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Digestion and AbsorptionDigestion is the mechanical and chemical break down of food into small organic fragments. Protein digestion is a multistep process that begins in the stomach and continues through the intestines. Mechanical and chemical digestion of food takes place in many steps, beginning in the mouth and ending in the rectum. The final step in digestion is the elimination of undigested food content and waste products. Diarrhea and constipation are some of the most common health concerns that affect digestion.
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Cellular respiration in the presence of oxygen (aerobic respiration) is the process by which energy-rich organic substrates are broken down into carbon dioxide and water, with the release of a considerable amount of energy in the form of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). In the second stage, acetyl CoA enters the citric acid (Krebs) cycle, where it is degraded to yield energy-rich hydrogen atoms which reduce the oxidized form of the coenzyme nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) to NADH, and reduce the coenzyme flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) to FADH2. The third stage of cellular respiration occurs when the energy-rich hydrogen atoms are separated into protons [H+] and energy-rich electrons in the electron transport chain. During electron transport, much of the energy represented by the electrons is conserved during a process called oxidative phosphorylation. Oxidative phosphorylation is driven by the energy released by the electrons as they pass from the hydrogens of the coenzymes down the respiratory chain in the inner membrane of the mitochondrion. This highly efficient, energy conserving series of reactions would not be possible in eukaryotic cells without the organelles called mitochondria. In the absence of mitochondria, animal cells would be limited to glycolysis for their energy needs, which releases only a small fraction of the energy potentially available from the glucose. The reactions of glycolysis require the input of two ATP molecules and produce four ATP molecules for a net gain of only two molecules per molecule of glucose. In contrast, mitochondria supplied with oxygen produce about 36 molecules of ATP for each molecule of glucose oxidized. While the Krebs cycle is an integral part of aerobic metabolism, the production of NADH and FADH 2 is not dependent on oxygen. Although the production of water is necessary to keep the process of electron transport chain in motion, the energy used to make ATP is derived from a different process called chemiosmosis. Chemiosmosis is a mechanism that uses the proton gradient across the membrane to generate ATP and is initiated by the activity of the electron transport chain. The electrons that are transported down the respiratory chain on the mitochondrion's inner membrane release energy that is used to pump protons (H+) across the inner membrane from the mitochondrial matrix into the intermembrane space. Cellular respiration produces three molecules of ATP per pair of electrons in NADH, while the pair of electrons in FADH2 generate two molecules of ATP.
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Your email address will be altered so spam harvesting bots can't read it easily.Hide my email completely instead? People who defend eating animal products as necessary for health have two swords, protein and Vitamin B12.
The Framingham Offspring study found that 39 percent of the general population may be in the low normal and deficient B12 blood level range, and it was not just vegetarians or older people.
Understanding why people who eat animal products may have low B12 levels requires a little knowledge of how we get B12.
Until recently there was no explanation for autoimmune disorders like pernicious anemia but new research suggests that eating animal products causes animal sugars such as Neu5gc to become attached to the human cells that line hollow organs such as the stomach. Our immune system sees any cells with animal sugars on them as foreign and makes antibodies to destroy them. Weight loss surgery and banding procedures that bypass most of the stomach and the duodenum also bypass the places where B12 processing for absorption occurs. If you can free B12 in the stomach and again in the duodenum and you have enough IF and they are able to hook up, the IF-B12 combo has to travel all the way to the end of the small intestine to an area called the ileum to be absorbed into the blood. In addition to the B12 that is attached to IF, about 1% of any amount of free B12  in the ileum will also be absorbed by passive diffusion, meaning that it will just pass through the intestinal wall to the blood without any help. Chronic inflammatory bowel diseases such as Crohn’s Disease affect the ileum and impair B12 absorption. Our ancestors solved the B12 problem by using human feces as manure called “night soil.” They got B12 from fecal crop contamination but they probably also got some foodborne illnesses.
Understanding the functions of B12 requires a biochemistry course but basically it is an enzyme co-factor (helper) for 2 reactions. The anemia associated with B12 deficiency is called megaloblastic anemia because blood cells become larger than normal. We lose 0.1% of our B12 stores in urine each day, the more stores we have the more we lose but when our stores are depleted we don’t lose any. Some natural plant sources of B12 such as seaweeds get B12 from symbiotic bacteria that live on them. I don’t sell supplements or recommend any particular brand of B12 but I prefer chewable or quick dissolve fruit flavored methylcobalamin tablets.
