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Abdominal bloating, constipation, or heartburn is a type of problem that everyone felt sooner or later in their digestive system.
Digestive Formula is a unique two-phase digestive supplement that mimics the two primary phases of healthy digestion. Digestive enzymes (proteases, lipases and amylases) are substances that divide the food absorbed in the small to small particles. The different possibilities of examinations and other diagnostic measures are addressed in a discussion between doctor and patient. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP): a review essential to visualize the bile duct and main pancreatic duct.
If the cancer is confined only to the pancreas, it can sometimes be resected completely by surgery. The pancreas is resected in part or in whole, to do this, the surgeon makes an incision in the middle of the abdomen. For major surgery, operative mortality is high (3%) and adverse effects are observed in 30-50% of cases. Thus, the patient should take digestive enzyme supplements with each meal and blood sugar should be controlled by insulin injections. Copyright © 2012 Rayur, All trademarks are the property of the respective trademark owners. The digestive system in the domestic fowl is very simple but efficient when compared to many other species, such as cattle. The digestive system consists of the alimentary canal along which the food passes after eating to where the residual wastes are eliminated from the body, together with the liver and the pancreas.
The liver produces bile and is associated with the metabolism of nutrients together with a number of other functions. The alimentary canal is a long tube-like organ that starts at the beak and ends with the vent or cloaca in the abdominal region. Fowls don’t have lips and cheeks, they instead have a beak which is an area of dense and horny skin lying over the mandible and incisive bones that serve as the bony foundation. The wall of the oesophagus is composed of four layers of tissue, the innermost being mucous membrane. The muscular stomach or gizzard is located immediately after the proventriculus, partly between the lobes and partly behind the left lobe of the liver.
The entrance from the proventriculus and the exit to the duodenum are close together and dorsal in location. The small intestine begins at the exit from the gizzard and ends at the junction of the small intestine, caeca and colon. When a piece of the small intestine is immersed in water it takes on a very velvety appearance because of the presence of villi – long flattened, fingerlike projections that extend into the lumen (inside) of the intestine like flexible fingers.
A lacteal (lymph vessels), capillaries, bundles of plain muscle fibres, nerves and other tissues and cells occupy the core of the villus.
After the duodenum the small intestine forms a coil and is suspended from the dorsal wall of the abdominal wall by a thin membrane called the mesentery.
The jejunum and the ileum, together about 120 cm long, commence at the caudal end of the duodenum where the bile and the pancreatic duct papilla are located and terminates at the ileo-caecal-colic junction. Meckel’s Diverticulum is a constant feature about half way along the small intestine and appears as a small projection on the outer surface of the small intestine. The large intestine is very short and does not differ to any extent from the calibre of the small intestine. The liver is a bi-lobed organ that lies ventrally (below) and posterior (in rear of) to the heart and is closely associated with the proventriculus and the spleen. The liver cells have a high rate of destruction and a good regenerative capacity (re-growth ability). The liver consists of a series of tissue sheets that are two cells thick, with a sinusoid on either side of the sheet. This organ has three lobes that occupy the space between the two arms of the duodenal loop. Produce the hormones insulin and glucogen that are involved in the metabolism of carbohydrate.
The pattern of food intake and its passage through the digestive system are the main factors that influence secretory and hence digestive activity. The food is delivered into the crop for storage after the first few boli have passed into the proventriculus. While there is a wide variation between the eating habits of different birds in the flock, fowls do tend to eat meals on about 15-minute intervals through the daylight hours and, to some extent, during darkness. Similar factors affect the rate of movement of the food through the digestive system with a meal of normal food taking approximately 4 hours to pass through in the case of young stock, 8 hours in the case of laying hens and 12 hours for broody hens. After ingestion, the food is mixed with saliva and mucous from the mouth and oesophagus and these secretions thoroughly moisten the food. The secretions of the proventriculus, or glandular stomach as it is often called, include hydrochloric acid to lower the pH of the system and the food mixture, the enzyme pepsin that acts on protein, and the hormone gastrin that stimulates the production and release of gastric juice in the proventriculus and pancreatic juice from the pancreas. The gizzard is a very powerful organ which physically breaks the food particles into smaller sizes to make the work of the enzymes easier. The small intestine also produces enzymes that playa part in the digestive process of reducing the complex food compounds eaten to the simple compounds or building blocks that can be absorbed across the intestinal wall for transport to the organ or location where either they will be further processed, stored or used.
