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Enteroendocrine cells include G-cells, which produce gastrin, enterochromaffin-like cells (ECLs), which produce histamine, and others that produce somatostatin and serotonin. Mucous neck cells produce a thin, watery, acidic mucus, the purpose of which is an ongoing area of investigation. The plicae circulares are circular folds of mucosa and submucosa that impart a spiral movement to chyme, allowing more mixing with intestinal secretions and greater absorption. Microvilli (the brush border) are projections from the apical surface of each epithelial cell which further increase the surface area for absorption and also contain enzymes (brush border enzymes) that complete digestion of nutrients. The submucosa contains Peyer's patches, aggregated lymph nodules (MALT), which increase in number along the length of the small intestine (there are more in the large intestine). The submucosa also contains duodenal glands (Brunner's glands), which secrete alkaline mucus to raise the pH and protect the wall of the duodenum. There are no modifications for absorption like in the small intestine and no cells that produce digestive enzymes. Haustral contractions are slow contractions that occur about every 30 minutes and last approximately 1 minute. Mass movements are long, slow moving, powerful contractions that move over the colon 3 or 4 times per day, typically after meals. In addition to these movements some segmentation occurs in the descending and sigmoid colon to increase water absorption before mass movements propel the feces into the rectum. Download the iPhone Revision Apps BundleGet 9 of S-cool's powerful revision apps for the price of 1 with this GCSE Super App Bundle. The most important function of physical digestion is to increase the surface area of the food you eat. The acid can sometimes cause stomach ulcers if the protective layer on the inside of the stomach wall is damaged.
Failure to maintain proper enzyme secretion can lead to nutrient malabsorption, particularly vitamin B12. In the late ’90s, Frito-Lay released Olestra-enhanced WOW chips and Procter & Gamble introduced Fat Free Pringles. Caramel coloring shows up in everything from soft drinks and sauces to breads and pastries. Why it’s scary: Studies have linked saccharin to bladder tumors in rats, and in 1977, the FDA required warning labels on all saccharin-containing foods. Preservatives that maintain the color of food, and by releasing sulfur dioxide, prevent bacterial growth. An inorganic salt that occurs naturally near active volcanoes and is used commercially to nourish yeast and help bread rise. Why is it scary: This nitrogen-rich compound is most often used as fertilizer, and also appears commonly in flame retardants. Why it’s scary: Over the past 30 years, the FDA has received thousands of consumer complaints due mostly to neurological symptoms such as headaches dizziness, memory loss, and, in rare cases, epileptic seizures. Why it’s scary: After forty years of scrutiny, research has yet to reach a definitive verdict on MSG. Why they’re scary: Nitrates and nitrites have a tendency to fuse with amino acids to become carcinogenic nitrosamines. Why it’s scary: A study published by the Center for Science in the Public Interest showed that the ingestion of Blue #2 led to increases in tumor development in the brain and mammary glands in lab rats. Parabens are used to prevent mold and yeast formation in food, and they’re also used in cosmetics, toothpaste, and personal lubricant. Why it’s scary: It’s been documented that parabens act as mild estrogens, and according to the Environmental Working Group, they can disrupt the natural balance of hormones in your body. The villi have capillaries and lacteals in the lamina propria for nutrient absorption (most dietary fat is absorbed by the lacteals, specialized lymphatic capillaries).
Paneth cells deep in the crypts secrete lysozyme, an enzyme that degrades bacterial cell walls. Distension or irritation of the mucosa by hypotonic or acidic chyme stimulates the release of intestinal juice, around 1 - 2 liters per day.
Bacteria also produce biotin and vitamin K, which are absorbed through the intestinal wall.


