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Digestive system and enzymes biology,health risks associated with probiotics,probiotics and liver cancer - PDF Books

Human Digestive System Diagram is made up of the digestive tract—a series of hollow organs joined in a long, twisting tube from the mouth to the anus—and other organs. When view at this Photo of Human Digestive System Diagram, you can download and take by right click on the right click to get the large version. If you like this Human Digestive System Diagram, you might be interested to see or browse another picture about Anatomy. The digestive system of a mammal consists of alimentary canal (digestive tract) and associated glands. The bile serves to metabolize fats, so that body can use them, and as an antioxidant which cleanses the liver of toxins. Tip: To turn text into a link, highlight the text, then click on a page or file from the list above.
Because catabolic reactions produce energy and anabolic reactions use energy, ideally, energy usage would balance the energy produced.
Catabolic reactions break down large organic molecules into smaller molecules, releasing the energy contained in the chemical bonds. Structurally, ATP molecules consist of an adenine, a ribose, and three phosphate groups ([link]). The energy from ATP drives all bodily functions, such as contracting muscles, maintaining the electrical potential of nerve cells, and absorbing food in the gastrointestinal tract. Of the four major macromolecular groups (carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids) that are processed by digestion, carbohydrates are considered the most common source of energy to fuel the body. Among the lipids (fats), triglycerides are most often used for energy via a metabolic process called ?-oxidation. Proteins, which are polymers, can be broken down into their monomers, individual amino acids.
In contrast to catabolic reactions, anabolic reactions involve the joining of smaller molecules into larger ones.
Metabolic Processes: Cushing Syndrome and Addison’s Disease As might be expected for a fundamental physiological process like metabolism, errors or malfunctions in metabolic processing lead to a pathophysiology or—if uncorrected—a disease state. Patients with Cushing syndrome can exhibit high blood glucose levels and are at an increased risk of becoming obese. The chemical reactions underlying metabolism involve the transfer of electrons from one compound to another by processes catalyzed by enzymes. Oxidation-reduction reactions are catalyzed by enzymes that trigger the removal of hydrogen atoms.
Metabolism is the sum of all catabolic (break down) and anabolic (synthesis) reactions in the body.
Catabolic reactions break down larger molecules, such as carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins from ingested food, into their constituent smaller parts.
Anabolic reactions, or biosynthetic reactions, synthesize larger molecules from smaller constituent parts, using ATP as the energy source for these reactions. An increase or decrease in lean muscle mass will result in an increase or decrease in metabolism. It releases bile, which is removed from the liver by the hepatic ducts, through to the small intestine (the duodenum). The liver also takes excess, unusable amino acids from the blood, and breaks them down into waste products versus those components which can be converted to useful carbohydrate.
These digestive enzymes are: trypsin, chymotrypsin, pancreatic lipase, and pancreatic amylase.
Metabolism is the sum of all of the chemical reactions that are involved in catabolism and anabolism. If the net energy change is positive (catabolic reactions release more energy than the anabolic reactions use), then the body stores the excess energy by building fat molecules for long-term storage. The chemical bond between the second and third phosphate groups, termed a high-energy bond, represents the greatest source of energy in a cell.
They take the form of either complex carbohydrates, polysaccharides like starch and glycogen, or simple sugars (monosaccharides) like glucose and fructose. About one-half of excess fat is stored in adipocytes that accumulate in the subcutaneous tissue under the skin, whereas the rest is stored in adipocytes in other tissues and organs. Amino acids can be used as building blocks of new proteins or broken down further for the production of ATP. During digestion, nucleic acids including DNA and various RNAs are broken down into their constituent nucleotides.
Anabolic reactions combine monosaccharides to form polysaccharides, fatty acids to form triglycerides, amino acids to form proteins, and nucleotides to form nucleic acids. Metabolic diseases are most commonly the result of malfunctioning proteins or enzymes that are critical to one or more metabolic pathways.