In order to absorb 4 to 7 micrograms a day you have to take in at least 250 mcg of B12 a day.  A 500 mcg daily supplement will give you all you need.
Kurt Eichenwald wrote a very interesting — and provocative — article in Newsweek back in February.
One summer, Ann Marie and I drove from California to Chicago, and Columbus, Ohio, to visit our children. Our ancestors gradually lost the ability to produce B12 because their animal-rich diet contained so much of the stuff that there was simply no need for it any more. Perhaps in a few thousand years, vegans will evolve huge bellies to house the quantity of guts needed to recover that ability. Excellent, highly informative piece on this subject, thank you so much, you’ve done a great service for this issue! Far superior to other diffusers, it uses no heat or air pumps (which can seriously damage the chemistry of essential oils), and safe low voltage direct current.
Harvest’s potting mixes are manufactured using components that contribute to the beneficial movement of water through containers during wet times, and in opposite conditions, are capable of holding moisture during dry periods.
Aged Pine Bark Fines- From the bark of Southern Yellow and or Loblolly Pine, we place bark fines in composting windrows for many months until specific temperatures are reached and the bark has aged as indicated by physical and laboratory testing. Peat Moss- When blended in perfect proportion with aged pine bark fines and compost, peat moss is an asset to containers because of its moisture holding capacity and porosity.
Compost- Compost is used for many reasons but primarily for providing natural organic matter which is immediately available to the plant due to the nitrogen and phosphorous forms being quick to break down and available to the plants. TROUBLE SHOOTING CORNER: If, when you water a container, the water just runs down the sides and out, that soil has become hydrophobic and this was likely caused by the peat moss. Selecting a potting mix is similar to buying shoes: once you know your needs (flowers, vegetables, herbs, or tropical) you need to try the mix out to make sure it fits your needs. Food needs to be broken into smaller particles so that animals can harness the nutrients and organic molecules. It is important to break down macromolecules into smaller fragments that are of suitable size for absorption across the digestive epithelium. The salivary enzyme amylase begins the breakdown of food starches into maltose, a disaccharide. Recall that the chyme from the stomach enters the duodenum and mixes with the digestive secretion from the pancreas, liver, and gallbladder. The enzyme pepsin plays an important role in the digestion of proteins by breaking down the intact protein to peptides, which are short chains of four to nine amino acids.
However, the bulk of lipid digestion occurs in the small intestine due to pancreatic lipase.
Constipation is a condition where the feces are hardened because of excess water removal in the colon. It is often in response to an irritant that affects the digestive tract, including but not limited to viruses, bacteria, emotions, sights, and food poisoning.
Digestion and absorption take place in a series of steps with special enzymes playing important roles in digesting carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids. Cac tai li?u d?u tuan th? gi?y phep Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 tr? khi ghi chu ro ngo?i l?. Anaerobic respiration breaks down glucose in the absence of oxygen, and produces pyruvate, which is then reduced to lactate or to ethanol and CO2. The first stage is glycolysis, which is a series of enzyme-controlled reactions that degrades glucose (a 6-carbon molecule) to pyruvate (a 3-carbon molecule) which is further oxidized to acetylcoenzyme A (acetyl CoA).
At the beginning of the electron transport chain, the energy-rich hydrogen on NADH is removed from NADH, producing the oxidized coenzyme, NAD+ and a proton (H+) and two electrons (e-). This process uses the energy of the electrons to phosphorylate (add a phosphate group) adenosine diphosphate (ADP), to form the energy-rich molecule ATP.
This energy is used to pump protons (H+) across the inner membrane from the matrix to the intermediate space. Mitochondria are the "powerhouses" of the eukaryotic cells, and are bounded by two membranes, which create two separate compartments: an internal space and a narrow intermembrane space. These ATP molecules are formed when phosphate groups are removed from phosphorylated intermediate products of glycolysis and transferred to ADP, a process called substrate level phosphorylation (synthesis of ATP by direct transfer of a high-energy phosphate group from a molecule in a metabolic pathway to ADP). Rather, oxygen is used at the end of the electron transport chain to combine with electrons removed from NADH and FADH2 and with hydrogen ions in the cytosol to produce water. Chemiosmosis represents a link between the chemical and osmotic processes in the mitochondrion that occur during respiration.
The resulting gradient of protons across the mitochondrial inner membrane creates a backflow of protons back across the membrane.
