ARE NOT PART OF THE GI TRACT.
The FIRST TASK of the Digestion System is to BREAK DOWN food into a fine PULP (MECHANICALDIGESTION), to INCREASE it's surface area and expose more food molecules to the actions of Digestive Chemicals. The process of Mechanical Digestion breaks food into tiny pieces WITHOUT changing the CHEMICAL STRUCTURE of the food. The SECOND TASK of the Digestion System is to CHEMICALLY act on Food, breaking it down into smaller and smaller particles.
The LAST TASK of the Digestion System is to ABSORB the small molecules and pass them to the BLOODSTREAM AND LYMPH VESSELS for distribution to the rest of the body. Humans are OMNIVORES who eat both PLANTS and ANIMALS for ENERGY and our Digestion System is adapted to process both vegetable and animal materials.
During Chewing, SALIVARY GLANDS produce SALIVA, a mixture of water, mucus, and a Digestive Enzyme called SALIVARY AMYLASE, which mixes with the chewed food. THE PHARYNX IS AN AREA AT THE BACK OF THE THROAT THAT CONNECTS THE NOSE AND MOUTH TO THE DIGESTION AND RESPIRATORY TRACTS. FOOD (The Bolus) MOVES FROM THE PHARYNX INTO THE ESOPHAGUS, A 25 cm LONG MUSCULAR TUBE THAT CONNECTS THE PHARYNX WITH THE STOMACH. WAVES OF MUSCULAR CONTRACTIONS CALLED PERISTALSIS(payr-ih-STOL-sis) MOVE FOOD THROUGH THE DIGESTIVE TRACK. Chemical Digestion in the Stomach begins with the actions of HYDROCHLORIC ACID AND AN ENZYME CALLED PEPSIN. PEPSIN Breaks Down PROTEINS INTO SHORTER CHAINS OF AMINO ACIDS CALLED PEPTIDES, Pepsin works best in an Acidic Environment, which is provided by the Hydrochloric Acid.
The inner lining of the Stomach is a Thick, Wrinkled Mucous Membrane composed of Epithelial Cells. After about THREE HOURS (3-4 hours) of Mechanical and Chemical Treatment in the Stomach, food is reduced to a SOFT PULP CALLED CHYME (KYM). At this point, the PYLORIC SPHINCTER VALVE between the Stomach and Small Intestine opens, allowing small amounts of Chyme to pass into the Small Intestine.
THE SMALL INTESTINES The Small Intestine performs THREE Major functions on Chyme that enters from the Stomach.
The Small Intestine is long (7m), but its diameter (2.5cm) is smaller than the Large Intestines.
The PANCREAS, and organ located behind the stomach, secretes Pancreatic Fluid into the Small Intestine.
ABSORBPTION MOST NUTREINTS ARE ABSORBED INTO THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM THROUGH THE CELLS THAT LINE THE SMALL INTESTINE.
The Liver Neutralizes many toxic substances in the blood and removes excess Glucose, converting it to Glycogen for storage (FAT). LARGE INTESTINE AFTER ABSORPTION IN THE SMALL INTESTINES IS COMPLETE, UNDIGESTED MATERIAL LEAVES THE SMALL INTESTINE THROUGH A VALVE AND ENTERS THE LARGE INTESTINE OR COLON. DIGESTION… Digestion is the process of mechanically and chemically breaking down foods and absorbing the breakdown products. GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE ALIMENTARY CANAL *The alimentary canal is a muscular tube that passes through the bodys ventral cavity. SALIVARY GLANDS *salivary glands secrete saliva, which moistens food, helps bind food particles, begins chemical digestion of carbohydrates, makes taste possible, and helps cleanse the mouth.
STOMACH *the stomach receives food, mixes it with gastric juice, initiates protein digestion, carries on a limited amount of absorption, and moves food into the small intestine. STOMACH *a layer of thick mucus is produced by cells in the stomachs inner lining…this protective coating prevents the stomach from digesting itself.
Introduction Digestion refers to the mechanical and chemical breakdown of foods so that nutrients can be absorbed by cells. DIGESTIVE SYSTEM M echanical and chemical breakdown of foods and the absorption of the resulting nutrients by cells.