The remainder of the material consists of waste and undigested food and are mixed with the urine in the cloaca and eliminated from the body as faeces. The utilisation of nutrients from the diet is a key element in the normal functioning of the animal.
Neisham, MC, Austic, RE and Card, LE (1979) Poultry Production, 12th Edition, Lea and Febiger, Philadelphia, USA.
Appearance of white colored excreta in an otherwise healthy individual is usually not a normal occurrence and may indicate a disease or a disorder of the digestive tract. As explained earlier, the reasons behind white poop are usually some abnormality in the digestive tract and liver. Medications such as isoniazid, which is used to treat contagious diseases similar to tuberculosis, may lead to a condition known as cholestatic jaundice, where the patient suffers from severe fatigue along with the appearance of chalky white poop. If an individual’s gastrointestinal tract is diagnosed via an x-ray, he can experience white stool temporarily and is nothing to be worried about at all. Another common and harmless reason behind the occurrence of white poop is the over-consumption of antacids. A large dose of diarrhea medications containing bismuth subsalicylate, such as kaopectate or pepto-bismol, is known to turn poop white temporarily but the color may vary. Infants can excrete stools of different colors, which are perfectly normal and the reason is generally a combination of the food that they consume and the fact that their digestive system is being formed for the first time. Nonetheless, if your baby is either on an all-milk diet, or is administered antacids, antibiotics or anti-fungal medicines, the appearance of white poop is absolutely normal as these are reasons that have little to do with the condition of the liver. If none of the reasons mentioned above are applicable or if your baby is not having a barium enema, then white poop may be symptomatic of diseases of the liver, the small intestine or the gallbladder. The treatment depends on the core cause behind the white stool and the first step towards that treatment is figuring out the exact cause with the help of medical experts and facilities. However this problem can be very disturbing for your activities, and at certain levels can damage your stomach and cause other conditions. In phase one (the stomach), acidic nutrients are released from each tablet, along with the protein digesting enzymes pepsin, papain, and bromelain, to support the healthy acidic enzyme environment of your stomach. Use of Digestive Formula can help improve digestion in many people, including those who may experience occasional indigestion or heartburn. The disease affects mainly men between 60 and 80 years and is more common in men than in women. It is in the middle of the upper abdominal cavity, just up the kidneys, and fits into the curve of the duodenum, behind the stomach. If pancreatic function is impaired, digestion and glucose metabolism are severely disrupted. To do this, an endoscopy of the stomach and small intestine is performed through an endoscope mobile. The procedure is the same for ablations of parts of the stomach, small intestine or the biliary system. In addition, the patient will be exposed to risks inherent in any surgery, that is to say, delays wound healing, bleeding, thrombosis, wound infections, fever and allergic reactions to certain medications or bandages. Despite this treatment, the absorption of nutrients will be disrupted and patients often suffer from impaired gastric emptying and intestinal disorders. In the process of evolution, those avian species that developed simple but effective digestive systems were more able to fly and hence survive, as the simple digestive system would be lighter in weight. The digestive system is responsible for the ingestion of food, its breakdown into its constituent nutrients and their absorption into the blood stream, and the elimination of wastes from that process.
The main function of the pancreas is the production of digestive enzymes and special compounds called hormones. Generally the alimentary canal has layers of muscle that run lengthwise and around it and is lined with mucous membranes. The salivary glands run the whole length of the hard palate, the groups of glands merging to form one mass of glandular tissue under the epithelium.
The mucous membrane is an important barrier to the entry of microbes and the mucous it produces is a lubricant that aids the passage of the food along the alimentary canal. Simple single glands group to form lobules each of which converges into a common cavity near the surface.
It has a flattened, rounded shape somewhat like a convex lens, with one side slightly larger than the other.
The gizzard consists of a number of layers of tissues, some of which contain straight tubular glands. The villi have the function of providing a vastly increased surface area for the more efficient absorption of the nutrients. The lymphoid tissue collects the lymph and the lymph vessels transport fluid, other than blood, that is found in the spaces between cells and tissues until it passes into the blood system. They extend along the line of the small intestine towards the liver and are closely attached to the small intestine along their length by the mesentery.