This means that 12 molecules of ATP are formed for each acetyl CoA molecule that enters the Krebs cycle; and since two acetyl CoA molecules are formed from each molecule of glucose, a total of 24 molecules of ATP are produced from each molecule of this sugar.
We are getting smarter about protein and many people now accept that plant foods are a healthier source of protein, but most people including health care professionals are confused about B12.
This study showed no difference in the B12 blood levels of younger and older adults.  Most interestingly there was no difference between those ate meat, poultry, or fish and those who did not eat those foods. Strong stomach acids are needed to break down the protein so that B12 can get into your blood.


This carrier protects it from being destroyed by stomach acids and takes it to the alkaline environment of the duodenum which is the first part of the small intestine.
Lack of IF causes the classic B12 deficiency disease called Pernicious Anemia where the body makes antibodies to parietal cells and destroys them. This attack by our immune system causes chronic inflammation and may explain many conditions such as atrophic gastritis that destroys both the acid-producing cells and the IF-producing cells in older people who eat meat but do not abuse alcohol. No matter how much steak you eat the ileum will only absorb a very small amount of B12 at a time, about 1.5 to 2 micrograms every 4 to 6 hours (a microgram (mcg) is a millionth of a gram). Since most B12 from food attaches to IF and have to wait their turn for receptors in the ileum, the best way to increase the amount of B12 absorbed is to increase the amount of free B12 available. Bile is made in the liver, stored in the gallbladder and sent into the duodenum to help digest fatty foods.
These diseases are only seen in people who eat animal products and they improve when meat is removed from the diet. Human colon bacteria make lots of active B12, but it cannot be absorbed through the colon wall or make it back to the ileum; it is excreted in feces.
If this sounds gross and the prospect of eating feces to get B12 is not appetizing, then you have to re-think your food choices, 92% of chicken in supermarkets have fecal contamination and it can only get worse. One reaction converts methylmalonic acid (MMA) to succinic acid and the other reaction regenerates the amino acid methionine from homocysteine and generates the active form of another vitamin, folic acid. This happens because without B12 and folic acid DNA cannot form normally and this prevents the nucleus of blood cells from maturing. In the 1920s people with Pernicious Anemia were fed pounds of raw liver or liver juice every day. In order to get 4 mcg of B12 you will need about 12 servings of chicken which will give you 1116 mg cholesterol.
Other types of seaweed and algae such as spirulina are advertised as having B12 but they really have B12 analogues, substances that look like B12 but they do not work like B12. Cyanocobalamin works well but it requires an extra detoxification step to get rid of the cyanide.
Jennifer Rooke is an Assistant Professor in the Department of Community Health and Preventive Medicine at Morehouse School of Medicine. Our ancestors didn’t suddenly find themselves unable to produce B12 and decided to solve the problem by eating their own crap! I usually take methylcobalamin but now have some cyanocobalamin B12 and see that it’s okay to use but the former is slightly preferred. They harness the science of ultrasound to deliver micron-sized essential oil droplets so fine that within a moment of leaving the diffuser, the cool mist becomes a vapor, incorporated into the atmosphere and spreading evenly throughout your room. Container gardening allows for gardeners to take advantage of every square inch of available space to grow beautiful seasonal flowers, tasty herbs or productive vegetables. Container soils that do not drain efficiently create an environment that contributes to bacterial and fungal diseases which shorten the lifespan of plants and never allows the plant(s) to thrive. Potting soils are very much like a jigsaw puzzle; all the particles in the soil must connect to each other and contribute to the completed puzzle. But when not co-mingled perfectly, peat moss does become hydrophobic and actually repels water. Compost also has excellent water holding and particle size that helps with oxygen exchange.
Many experienced gardeners modify standard mixes for specific plants, but buying high quality potting mixes as Harvest produces – see our Superpowered Organic Potting Mix with Organic Fertilizer and our Nature’s Pride Select Organic Potting Mix with cow fibre for examples – will provided you with a decided growing advantage immediately. Large, complex molecules of proteins, polysaccharides, and lipids must be reduced to simpler particles such as simple sugar before they can be absorbed by the digestive epithelial cells. As the bolus of food travels through the esophagus to the stomach, no significant digestion of carbohydrates takes place.
Pancreatic juices also contain amylase, which continues the breakdown of starch and glycogen into maltose, a disaccharide.