Large food molecules (for example, proteins, lipids, nucleic acids, and starches) must be broken down into subunits that are small enough to be absorbed by the lining of the alimentary canal. In the small intestine, pancreatic amylase does the ‘heavy lifting’ for starch and carbohydrate digestion ([link]).
The digestion of protein starts in the stomach, where HCl and pepsin break proteins into smaller polypeptides, which then travel to the small intestine ([link]).
The three lipases responsible for lipid digestion are lingual lipase, gastric lipase, and pancreatic lipase. The mechanical and digestive processes have one goal: to convert food into molecules small enough to be absorbed by the epithelial cells of the intestinal villi. Absorption can occur through five mechanisms: (1) active transport, (2) passive diffusion, (3) facilitated diffusion, (4) co-transport (or secondary active transport), and (5) endocytosis.
Because the cell’s plasma membrane is made up of hydrophobic phospholipids, water-soluble nutrients must use transport molecules embedded in the membrane to enter cells.
In contrast to the water-soluble nutrients, lipid-soluble nutrients can diffuse through the plasma membrane. Active transport mechanisms, primarily in the duodenum and jejunum, absorb most proteins as their breakdown products, amino acids. The large and hydrophobic long-chain fatty acids and monoacylglycerides are not so easily suspended in the watery intestinal chyme.
The free fatty acids and monoacylglycerides that enter the epithelial cells are reincorporated into triglycerides. The products of nucleic acid digestion—pentose sugars, nitrogenous bases, and phosphate ions—are transported by carriers across the villus epithelium via active transport. The electrolytes absorbed by the small intestine are from both GI secretions and ingested foods.
In general, all minerals that enter the intestine are absorbed, whether you need them or not. Iron—The ionic iron needed for the production of hemoglobin is absorbed into mucosal cells via active transport. Bile salts and lecithin can emulsify large lipid globules because they are amphipathic; they have a nonpolar (hydrophobic) region that attaches to the large fat molecules as well as a polar (hydrophilic) region that interacts with the watery chime in the intestine. Intrinsic factor secreted in the stomach binds to the large B12 compound, creating a combination that can bind to mucosal receptors in the ileum. See the license for more details, but that basically means you can share this book as long as you credit the author (but see below), don't make money from it, and do make it available to everyone else under the same terms. However, the publisher has asked for the customary Creative Commons attribution to the original publisher, authors, title, and book URI to be removed.
Fast-releasing carbohydrates stimulate the sweetness taste sensation, which is the most sensitive of all taste sensations. Chewing, also known as mastication, crumbles the carbohydrate foods into smaller and smaller pieces. Upon entry of the chyme into the small intestine, the pancreas releases pancreatic juice through a duct.
The resultant monosaccharides are absorbed into the bloodstream and transported to the liver. Insulin sends a signal to the bodya€™s cells to remove glucose from the blood by transporting to the insides of cells and to use it to make energy or for building macromolecules.


Some of the remaining indigestible carbohydrates are broken down by enzymes released by bacteria in the large intestine. Less than an hour later you top it all off with a slice of pumpkin pie and then lie down on the couch to watch the football game. Foods that have a low GI do not raise blood-glucose levels neither as much nor as fast as foods that have a higher GI.
Increased fat and fiber in foods increases the time required for digestion and delays the rate of gastric emptying into the small intestine.
Carbohydrates are not chemically broken down in the stomach, but rather in the small intestine. Fatty acids and glycerol can then be absorbed into the blood stream Bile assists in this process by physically breaking down fats into smaller droplets. The Digestion System is actually a LONG, HALLOW TUBE called the GASTRIONTESTINAL TRACT OR GI TRACT or DIGESTIVE TRACT.
The molecules must be small enough and chemically simple enough to be absorbed into the Bloodstream. Enzymes in the saliva KILL Bacteria and BEGIN the process of CHEMICAL DIGESTION by breaking down STARCHES to SUGARS. Once the teeth and salivary glands have completed the initial processing, the food is ready to be SWALLOWED.
Once the Bolus enters the Esophagus, MUSCLES in the Esophagus Wall move food toward the Stomach. The STOMACH IS A J-SHAPED MUSCULAR SAC WITH THICK EXPANDABLE WALLS LOCATED IN THE UPPER LEFT SIDE OF THE ABDOMINAL CAVITY, JUST BELOW THE DIAPHRAGM.