The cloaca is a tubular cavity opening to the exterior of the body and is common to the digestive and urogenital tract. Two bile ducts emerge from the right lobe and one of these originates from the gall bladder and the second provides a direct connection from the liver to the small intestine. Notwithstanding this, in the normal animal, much of the organ is in reserve and can be removed or destroyed without causing undue stress. One originates from the coelic artery for normal maintenance of the liver as an organ and the second, called the hepatic portal system, transports the nutrients from the small intestine after absorption to the liver. Two or three ducts pass the secretions of this organ into the distal end of the duodenum via papillae common with the ducts from the gall bladder and the liver.
Probably because of the high metabolic rate of the fowl, a more or less continuous supply of food is required by the digestive system. The crop is quite distensable and will hold a large amount of undigested food that is then moved on as required by the proventriculus. Intact, hard grains take longer to digest than the cracked grain and, quite often some whole grain will pass through unchanged.
The enzyme amylase, which is produced by the salivary and oesophageal glands and found in the saliva and mucous, can now commence to breakdown the complex carbohydrates. At the same time, the enzymes previously released into the food with the saliva and by the proventriculus are thoroughly mixed into the food which improves their opportunity to carry out their work. Enzyme activity in this region is, in the main, a continuation of the breakdown of proteins started in the gizzard. The insulin is involved in the maintenance of blood sugar levels while the sodium bicarbonate, which is strongly alkaline, will increase the pH of the intestinal contents.
Food materials that escape enzyme action along this tract are subjected to bacterial breakdown in the caeca which provides a system of at least partial recovery of some nutrients. The appearance of the faeces varies considerably, but typically is a rounded, brown to grey mass topped with a cap of white uric acid from the kidneys.
These fresh droppings are approximately 75% water and will air dry under favourable conditions to approximately 30% water. The avian digestive system is a simple system and consequently the diet must be of good quality and consist of easily digested ingredients if the bird is to perform at the level required on the modern commercial poultry enterprise. In addition to secreting digestive enzymes, the pancreas secretes the hormones insulin and glucagon into the bloodstream. Poop gets its normal yellowish brown color mainly from the digestive fluid bile, which is produced by the liver and is stored in the gall bladder. A few of the most common diseases that could be responsible for white poop are discussed below.
Liver Dysfunction — Disorders like cirrhosis of liver, hepatitis A, hepatitis B (liver inflammation, which can be caused by alcoholism, medications or infections) and liver cancer can reduce or stop the production of bile resulting in white colored excreta. Abnormalities in the bile duct — Disorders in the bile duct may also be a cause of white poop and thus a cause of concern.
Cancer — Certain types of cancers like the pancreatic cancer might be responsible for white stool due to the lack of necessary digestive enzymes which are usually secreted by the pancreas.
Other disorders — Blockage in the liver is a major cause behind obstruction in production and release of bilirubin and this obstruction may be brought in due to the presence of a gallstone or fibrosis. White diarrhea (steatorrhea) is often caused by the absence of lipase, a pancreatic enzyme which is chiefly responsible for processing fat molecules. Although it is not common, the candida fungus (candida albicans) found in the large intestine can sometimes grow above the standard range in a patient suffering from immunity deficiency diseases like HIV and AIDS. Medications — Fortunately, white poop is not always the result of a severe disorder, there might be other less severe causes as well.
This condition is not as severe as some of the more life-threatening causes and things may revert back to normal once the medication is stopped. The reason behind this is the fact that prior to the x-ray, the patient must drink a Barium milkshake in order for the diagnosis to be successful. Taking too many antacids may have more severe consequences on one’s health over time, so it is wise to treat white poop as a warning sign. However, white colored poop in babies is not expected under normal circumstances and may be a cause for alarm. Common diseases include hepatitis A, hepatitis B, liver infections, biliary cirrhosis, sclerosing cholangitis; inborn abnormalities of the bile ducts or intestines, gallstones, tumors or cysts, narrowing of the bile ducts, inborn metabolic syndrome and even cancer.
Pale or white colored excreta caused by malabsorption, celiac sprue, or Crohn’s disease might benefit from high fibre diets, but medication is usually a must.