They also show slow growth, accumulation of fat between the shoulders, weak muscles, bone pain (because cortisol causes proteins to be broken down to make glucose via gluconeogenesis), and fatigue.
Adrenal insufficiency, or Addison’s disease, is characterized by the reduced production of cortisol from the adrenal gland. The electrons in these reactions commonly come from hydrogen atoms, which consist of an electron and a proton. They also include the breakdown of ATP, which releases the energy needed for metabolic processes in all cells throughout the body. You will see an images where related with to the title, entitled Including graphic with tag archive. It includes the following structures: Mouth and buccal cavity, Oesophagus, stomach, small intestine, and large intestine. As liver cells secrete bile, it accumulates in bile capillaries, leading to the bile ducts to the hepatic duct, with a small branch to the cystic duct to the gallbladder. The pancreas also secrets pancreatic juice, which contains digestive enzymes which travel to the small intestine. The reactions governing the breakdown of food to obtain energy are called catabolic reactions.
On the other hand, if the net energy change is negative (catabolic reactions release less energy than anabolic reactions use), the body uses stored energy to compensate for the deficiency of energy released by catabolism.
When one is chronically starving, this use of amino acids for energy production can lead to a wasting away of the body, as more and more proteins are broken down. These nucleotides are readily absorbed and transported throughout the body to be used by individual cells during nucleic acid metabolism. These processes require energy in the form of ATP molecules generated by catabolic reactions. Other symptoms include excessive sweating (hyperhidrosis), capillary dilation, and thinning of the skin, which can lead to easy bruising. It can result from malfunction of the adrenal glands—they do not produce enough cortisol—or it can be a consequence of decreased ACTH availability from the pituitary. A molecule gives up a hydrogen atom, in the form of a hydrogen ion (H+) and an electron, breaking the molecule into smaller parts. The two most common coenzymes of oxidation-reduction reactions are nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD). An organism must ingest a sufficient amount of food to maintain its metabolic rate if the organism is to stay alive for very long.
Oxidation-reduction reactions transfer electrons across molecules by oxidizing one molecule and reducing another, and collecting the released energy to convert Pi and ADP into ATP. Associated glands are those glands which secrete digestive juices for the digestion of food.
Les aliments progressent ensuite dans l’intestin grele, puis dans le gros intestin et sont enfin rejetes par l’anus lorsqu’ils ne sont pas absorbes.
The liver also uses very complex chemical reactions to regulate the concentration of blood glucose, begins the process of protein and fat metabolism, and builds specific proteins. Conversely, anabolic reactions use the energy produced by catabolic reactions to synthesize larger molecules from smaller ones, such as when the body forms proteins by stringing together amino acids. Approximately 40 percent of energy yielded from catabolic reactions is directly transferred to the high-energy molecule adenosine triphosphate (ATP). The products of this reaction are a molecule of adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and a lone phosphate group (Pi). Among the monosaccharides, glucose is the most common fuel for ATP production in cells, and as such, there are a number of endocrine control mechanisms to regulate glucose concentration in the bloodstream. Anabolic reactions, also called biosynthesis reactions, create new molecules that form new cells and tissues, and revitalize organs.
However, normally functioning proteins and enzymes can also have deleterious effects if their availability is not appropriately matched with metabolic need.
Patients with Addison’s disease may have low blood pressure, paleness, extreme weakness, fatigue, slow or sluggish movements, lightheadedness, and salt cravings due to the loss of sodium and high blood potassium levels (hyperkalemia).
The loss of an electron, or oxidation, releases a small amount of energy; both the electron and the energy are then passed to another molecule in the process of reduction, or the gaining of an electron.
Their respective reduced coenzymes are NADH and FADH2, which are energy-containing molecules used to transfer energy during the creation of ATP.
Errors in metabolism alter the processing of carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids, and can result in a number of disease states. Associated glands are salivary glands, gastric glands, liver, pancreas, and intestinal glands.
ATP, the energy currency of cells, can be used immediately to power molecular machines that support cell, tissue, and organ function.