This Membrane is dotted with small openings called GASTIC PITS, they are the open ends of GASTRIC GLANDS that release secretions into the Stomach. By the time Chyme has left the Stomach, MOST PROTEINS have been Broken down into smaller Polypeptides.
THE SMALL INTESTINES DIGEST CARBOHYDRATES AND FATS, COMPLETES THE DIGESTION OF PROTEINS, AND ABSORBS DIGESTED NUTRIENTS. The Pancreatic Fluid enters the Small Intestines through the Pancreatic Duct, which joins with the common Bile Duct just before it enters the Intestine. It is the Final Organ of Digestion and consists of Four Major Parts: ASCENDING COLON, TRANSVERSE COLON, DESCENDING COLON, AND SIGMOID COLON. DIGESTION… Digestion is the process of mechanically and chemically breaking down foods and absorbing the. Different regions carry out different functions, but certain structural characteristics are similar throughout its length.
Introduction Digestion refers to the mechanical and chemical breakdown of foods so that nutrients can be absorbed. Organs of the alimentary Canal Mouth Pharynx Esophagus Stomach Small intestine Large intestine * Salivary glands, liver, pancreas and.
Function & Organization Function The breakdown of food into small enough particles to be absorbed Organization. Glucose, galactose, and fructose are the three monosaccharides that are commonly consumed and are readily absorbed. After amylases break down starch into smaller fragments, the brush border enzyme ?-dextrinase starts working on ?-dextrin, breaking off one glucose unit at a time. Chemical digestion in the small intestine is continued by pancreatic enzymes, including chymotrypsin and trypsin, each of which act on specific bonds in amino acid sequences. The most common dietary lipids are triglycerides, which are made up of a glycerol molecule bound to three fatty acid chains.
However, because the pancreas is the only consequential source of lipase, virtually all lipid digestion occurs in the small intestine.
Two types of pancreatic nuclease are responsible for their digestion: deoxyribonuclease, which digests DNA, and ribonuclease, which digests RNA. As you will recall from Chapter 3, active transport refers to the movement of a substance across a cell membrane going from an area of lower concentration to an area of higher concentration (up the concentration gradient). Moreover, substances cannot pass between the epithelial cells of the intestinal mucosa because these cells are bound together by tight junctions.
Once inside the cell, they are packaged for transport via the base of the cell and then enter the lacteals of the villi to be transported by lymphatic vessels to the systemic circulation via the thoracic duct.
The small intestine is highly efficient at this, absorbing monosaccharides at an estimated rate of 120 grams per hour.
Bile salts not only speed up lipid digestion, they are also essential to the absorption of the end products of lipid digestion. However, bile salts and lecithin resolve this issue by enclosing them in a micelle, which is a tiny sphere with polar (hydrophilic) ends facing the watery environment and hydrophobic tails turned to the interior, creating a receptive environment for the long-chain fatty acids. The triglycerides are mixed with phospholipids and cholesterol, and surrounded with a protein coat. Since electrolytes dissociate into ions in water, most are absorbed via active transport throughout the entire small intestine. Once inside mucosal cells, ionic iron binds to the protein ferritin, creating iron-ferritin complexes that store iron until needed.
When blood levels of ionic calcium drop, parathyroid hormone (PTH) secreted by the parathyroid glands stimulates the release of calcium ions from bone matrices and increases the reabsorption of calcium by the kidneys. Fat-soluble vitamins (A, D, E, and K) are absorbed along with dietary lipids in micelles via simple diffusion.
Chemical digestion breaks large food molecules down into their chemical building blocks, which can then be absorbed through the intestinal wall and into the general circulation. You may also download a PDF copy of this book (62 MB) or just this chapter (8 MB), suitable for printing or most e-readers, or a .zip file containing this book's HTML files (for use in a web browser offline). Even extremely low concentrations of sugars in foods will stimulate the sweetness taste sensation. This pancreatic juice contains the enzyme, pancreatic amylaseEnzyme secreted by the pancreas that breaks down carbohydrates in the small intestine by breaking the glycosidic bonds between monomers., which starts again the breakdown of dextrins into shorter and shorter carbohydrate chains. The liver takes them up and converts galactose to glucose, breaks fructose into even smaller carbon-containing units, and either stores glucose as glycogen or exports it back to the blood. In the case of muscle tissue and the liver, insulin sends the biological message to store glucose away as glycogen. The products of bacterial digestion of these slow-releasing carbohydrates are short-chain fatty acids and some gases. What happens in your body after digesting and absorbing the whopping amount of nutrients in this Thanksgiving feast? Processing and cooking additionally affect a fooda€™s GI by increasing their digestibility. Pancreatic amylase and the disaccharidases finish the chemical breakdown of digestible carbohydrates. The glycemic response is a measurement of the effects of a carbohydrate-containing food on blood-glucose levels. Compare your results with your classmates and discuss why some of these carbohydrate foods make you feel full longer than others.