It is important for you to recognize common problems and to do things that can help improve digestive health. This is caused by the incoming air when eating or drinking rapidly and drinking carbonated beverages.
Eating broccoli, string beans, and carbonated drinks can cause bloating or abdominal discomfort. Gas is formed in the intestine due to the action of bacteria, which then protrudes from the anus. Heartburn or acid reflux is caused by stomach acid spilling into esophagus and irritate the lining of the esophagus is unprotected. So, if you want to be healthy, then you have to take good care of your body, and the digestive system is just as important. In recent years, there is nevertheless an increase of pancreatic cancer among younger patients.
The pancreas consists of endocrine part that secretes hormones (insulin, glucagon) and exocrine part, which produces pancreatic enzymes (digestive enzymes). The orifice of the bile duct and main pancreatic duct (papilla), located in the small intestine, is full of contrast through a catheter. If total removal of the pancreas, the patient can no longer produce or digestive enzymes or insulin. It is necessary that the diet provided to fowls be of high quality and easily digestible due to the simplicity in the structure and function of their digestive system. Glands that produce important digestive juices are found in different locations of the canal.
The so called egg tooth found on the end of the beak of newly hatched chickens is an aid to their escape from the egg at hatching and disappears after a day or two. The common opening for the two eustachian tubes is located in the middle of its dorsal wall (roof). The crop is a large dilation of the oesophagus located just prior to where the oesophagus enters the thoracic cavity.
The structure below the crop is similar to that above except there is less lymphoid tissue below the crop.
The cavities converge to form a common duct that leads to the surface through the apex of a small papilla (see figure below). Each surface is covered by a glistening layer of tendinous tissue which is thicker at the centre and becoming thinner towards the edges. The innermost layer is a strong, flexible skin that is able to withstand the potentially damaging effects of the muscular action grinding the food often in the presence of stones or other insoluble material. Of the three parts of the mammalian small intestine, the duodenum, jejunum and ileum, only the duodenum can be easily distinguished in the fowl. The efficiency of the absorption is influenced by the surface area available for the nutrients to move through i.e. The duodenum starts at the gizzard and forms an elongated loop that is approximately 20 centimetres long. Bile ducts from the gall bladder that are attached to the liver and two to three pancreatic ducts enter the small intestine by a common papilla at the caudal end (closest to the rear) of the duodenum.
Sometimes this section is referred to as the colon and the rectum (the rectum being the terminal section). The structure of the cloaca is very similar to that of the intestine except that the muscularis mucosa disappears near the vent. The liver is dark brown or chocolate in colour except for the first 10-14 days when it may be quite pale due to the absorption of lipids (fats) from the yolk as an embryo. The hepatic portal system, the capillaries of the arterial blood supply and the hepatic veins are in close association with each other in these sinusoids. The blood vessels, when they enter these sinusoids, become closely associated with them to provide for the easy transfer of material from one system to another. The structure is similar to that of the pancreas of mammals and consists of special secreting tissue for pancreatic juice as well as other groups of cells called the “islets of langerhan”. This is provided for by the crop that acts as a reservoir for the storage of food prior to its digestion and consequently permits the fowl to eat its food as periodic meals.
This function of the crop is less important when there is a plentiful supply of food available.
However, the amount of enzyme action at this stage is minimal and the first major enzyme activity takes place in the proventriculus and in the gizzard.
This breaking and mixing function of the gizzard is enhanced by the presence of insoluble grit such as stones.
Pancreatic juice and bile from the liver enters via ducts located at the distal end of the duodenum at about the junction of the duodenum and the jejunum if it were differentiated. The contents of the caeca are also discharged periodically as discrete masses of brown, glutinous material. A good working knowledge of the system and how it carries out its functions is necessary for the effective management of the poultry flock and, therefore, a study of the digestive system and the process of digestion and metabolism is an important facet in the study of poultry husbandry.
The release of insulin into the blood lowers the level of blood glucose (sugar) by allowing glucose to enter the body cells, where it is metabolized.