Sucrose (table sugar) and lactose (milk sugar) are broken down by sucrase and lactase, respectively. When chyme enters the duodenum, the hormonal responses trigger the release of bile, which is produced in the liver and stored in the gallbladder. If the lipid in the chyme aggregates into large globules, very little surface area of the lipids is available for the lipases to act on, leaving lipid digestion incomplete. It is important to consume some amount of dietary lipid to aid the absorption of lipid-soluble vitamins. This forceful expulsion of the food is due to the strong contractions produced by the stomach muscles.
Elimination describes removal of undigested food contents and waste products from the body. Lipids are also required in the diet to aid the absorption of lipid-soluble vitamins and for the production of lipid-soluble hormones.
Anaerobic respiration releases only a small amount of energy (in the form of ATP) from the glucose molecule. The electrons are transferred along a chain of more than 15 different electron carrier molecules (known as the electron transport chain).
This sets up a concentration gradient along which substances flow from high to low concentration, while a simultaneous current of OH- flows across the membrane in the opposite direction. The enzymes of the matrix include those that catalyze the conversion of pyruvate and fatty acids to acetyl CoA, as well as the enzymes of the Krebs cycle. Fatty acids and amino acids when transported into the mitochondria are degraded into the two-carbon acetyl group on acetyl CoA, which then enters the Krebs cycle. This flow of electrons across the membrane, like a waterfall used to power an electric turbine, drives a membrane-bound enzyme, ATP synthetase. When added to the energy conserved from the reactions occurring before acetyl CoA is formed, the complete oxidation of a glucose molecule gives a net yield of about 36 ATP molecules. The people with the highest B12 blood levels were those who were taking B12 supplements and eating B12 fortified cereals.
Cattle and other grass-eating animals get B12 and B12 producing bacteria from clumps of dirt around the grass roots that they pull up. Over the counter antacids and prescription drugs that reduce stomach acids block the breakdown of protein and the release of B12. As a result over 30 percent of gastric bypass patients will develop B12 deficiency even with oral B12 supplements and may need B12 injections. Other herbivores like rabbits have the same problem as humans; they produce B12 downstream from where it is absorbed. USDA is moving to an honor system for meat inspection where the meat industry inspects itself.  You can skip the poop, cholesterol and atherosclerosis by just taking a B12 supplement.
That’s it, that is all it does but those 2 reactions affect every cell in our bodies and produce substances that are essential for normal human life. If the brain is affected it can cause memory loss and confusion, if the optic nerve is affected it can cause blindness, but most commonly the spinal cord is affected and early symptoms of B12 deficiency are usually numbness and tingling in the arms and legs. People with chronic health problems such as GERD (gastroesophageal reflux disease) and diabetes should reconsider their food choices and also take B12 supplements. It worked because there was no IF and 1% of the free B12 that made it to the ileum was absorbed by passive diffusion.  Liver was also used to treat other anemias and as a result liver became firmly entrenched as a health food in the minds of our grandparents and parents.
Remember, if you have IF most of the B12 from food will attach to it, only a small amount will be free and 1% of the free B12 will be absorbed by passive diffusion. Even “cholesterol deniers” will agree that this is a lot of cholesterol for a small amount of B12.  You really are better off getting B12 from supplements. Theoretically, sublingual tablets should be better because they skip the whole intestinal absorption process and send B12 directly to the blood through membranes under the tongue, but that has not been shown to be true. Prior to planting in the container of choice – which can range from beautiful ceramic or terra-cotta to half barrels to plastic 5 gallon buckets – there must be discipline in the soil selected to accommodate the selected plant. Some soils are made using “green” bark that is not aged and because green bark does not absorb water, the water just runs off of the product and there is minimal absorption.
The disaccharides are broken down into monosaccharides by enzymes called maltases, sucrases, and lactases, which are also present in the brush border of the small intestinal wall. Trypsin elastase, carboxypeptidase, and chymotrypsin are produced by the pancreas and released into the duodenum where they act on the chyme.
By forming an emulsion, bile salts increase the available surface area of the lipids many fold.
The semi-solid waste is moved through the colon by peristaltic movements of the muscle and is stored in the rectum. Many bacteria, including the ones that cause cholera, affect the proteins involved in water reabsorption in the colon and result in excessive diarrhea. While most absorption occurs in the small intestines, the large intestine is responsible for the final removal of water that remains after the absorptive process of the small intestines.