As the tongue moves food into the Pharynx, it presses down on a SMALL FLAP of Cartilage called the EPIGLOTTIS. The Esophagus has Two Muscle Layers: a Circular Layer that wraps around the Esophagus and a Longitudinal Layer that runs the length of the tube.
Some of these Glands secret Mucus, some secrete Digestive Enzymes, and still others secret Hydrochloric Acid. CHYME IS A THICK LIQUID MADE UP OF PARTIALLY DIGESTED PROTEINS, STARCHES VITAMINS, MINERALS, AND ACIDS, AND UNDIGESTED SUGARS AND FATS. The cells covering the Villi, in turn have extensions on their Cell Membranes called MICROVILLI. The Tiny Lymph Vessels called Lacteals absorb Glycerol and Fatty Acids, which are carried through the Lymph Vessels and eventually to the Bloodstream through Lymphatic Vessels near the Heart.
Digestion—process of altering the physical state and chemical composition of food so that the body’s cells. Chemical digestion, on the other hand, is a complex process that reduces food into its chemical building blocks, which are then absorbed to nourish the cells of the body ([link]). At the same time, the cells of the brush border secrete enzymes such as aminopeptidase and dipeptidase, which further break down peptide chains.
Pancreatic lipase breaks down each triglyceride into two free fatty acids and a monoglyceride.
The nucleotides produced by this digestion are further broken down by two intestinal brush border enzymes (nucleosidase and phosphatase) into pentoses, phosphates, and nitrogenous bases, which can be absorbed through the alimentary canal wall.
Each day, the alimentary canal processes up to 10 liters of food, liquids, and GI secretions, yet less than one liter enters the large intestine. In this type of transport, proteins within the cell membrane act as “pumps,” using cellular energy (ATP) to move the substance. Thus, substances can only enter blood capillaries by passing through the apical surfaces of epithelial cells and into the interstitial fluid. The absorption of most nutrients through the mucosa of the intestinal villi requires active transport fueled by ATP.
All normally digested dietary carbohydrates are absorbed; indigestible fibers are eliminated in the feces. Short-chain fatty acids are relatively water soluble and can enter the absorptive cells (enterocytes) directly. During absorption, co-transport mechanisms result in the accumulation of sodium ions inside the cells, whereas anti-port mechanisms reduce the potassium ion concentration inside the cells. When the body has enough iron, most of the stored iron is lost when worn-out epithelial cells slough off. PTH also upregulates the activation of vitamin D in the kidney, which then facilitates intestinal calcium ion absorption.
This is why you are advised to eat some fatty foods when you take fat-soluble vitamin supplements. Intestinal brush border enzymes and pancreatic enzymes are responsible for the majority of chemical digestion. With the help of bile salts and lecithin, the dietary fats are emulsified to form micelles, which can carry the fat particles to the surface of the enterocytes. Sweetness varies between the different carbohydrate typesa€”some are much sweeter than others.
Saliva contains the enzyme, salivary amylaseEnzyme secreted by the salivary glands in the mouth that breaks down carbohydrates by breaking the glycosidic bonds between monomers.. How much glucose the liver exports to the blood is under hormonal control and you will soon discover that even the glucose itself regulates its concentrations in the blood.


When you set the temperature to cook a delicious homemade noodle casserole at 375A°F the thermostat senses the temperature and sends an electrical signal to turn the elements on and heat up the oven.
The presence of insulin in the blood signifies to the body that it has just been fed and to use the fuel.
The short-chain fatty acids are either used by the bacteria to make energy and grow, are eliminated in the feces, or are absorbed into cells of the colon, with a small amount being transported to the liver.