This bile is secreted into the small intestine during the digestive process where it is is broken down into urobilinogen. Presence of cysts or tumors may prevent the bile from leaving the liver which would mean that urobilinogen would not be produced. Bile, which is stored in bile ducts, may be obstructed from being secreted in the smaller intestine due to narrowing or stricture in the ducts. This type of cancer also causes lethargy and exhaustion as the ingested food is not properly digested and thus, it may even lead to malnutrition.

Pain in the right side of the upper abdomen is a symptom in these cases along with the appearance of white poop. Overgrowth of candida albicans is associated with white poop and thus it is also a possibility. Therefore, if your child is experiencing white poop you should immediately consult a doctor to figure out the problem and seek a solution before the condition worsens.
Blockades, cancers and cysts in the liver, bile ducts or the intestines may require more serious forms of treatment such as surgery and chemotherapy.
The digestive tube also contains numerous intramural glands which provide the tube by lubricating mucus, enzymes, water, etc. Try walking for 5-10 minutes and do not lie down after eating to help alleviate this problem. This condition usually occurs heartburn after eating spicy foods, fried foods, and fast food. X-rays are then practiced; they allow you to view channels, and any interruptions and obstacles to the flow. This is especially important if the birds are to attain the productive performance expected of them. The nutrients from the food, after digestion, are absorbed through the wall of the alimentary canal into the circulatory system for transport to the liver or other parts of the body. The hard palate that forms the roof of the mouth, presents a long, narrow median (median – along the middle) slit that communicates with the nasal cavity. The crop provides the capacity to hold food for some time before further digestion commences.
The crop structure is similar to that of the oesophagus except there are no glands present in fowls. These glands produce a number of juices or enzymes that are used in the digestion or breaking down of food into its constituent nutrients. The glands of the gizzard produce a liquid which is a keratinised material that passes to the surface of the horny lining where it hardens to replace tissue worn away by the grinding action of the organ. There is no clear demarcation between the jejunum and ileum and the small intestine appears as one long tube. The pancreas lies between the arms of the loop and is attached to, and actually holds together, each arm of the duodenum. The pancreas is a very important organ in the process of digesting food and it is attached to each side of the duodenal loop and lies between the two arms. The bursa of fabricius is located immediately above the cloaca of young birds but disappears when the birds have reached approximately one year old.
Minute canals called canaliculi that have the task of collecting and transporting the bile are associated with the cells in the tissue sheets. There is quite wide variability between birds in relation to eating behaviour, even between those in the same flock. Due to the crop’s ability to hold a supply of food, when applying a food control (restriction) program, it is necessary to compensate by providing a long period of food deprivation to achieve the required degree of control.
However, because of back flow of pancreatic juice and bile towards the gizzard, the actions of these secretions start earlier in the digestive process than would be expected by their entry point to the small intestine.
As urobilinogen is largely responsible for turning the color of the feces darker, white poop is often a result of the liver’s inability to produce bile.
Along with white or discolored stool, some of the other symptoms of liver disease are jaundice, dark urine, and yellowish tint near the eyes, nails and itchy skin. Biliary cirrhosis is a disorder where the bile ducts slowly stop functioning altogether and is more serious than most other disorders related to the bile ducts. The tumor frequently obstructs the area around the pancreatic duct which is close to the intestines.
Food poisoning, celiac disease and Crohn’s disease are sometimes responsible for the development of severe inflammations in the smaller intestine and white stool might be excreted as a result. Gas formation in the stomach may occur because too much fiber in the diet and eating some foods, such as processed milk, broccoli, and cabbage. Lie down immediately after eating; dehydration, smoking, and drinking alcohol can also lead to heartburn.
This page describes the structure and function of the various parts of the digestive system of the fowl and discusses the digestion of poultry food into its constituent nutrients. This capacity enables the bird to take its food as “meals” at time intervals but permits continuous digestion. The mucous membrane is raised into folds and between these folds are numerous simple tubular glands that produce hydrochloric acid as well as lymphoid tissue. Much of the digestion of the food and all of the absorption of the nutrients takes place in the small intestine and hence its structure is quite important. Permanent folds in the mucous membrane called the “valves of kerkring” are located at the proximal end (closest to the front) of the duodenum.
They also provide a means of concentrating the nutrients collection ability once they have moved through the intestine wall.
The capsule, or glissosis, is the membrane that covers the liver and is thinner than that of mammals. These canals eventually join together to form the bile ducts with one going directly to the intestine and one to the gall bladder before it connects to the small intestine.