These proteins are grouped into three large respiratory enzyme complexes, each of which contains proteins that span the mitochondrial membrane, securing the complexes into the inner membrane. The simultaneous opposite flow of positive and negative ions across the mitochondrial membrane sets up an electrochemical proton gradient. The enzymes of the respiratory chain are embedded in the inner mitochondrial membrane, which is the site of oxidative phosphorylation and the production of ATP. In animals, the body stores fattyacids in the form of fats, and glucose in the form of glycogen in order to ensure a steady supply of these nutrients for respiration. This enzyme catalyzes the phosphorylation of ADP to ATP, which completes the part of cellular respiration called oxidative phosphorylation.
When fats are burned, instead of glucose, the total yield from one molecule of palmitate, a 16-carbon fatty, is 129 ATP.
Waste doesn’t need to stick to its name, however, so why not transform it into something more useful like fuel, oxygen or waster. In order to maintain meat a source of B12 the meat industry now adds it to animal feed, 90% of B12 supplements produced in the world are fed to livestock.
Free B12 from food must then attach to another carrier called Intrinsic Factor (IF) to get absorbed from the intestines into the blood stream. There are obese vegans but the majority of people who have weight loss surgery and subsequent B12 deficiency eat animal products. Some of the B12 stored in the liver gets into bile and would be lost in feces if the body did not get it back with bile.


People who use of Metformin for more than three years will develop a B12 deficiency if they don’t take supplements. Just like humans they develop atherosclerosis and clogged arteries when they eat cholesterol-containing animal products. This type of anemia can be corrected by taking folic acid, but only B12 supplements can stop the nerve damage. The Centers for Disease Control (CDC) and the Institute of Medicine recommend B12 supplements for everyone over 50 years old. There are still some dietitians and health care providers today who advise their patients to eat lots of liver. Some fermented foods may contain active B12 but the common ones such as miso and tempeh do not contain B12.
There is no significant difference between oral and sublingual B12for the treatment of B12 deficiency. B12 injections will correct B12 deficiency but it will NOT give you energy if you are not B12 deficient.
Lifestyle Medicine is the use of interventions such as evidenced-based nutrition, physical activity and stress management to treat disease. For healthful sleep, all lights can be turned off (including the red power light) while diffusion continues. But during periods of heavy natural rain, containers can become waterlogged if the soil does not drain, and that begins a downward spiral that leads to disappointing performance. In comparison, aged barks performs like thousands of little tiny sponges in the soil, absorbing moisture when wet, then slowly releasing moisture as the soil dries.
Therefore most professional growers would exchange aged pine bark fines for perlite as they deliver equal results with lower environmental impacts. In vertebrates, the teeth, saliva, and tongue play important roles in mastication (preparing the food into bolus). The animal diet needs carbohydrates, protein, and fat, as well as vitamins and inorganic components for nutritional balance. Further breakdown of peptides to single amino acids is aided by enzymes called peptidases (those that break down peptides). Emulsification is a process in which large lipid globules are broken down into several small lipid globules. The pancreatic lipases can then act on the lipids more efficiently and digest them, as detailed in [link]. As the rectum expands in response to storage of fecal matter, it triggers the neural signals required to set up the urge to eliminate.
The cells that line the large intestine absorb some vitamins as well as any leftover salts and water. Furthermore, each complex in the chain has a greater affinity for electrons than the complex before it. The flow of protons down this gradient drives a membrane-bound enzyme, ATP synthetase, which catalyzes the phosphorylation of ADP to ATP. The protons, in turn, neutralize the negative charges created by the addition of electrons to oxygen molecules, with the resultant production of water. Such a system was devised by researchers at University of Florida for a potential human colony on the moon that turns organic matter or packaging into biogas, water and oxygen. These animals store B12 mostly in their livers and muscles and some B12 pass into milk and eggs. Even if you only eat grass-fed organic meat you may not be able to absorb the B12 attached to animal protein.
Proton pump inhibitors such as Prilosec were the most commonly prescribed class of drugs in 2012. This is a problem because B12 deficiency and diabetes can both cause neurological problems, the early symptoms of B12 deficiency may be mistaken for the symptoms of diabetes. The recommended daily intake for adults was set at 2.4 mcg in the 1950s, but given the changes in our food supply aiming for 4 to 7 mcg may be a better. Sublingual is usually more expensive so the best choice is oral methylcobalamin supplements. Depending on room size, relative humidity, mode and volume settings chosen, it can last the night through without refilling. But most important for aged pine bark fines is the unique particle size and shape that allows for air to circulate through the soil, providing oxygen to the roots. While the food is being mechanically broken down, the enzymes in saliva begin to chemically process the food as well. Other disaccharides, such as sucrose and lactose are broken down by sucrase and lactase, respectively. Specifically, carboxypeptidase, dipeptidase, and aminopeptidase play important roles in reducing the peptides to free amino acids. These small globules are more widely distributed in the chyme rather than forming large aggregates. This increasing affinity drives the electrons down the chain until they are transferred all the way to the end where they meet the oxygen molecule, which has the greatest affinity of all for the electrons.