Contrastingly, foods containing high amounts of fiber are like time-release capsules of sugar.
Advancements in the technologies of food processing and the high consumer demand for convenient, precooked foods in the United States have created foods that are digested and absorbed more rapidly, independent of the fiber content. Identify the source of each major digestive enzyme, and describe the function of the enzyme. Gathering the food together in a ball called a BOLUS; the TONGUE pushes it toward the back of the Mouth and INTO the PHARYNX.
When the Epiglottis is Depressed, it CLOSES the entrance to the Respiratory Track and Guides the Food down the GI Track. Mucus also COATS the walls of the Stomach, protecting the muscle tissue from being broken down by other digestive fluids. Pancreatic Fluid also contains SODIUM BICARBONATE, which neutralizes the Hydrochloric Acid in Chyme (from and acid to a base), protecting the Small Intestine. The entrance of food into the Small Intestines stimulates the release of Bile to the Small Intestines through a Duct.
Villi increase the surface area of the lining of the small intestine, making absorption more efficient. MOST OF THE NUTREINTS USED BY THE BODY ARE ABSORBED THROUGH THE LINING OF THE SMALL INTESTINES. In this section, you will look more closely at the processes of chemical digestion and absorption. Your bodies do not produce enzymes that can break down most fibrous polysaccharides, such as cellulose. The fatty acids include both short-chain (less than 10 to 12 carbons) and long-chain fatty acids.
Almost all ingested food, 80 percent of electrolytes, and 90 percent of water are absorbed in the small intestine. Passive diffusion refers to the movement of substances from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration, while facilitated diffusion refers to the movement of substances from an area of higher to an area of lower concentration using a carrier protein in the cell membrane. Water-soluble nutrients enter the capillary blood in the villi and travel to the liver via the hepatic portal vein.
The monosaccharides glucose and galactose are transported into the epithelial cells by common protein carriers via secondary active transport (that is, co-transport with sodium ions). Despite being hydrophobic, the small size of short-chain fatty acids enables them to be absorbed by enterocytes via simple diffusion, and then take the same path as monosaccharides and amino acids into the blood capillary of a villus. Without micelles, lipids would sit on the surface of chyme and never come in contact with the absorptive surfaces of the epithelial cells. After being processed by the Golgi apparatus, chylomicrons are released from the cell ([link]).
To restore the sodium-potassium gradient across the cell membrane, a sodium-potassium pump requiring ATP pumps sodium out and potassium in.
When the body needs iron because, for example, it is lost during acute or chronic bleeding, there is increased uptake of iron from the intestine and accelerated release of iron into the bloodstream. Most water-soluble vitamins (including most B vitamins and vitamin C) also are absorbed by simple diffusion. Water absorption is driven by the concentration gradient of the water: The concentration of water is higher in chyme than it is in epithelial cells. This enzyme breaks the bonds between the monomeric sugar units of disaccharides, oligosaccharidesA carbohydrate that is a chain of a few (between three and ten) monosaccharides., and starches. The bacterial digestion of lactose produces gases leading to symptoms of diarrhea, bloating, and abdominal cramps.
When the temperature reaches 375A°F the thermostat senses the temperature and sends a signal to turn the element off. Insulin sends out the physiological message that glucose and everything else is in abundant supply in the blood, so cells absorb and then use or store it. A measurement of the effects of a carbohydrate-containing food on blood-glucose levels is called the glycemic response (Figure 4.4).
Bile salts and, to a lesser extent, secretin transported via bloodstream stimulate liver to produce bile more rapidly.
While indigestible polysaccharides do not provide any nutritional value, they do provide dietary fiber, which helps propel food through the alimentary canal.
Although the entire small intestine is involved in the absorption of water and lipids, most absorption of carbohydrates and proteins occurs in the jejunum. Co-transport uses the movement of one molecule through the membrane from higher to lower concentration to power the movement of another from lower to higher. The monosaccharides leave these cells via facilitated diffusion and enter the capillaries through intercellular clefts. Short chains of two amino acids (dipeptides) or three amino acids (tripeptides) are also transported actively. Too big to pass through the basement membranes of blood capillaries, chylomicrons instead enter the large pores of lacteals. Since women experience significant iron loss during menstruation, they have around four times as many iron transport proteins in their intestinal epithelial cells as do men.