This gastrocolic reflex accompanies the gastroileal reflex stimulated by gastrin release when the stomach recieves food. They speed up chemical reactions in all living things, and allow them to occur more easily.They occur in plant cells and animal cells. They are too small to be seen either when they are inside cells or after they have been released from them, for example in the digestive system.Each particular enzyme has a unique, 3-dimensional shape shared by all its molecules. Catalase is found in all cells and protects them from this dangerous waste chemical.The substrate (hydrogen peroxide) and the catalase molecules are continuously on the move. For example, they help control respiration, photosynthesis, and our digestion, amongst many others.We also make use of enzymes elsewhere.
This makes it easier for enzymes to act on the large insoluble food molecules and break them down into small soluble ones. Temperature and pH can both affect the active site and so alter the activity of the enzyme. This is fairly logical but sometimes you may find older names like amylase (carbohydrase), pepsin and trypsin (protease). Specialised cells in the stomach wall produce large amounts of hydrochloric acid and this means that the stomach is about pH 2.
It is not foolproof though because some micro-organisms that cause food-poisoning are adapted to be able to survive in the stomach acids. Just one more reason to buy non-processed foods, and products made with few and fresh ingredients!
Because human digestive enzymes can’t break down the big molecules, Olestra contributes 0 calories to your diet. In 2000, the agency changed its stance and allowed saccharin to be sold without warning labels. In California, products containing potassium bromate are required to carry a cancer warning. In the 1980s, unregulated use resulted in at least a dozen deaths, prompting the FDA to slap warning labels on wine bottles and develop new guidelines for proper use. In a review of 47 studies on azodicarbonamide, the World Health Organization concluded that it probably does trigger asthmatic symptoms.
Thankfully, the ingredient only sounds scary—a 2006 Japanese rat study found the additive to be non-carcinogenic. Many studies have shown the sweetener to be completely harmless, while other have linked the additive to cancer.
Studies have shown that injecting the amino acid into mice causes brain-cell damage, but the FDA believes these results are not typical for humans.
They occur naturally but are synthetically produced for use in fertilizer and as food additives. Ironically, the processed meats into which nitrates are commonly added are rich with amino acids, making nitrosamine formation very likely. It can be used alone or mixed with other dyes, and the goal is typically to suggest the appearance of natural food.
The FDA dismissed these findings, citing a variety of nebulous weaknesses in the study’s methods. Although they exist in nature, the parabens used in commercial products are created synthetically. In a Japanese study, male rats fed propyl paraben daily for four weeks suffered lower sperm and testosterone production, and other studies have found parabens present in breast cancer tissues. The anal epithelium hangs in long folds (anal columns) in the superior portion of the anus. Within this shape there is an area called the active site where the chemical reactions occur.
Every so often they will collide so that the substrate molecule(s) fits into the enzyme's active site. If too little substrate is available the rate of the reaction is slowed and cannot increase any further.Sometimes, if too much product accumulates, the reaction can also be slowed down.
Protease and lipase enzymes are used in biological washing powders to remove those stubborn stains.Enzymes are also used in making foods and drinks.


It is extremely important as it helps to neutralise the acidic contents of the stomach as they enter the top of the small intestine. Apparently the complaints didn’t move the FDA, because in 2003, the administration revoked the warning-label mandate.
But when produced with ammonia it puts off 2-methylimidazole and 4-methylimidazole, chemicals that have been linked to cancer in mice. Fortunately, negative publicity has made the additive relatively rare, but until the FDA banishes it, you should remain on the lookout. Oddly, the chemicals aren’t even always necessary; in most cases they can be replaced with vitamin E.
Progressive jurisdictions like New York City are starting to restrict the allowable amounts in restaurants, and many chains are switching to healthier frying oil. A 2006 Italian study found that rats fed high daily doses of aspartame—the equivalent of nearly 3 liters for a 150-pound human—experienced higher levels of lymphomas, leukemia, and other types of cancer.
Still, the administration fields complaints every year for nausea, headaches, chest pains, and weakness.
In addition to concerns about cancer, increased nitrate and nitrite intake has been linked to deaths in Alzheimer’s, type 2 diabetes, and Parkinson’s patients.
The bottom line: whether or not artificial dyes are harmful, the foods they appear in are the most heavily processed, nutritionally bankrupt foods in the supermarket.
Hard to believe it is also used to make foam mats etc and companies are fined in other countries just for using it! The anal sinuses are the recesses between the anal columns; they secrete mucus when compressed by feces, which aids passage of feces out of the anus. The enzyme pectinase helps to break down the cells in fruit to release more of their juice.
Once the substrate is in place in the active site it binds to the enzyme and the reaction then takes place rapidly.
This prevents the acid from damaging the small intestine which is kept at a pH of about 7.4 (just slightly alkaline).
The risk is strong enough that the California government, a bellwether for better food regulation, categorized 4-methylimidazole as “known to cause cancer” earlier this year. A 2008 Purdue study found that replacing sugar with saccharin in rats’ diets made them gain more weight, proving once again that you should be aware of these faux fat foes.
According to the Center for Science in the Public Interest, there have been no known deaths since the new legislation took hold. Still, after reviewing the study, the FDA concluded that the results weren’t strong enough to warrant the confectionary chemical’s removal from the market. It could be that the results are limited to people with acute MSG sensitivity, so the FDA continues to allow manufacturers to use it. Despite the risks, the valuable use of nitrates and nitrites as inhibitors of botulism warrant their acceptance as food additives in the eyes of the FDA. To counteract the effect, processers add some nutrients back, but it’s unlikely that all the blocked nutrients are adequetly replaced. At Long John Silver’s, for example, there are still 17 menu items with more than 2 grams of the stuff. Recently noticed blue lake and other artificial colors are in commonly bought vitamins including kids and even prescribed pre-natals. According to the American Heart Association, that’s about the maximum you should consume in a single day. If it is too cold the enzymes will move around too slowly to meet the substrate molecules, so the reaction rate is slowed. This is because the extra heat energy shakes them around so much that the active sites change shape so, just like with pH, the enzyme molecules are denatured, and can't hold the substrate.



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