In fact, the waste generated by a four-person crew living on the moon for a year would be more than enough to produce fuel for a return trip back to Earth.Waste to biogasFor a few years, NASA has been planning a tentative manned outpost on the moon that should go live by 2020.
Nexium brought in over 6 billion dollars and was the top selling drug in 2012, according to IMS Health. Calcium is also needed for B12 absorption in the ileum and there are excellent cholesterol-free food sources of calcium.
Better be safe than sorry and get B12 from supplements or fortified foods.  Cholesterol-free dietary sources of B12 include fortified nutritional yeast, non-dairy milks, cereals and energy bars. The combined action of these processes modifies the food from large particles to a soft mass that can be swallowed and can travel the length of the esophagus. Lipids are hydrophobic substances: in the presence of water, they will aggregate to form globules to minimize exposure to water.
These molecules can pass through the plasma membrane of the cell and enter the epithelial cells of the intestinal lining. The oxygen thus becomes reduced to H2O in the presence of hydrogen ions (protons), which were originally obtained from nutrient molecules through the process of oxidation.
The logistic hurdles are immense, and self-sufficiency is key if people are to live on the moon for long periods of time. Most people have about 3 years of stored B12 reserves but the constant recycling makes what we have last for about 7 to 10 years longer.
If you are on Metformin ask your doctor to test for B12 deficiency and be sure to take B12 supplements.
If you don’t have high blood pressure yet you will soon have it along with a heart attack or a stroke.
The monosaccharides (glucose) thus produced are absorbed and then can be used in metabolic pathways to harness energy.
Bile contains bile salts, which are amphipathic, meaning they contain hydrophobic and hydrophilic parts.
The bile salts surround long-chain fatty acids and monoglycerides forming tiny spheres called micelles.
Crew members need to print their own tools, make their own food and oxygen through whatever means necessary and only re-supply resources that are indispensable and can’t be produced on site. Rooke is a fellow of both the American College of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, and the American College of Preventive Medicine.
The monosaccharides are transported across the intestinal epithelium into the bloodstream to be transported to the different cells in the body. Thus, the bile salts hydrophilic side can interface with water on one side and the hydrophobic side interfaces with lipids on the other.
The micelles move into the brush border of the small intestine absorptive cells where the long-chain fatty acids and monoglycerides diffuse out of the micelles into the absorptive cells leaving the micelles behind in the chyme. The long-chain fatty acids and monoglycerides recombine in the absorptive cells to form triglycerides, which aggregate into globules and become coated with proteins. Rooke serves as adjunct faculty in the Department of Family and Preventive Medicine at Emory University. Each is enveloped by a fine coating of essential oil as they float up and rapidly become part of the atmosphere of your room.Perfect for enjoying your favorite essential oil aromas. The smart thing to do is to turn it into a fuel, so you then have extra fuel and excess weight. Or, you can diffuse such small amounts of essential oil that the aroma is barely perceptible. Chylomicrons contain triglycerides, cholesterol, and other lipids and have proteins on their surface. Even at such low concentrations, you can benefit from the therapeutic effects of essential oils, and help to restore balance to the microbial population in your indoor environment.
Together, they enable the chylomicron to move in an aqueous environment without exposing the lipids to water. One of the end products is biogas, which is combusted to generate electricity and heat, or can be processed into renewable natural gas and transportation fuels.
A typical digester’s flow process begins with bacterial hydrolysis of the input materials in order to break down insoluble organic polymers such as carbohydrates and make them available for other bacteria.
Acidogenic bacteria then convert the sugars and amino acids into carbon dioxide, hydrogen, ammonia, and organic acids. Acetogenic bacteria then convert these resulting organic acids into acetic acid, along with additional ammonia, hydrogen, and carbon dioxide. Finally, methanogens convert these products to methane and carbon dioxide.Process scheme for a typical anaerobic digester.
Of course, if it works on the moon, the same digester can very well work on Earth – and it does. Instead, life might have first emerged elsewhereAdvertisement Advertisement © 2007-2016 ZME Science.



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