The fats are then reassembled into triglycerides and mixed with other lipids and proteins into chylomicrons that can pass into lacteals. See Table 4.1 "Sweetness Comparison of Carbohydrates" for sweetness comparisons among different naturally-occurring carbohydrates. The salivary amylase breaks down amylose and amylopectin into smaller chains of glucose, called dextrins and maltose.
Similarly, your body senses blood glucose levels and maintains the glucose a€?temperaturea€? in the target range. The result of this hormone message is maximization of glycogen stores and all the excess glucose, protein, and lipids are stored as fat. MOLARS - TEETH AT THE BACK OF THE MOUTH, HAVE LARGE FLAT SURFACES THAT CRUSH AND GRIND FOOD. Finally, endocytosis is a transportation process in which the cell membrane engulfs material. The monosaccharide fructose (which is in fruit) is absorbed and transported by facilitated diffusion alone. However, after they enter the absorptive epithelial cells, they are broken down into their amino acids before leaving the cell and entering the capillary blood via diffusion.
Intrinsic factor secreted in the stomach binds to vitamin B12, preventing its digestion and creating a complex that binds to mucosal receptors in the terminal ileum, where it is taken up by endocytosis.
Other absorbed monomers travel from blood capillaries in the villus to the hepatic portal vein and then to the liver. The increased concentration of maltose in the mouth that results from the mechanical and chemical breakdown of starches in whole grains is what enhances their sweetness. Maltase breaks the bond between the two glucose units of maltose, and lactase breaks the bond between galactose and glucose.
The National Digestive Diseases Information Clearing House states that African Americans, Hispanic Americans, American Indians, and Asian Americans have much higher incidences of lactose intolerance while those of northern European descent have the least.National Digestive Diseases Information Clearing House. Glucagon-secreting cells in the pancreas sense the drop in glucose and, in response, release glucagon into the blood. The yield of energy from dietary fiber is about 2 kilocalories per gram for humans, but is highly dependent upon the fiber type, with soluble fibers and resistant starches yielding more energy than insoluble fibers. During cephalic and gastric phases, vagal nerve stimulation causes weak contractions of gallbladder.
By the time chyme passes from the ileum into the large intestine, it is essentially indigestible food residue (mainly plant fibers like cellulose), some water, and millions of bacteria ([link]). The monosaccharides combine with the transport proteins immediately after the disaccharides are broken down. The chylomicrons are transported in the lymphatic vessels and empty through the thoracic duct into the subclavian vein of the circulatory system. In a colloquial sense we identify such people as having a a€?sweet tooth.a€? This does not mean that the less-sweet whole grains containing more starches and fiber are less satisfying. Once carbohydrates are chemically broken down into single sugar units they are then transported into the inside of intestinal cells. Since dietary fiber is digested much less in the gastrointestinal tract than other carbohydrate types (simple sugars, many starches) the rise in blood glucose after eating them is less, and slower.
The GI can be used as a guide for choosing healthier carbohydrate choices but has some limitations. Bile is a salt containing detergent and if the amount of salt in the bile is insufficient, sharp, painful crystals can form, known as GALLSTONES. Once in the bloodstream, the enzyme lipoprotein lipase breaks down the triglycerides of the chylomicrons into free fatty acids and glycerol.
More specifically, it signals the liver to break down glycogen and release the stored glucose into the blood, so that glucose levels stay within the target range and all cells get the needed fuel to function properly. One is that the GI does not take into account the amount of carbohydrates in a portion of food, only the type of carbohydrate.
These breakdown products then pass through capillary walls to be used for energy by cells or stored in adipose tissue as fat. Additionally, once in the stomach, whole-grain foods take longer to digest, and keep you full longer. But mechanical breakdown is ongoinga€”the strong peristaltic contractions of the stomach mix the carbohydrates into the more uniform mixture of chyme. Most people with lactose intolerance can tolerate some amount of dairy products in their diet.
Liver cells combine the remaining chylomicron remnants with proteins, forming lipoproteins that transport cholesterol in the blood.
The severity of the symptoms depends on how much lactose is consumed and the degree of lactase deficiency. Whole-grain foods satisfy the body the entire way through the digestive tract and provide the nutrients that also better satisfy the bodya€™s functional needs.



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Comments to “Enzyme salivary amylase begins chemical digestion of”

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