Some eat small amounts at short intervals while others eat larger amounts at wider intervals. There is no relationship between the length of time of food deprivation and the amount of food consumed. One effect is an increase in the pH of the intestinal contents of the latter half of the duodenum from strongly to weakly acid.
At other times, even when the bilirubin is produced properly by the liver, it is hindered from leaving the organ.
Unfortunately, the probable causes behind the occurrence of the disease is not yet known but one of the symptoms are established to be white poop. This tumor would hence block bile supply which would once again lead to pale or whitish poop for reasons explained earlier. As many diseases share the symptom of white poop, it is hard to determine the exact cause without proper medical tests. Numerous ducts of the salivary glands pierce the hard palate to release their secretions into the mouth cavity.
A transverse row of simple, large and horny papillae with their tips directed towards the rear of the mouth cavity are located on the posterior end.
Inside the thoracic cavity, the oesophagus enters or becomes the proventriculus which is a very glandular part of the digestive tract (often called the glandular stomach).
In pigeons the surface cells of the crop slough off during brooding to form pigeon’s milk which is used to feed the baby pigeons in the nest.
The gizzard almost always contains quantities of hard objects such as gravel or other grit that aids in the disintegration of food, which is the primary function of the gizzard. In both of the above cases, the direct reason behind the occurrence of white poop is lack of urobilinogen production. The pancreas which is exocrine and endocrine organ, may be a discrete organ or it may be diffused in the liver or in the alimentary canal. Stomach of course highly recommends Digestive Formula as one of the finest digestive enzymes products available. It is wise to take advice from a qualified physician if you are experiencing white poop, especially if it persists.
In sharks and rays (Elasmobranchii) pancreas is relatively compact and usually well developed as a separate organ, often two lobed, but in teleosts, the pancreas is diffused in the liver to form hepatopancreas.It is also diffused in the alimentary canal in a few fishes.
The gall bladder is vestigeal in deep sea fishes but it is prominent in other fishes.While passing through the alimentary canal, the food is broken down physically and chemically and ultimately solubilized so that degraded products can be absorbed. The absorption occurs chiefly through the wall of intestine.The undigested food and other substances within the alimentary canal such as mucus, bacteria, desquamated cells and bile pigments and detritus are excreted as faeces. Some believe that there are taste buds located on the tongue, but this belief is not universally held. The peristaltic movement and local contractions are important and help the food to pass through the gut.
The pressure in the buccal and opercular cavities and pressure of water around the fish, are important for sucking.
It is also recorded that to produce strong negative pressure, all muscles principally involved have to exert tension near maximum isometric tension.
The common factors affecting the internal motivation or drive for feeding include season, time of the day, light intensity, time and nature of last feeding, temperature and any internal rhythm.The visual, chemical, taste and lateral line system also control the momentary feeding act. The interaction of these groups of factors determine when and how a fish will feed and what it will feed upon.The role of visual and olfactory factors in connection with feeding behaviour has been studied by experimental conditions by Groot (1971). He found visual, chemical and mechanical sense organs in Pleuronectidae, Soleidae, and Bothidae (belongs to the family of flat fishes, Pleuronectiformes).Soleidae are polychaet mollusc feeder, feed during night, find their food mainly by olfactory clues, but still have the capability of finding their food visually, (Table 1).
Herbivorous Fishes:They consume about 70% unicellular algae, filamentous algae and aquatic plants. Carnivorous Fishes:The fishes in contrast to herbivore have shorter gut, the intestine is straight, very little coils are present.
They prey on small organisms and consume high percentage of animals such as copepods, dafnia and insects.The examples of carnivorous fishes are Walla go attu, Mystus seenghala, Mystus cavassius, Mystus vittatus, Channa striatus, Channa marulius, Channa punctatus, Notopterus chitala, Rita rita, etc. Omnivorous Fishes:Omivorous fishes like Cyprinuscarpio, Cirrhina mrigala, Puntius, Clarias, etc.
Strainers:They have efficient straining or filtering adaptation due to the arrangement of gill rakers forming sieve for straining the food material.
Parasites:Amongst fishes, the deep sea eel (Simenchelys parasiticus) is parasitic in nature.

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