ATP, ADP, and Pi are constantly being cycled through reactions that build ATP and store energy, and reactions that break down ATP and release energy. Excess glucose is either stored as an energy reserve in the liver and skeletal muscles as the complex polymer glycogen, or it is converted into fat (triglyceride) in adipose cells (adipocytes).
Anabolic hormones are required for the synthesis of molecules and include growth hormone, insulin-like growth factor, insulin, testosterone, and estrogen.
For example, excessive production of the hormone cortisol (see [link]) gives rise to Cushing syndrome. Depending on the cause of the excess, treatment may be as simple as discontinuing the use of cortisol ointments.
Victims also may suffer from loss of appetite, chronic diarrhea, vomiting, mouth lesions, and patchy skin color.
These two reactions always happen together in an oxidation-reduction reaction (also called a redox reaction)—when an electron is passed between molecules, the donor is oxidized and the recipient is reduced. Two of these proteins are Prothrombin and fibrinogen, which you will recognize as essential to the clotting process; albumin, which volumizes the blood, is also synthesized in the liver.
Clinically, Cushing syndrome is characterized by rapid weight gain, especially in the trunk and face region, depression, and anxiety. Diagnosis typically involves blood tests and imaging tests of the adrenal and pituitary glands. Oxidation-reduction reactions often happen in a series, so that a molecule that is reduced is subsequently oxidized, passing on not only the electron it just received but also the energy it received. Liver cells remove toxins from bacteria and drugs, and store iron and vitamins A, D, and B12.
It is worth mentioning that tumors of the pituitary that produce adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), which subsequently stimulates the adrenal cortex to release excessive cortisol, produce similar effects.
Where surgery is inappropriate, radiation therapy can be used to reduce the size of a tumor or ablate portions of the adrenal cortex. As the series of reactions progresses, energy accumulates that is used to combine Pi and ADP to form ATP, the high-energy molecule that the body uses for fuel.
The remaining 60 percent of the energy released from catabolic reactions is given off as heat, which tissues and body fluids absorb. Elle essaie de resumer les differentes operations qui permettent a notre organisme de tirer des aliments bruts ce qui lui est necessaire. Un certain nombre de precautions sont prises par l’organisme pour eviter un mauvais parcours des aliments.
Si par megarde des particules alimentaires s’introduisent dans la trachee, un reflexe conduit le diaphragme a remonter brusquement vers le haut, comprimant les poumons qui expulsent violemment l’air qu’ils contiennent : nous toussons pour evacuer ces aliments indesirables. Le devenir des aliments L’interet de la digestion, c’est d’extraire des aliments bruts les substances necessaires a l’organisme. Il faut d’autre part rendre ces substances assimilables, afin qu’elles puissent traverser les parois de l’intestin.
Il fait progresser les aliments tout en y deversant des enzymes digestives qui les reduisent en particules suffisamment fines pour traverser les parois et rejoindre le sang.
C’est l’usine chimique de notre corps qui utilise les differents elements apportes par le sang et provenant de nos aliments pour les rendre utilisables par l’organisme. Les apports alimentaires excessifs, en particulier les sucres et les graisses sont stockes dans le tissu adipeux.
Ils assurent egalement une bonne protection contre le froid et permettent a un homme de ne pas manger (a condition de boire) pendant pres d’un mois. Quand le sang sort du foie, il ne contient plus qu’une quantite de sucre juste necessaire aux besoins immediats de l’organisme.
Il contient de nombreuses bacteries qui digerent en partie la cellulose vegetale que notre intestin ne peut reduire.
La presence de cette cellulose, bien qu’elle ne puisse etre digeree, est importante : elle represente une matiere solide qui vehicule et pousse tout au long du tube digestif le reste des aliments.
Si la defecation est trop rare, les selles sont trop seches et dures, c’est la constipation. Si au contraire, les matieres traversent trop vite le gros intestin, elles n’ont pas le temps de perdre leur eau et sont tres liquides : c’est la diarrhee, dangereuse car elle deshydrate tres rapidement l’organisme.

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