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Digestive enzymes important for health and longevity radio,use of probiotics with c. diff relapse,bifidobacteria as probiotic agents,enzyme supplements for fat digestion - PDF 2016

Without enzymes and their little helpers, co-enzymes, digestion and cellular metabolism don’t happen regardless of how many minerals and vitamins are consumed with or without food.
Coenzymes cannot catalyze a reaction by themselves, but they help complex protein enzymes do that.
Even if your diet is not so SAD (standard American diet), cooking destroys most enzymes in the best of organic plant foods. So if you depend too much upon your pancreas for its enzyme producing capacity, you’ll tire out your pancreas and your cells will become enzyme starved. Mega-dose metabolic and proteolytic enzymes have been and continue to be used for successfully treating cancer. But proteolytic enzymes are also the only ones that can shatter the protective fibrin of cancer cells, making them vulnerable to the immune system’s search and kill activity. In addition to improving your digestion, it is wise to free up your pancreas produced metabolic enzymes by consuming external digestive enzymes. One inexpensive supplement for cancer cell busting enzymes is bromelain, which is derived from unripe pineapple cores and stems.
As is typical of normal pathologic disorders there are signs and symptoms to indicate a problem. Let’s single out one factor common to 95% of the population that leads to dysbiosis; The Standard American Diet. Last month’s newsletter I used an analogy of the brick, mortar and sealant for a basic structural model of the cellular intestinal wall.
Beneath the mucosa are the brick and mortar or cells and cell junctions respectively.  The cell junctions are called gap junctions and they are sensitive to Ph imbalance.
The next domino is the ignition of inflammation throughout the body.  Recall “the function” of the intestine is to absorb the broken down food that you ate. In the Medical world there is not much attention given to intestinal health unless of course there is an outright pathology.
In order to understand how intestinal health impacts your overall health it is important to first understand the intestines structure and function. The basic function of the intestine is to absorb nutrients from the food and water we ingest and excrete the waste products from our body. Now you might be asking what does any of that have to do with my health beyond absorbing and excreting? The intestinal cell lining, like your skin, keeps bacteria, viruses and other pathogens from entering your body and making you sick. In the next issue – We’ll continue our discussion on intestine and its impact on your overall health and well-being. Radiational material?  Yup that’s what the 10PM local news called it, specifically the weather woman or meteorologist.
I can’t believe the level of deception or PR spin.  First, there is no such thing as “radiational material”, it’s called CONTAMINATION. I spoke about prophylactic Iodine supplementation in my first post, this will help protect the thyroid, but it is not a guarantee protection against developing cancer due to exposure to all of the other radioactive particles I mentioned. DO NOT be confused by the talking heads on TV when they talk about radiation and explain very matter of factly you are always exposed to some level of radiation, this is true. My first duty station was on a nuclear powered surface ship, USS Long Beach CGN-9, 2 years. After Naval Deep Sea Diver School, I was assigned to first the USS Hunley then the USS Holland (both were sub-tenders). Upon graduating I worked for GE Corporate Research and Development for three years, in the field of Non-Destructive Testing.
I went into health care in the early 90?s and was trained in taking and interpreting medical radiographs. The American Chiropractic Association (ACA) and the Association of Chiropractic Colleges (ACC) today announced that their work with key congressional supporters has resulted in two important pieces of pro-chiropractic legislation being introduced in the U.S. The second piece of legislation, the Chiropractic Membership in the Public Health Service Commissioned Corps Act of 2011 (H.R.
The Commissioned Corps is an elite team of more than 6,000 well-trained, highly qualified public health professionals dedicated to delivering the nation’s public health promotion and disease prevention programs and advancing public health science.
The introduction of both pieces of legislation fairly early in the First Session of the current 112th Congress was intentional by ACA, ACC and the bill’s supporters.
ACA and ACC request that chiropractic physicians contact their congressional representatives and urge them to cosponsor both of these bills. The American Chiropractic Association (ACA), based in Arlington, Va., is the largest professional association in the United States representing doctors of chiropractic. The Association of Chiropractic Colleges represents accredited chiropractic colleges in North America and seeks to advance chiropractic education, research and service. Last week following the 8.9 level Japanese earthquake, three nuclear reactors are in danger of a reactor core meltdown.
As I said, there has not been much mentioned about the steam released from the Japanese reactor, its size, direction of travel, nor was there any mention of potential contamination for those of us living in western states. The information contained in this blog does not constitute medical advice, nor should it be considered a substitute for medical advice. Perceived Barriers to Application of Glycaemic Index: Valid Concerns or Lost in Translation? The rising prevalence of obesity, not only in adults but also in children and adolescents, is one of the most important public health problems in developed and developing countries. For the purpose of this review the term “sugars” is used for all sugars from all sources other than polyols. Pancreas is an important organ of the digestive system that helps in producing and storing enzymes that help in digestion. When pancreas fails to function properly, it causes imbalance of insulin leading to diabetes. Yogurt is a very healthy probiotic food that contains bacteria for improving the digestion.
Turmeric is a healthy spice with high amounts of antioxidants that help in healing inflammation in pancreas. Feeding your dog with a quality healthy diet containing these 7 ingredients will help maintain a healthy digestive tract and build a strong immune system.
I could feed the Grain Free Adult Health to Bailey, but not to Jada because she is allergic to peas! The chicken and rice might be a good choice for my younger dog who is having some digestive issues. My girls get probiotic powder mixed in with their Fresh Pet Select Roasted Meals and are doing great.
Written permission is required to reproduce any images or words in either partial form or its entirety. Your liver needs cleanse if you have the following symptoms of poor liver: Feeling tired when you wake up Low energy level liver enzymes high hepatitis brand jarrow Difficulty losing weight Elevated BUN and GFR are important laboratory values for diagnosing Kidney Disease. The hepatic stellate (Ito) cell lies within the space of Disse and has a variety of functions.
Over 15 years experience practicing Alternative Therapies has taught me that fixing the digestive system will fix 50% of the problems with which patients present. Digestion of the food, absorption of the nutrients and the elimination of the waste it receives are the main functions of our gut. Digestion is the process of breaking down food into carbohydrates, proteins, fats, vitamins and minerals that can be absorbed and used by the body. Digestion begins in the mouth where food is chewed and mixed with saliva to break down starches.
Poor eating habits, a stressful lifestyle and medications cause strain on your GI system and promotes an over-production of stomach acid and an increase or decrease in the transit time of food through the GI system. Unfortunately, most people turn to acid blocking drugs, anti-anxiety or antidepressants for relief. The physician developed, clinically proven formulation of GoldenZymes™ Digestive Enzymes Complete with 17 active digestive enzymes will de-stress your digestive system, enhance the absorption of food and eventually allow your body’s natural processes to work, eliminating the need for acid blocking prescription drugs.
If you have a sluggish GI system or just want to do a good colon cleansing then try GoldenClenzRx Colon cleanse Complete to get your system working properly.
Additionally, I use both of these products as part of any diet program that I prescribe for my patients. They initiate and promote a chemical process but don’t become part of the final product. Slow speed juicing with masticating juicers is important to preserve the enzymes being juiced, according to some health experts. Howell further explained, “If humans take in more exogenous (outside) digestive enzymes, as nature ordained, the enzyme potential will not have to waste so much of its heritage digesting food.
If that sputters, cells try to survive by sucking up glucose and fermenting it instead of using oxygen for energy metabolism.
These enzymes are strong enough to break down tough cancer cell fibrin protective coatings.
His pet peeves are the Medical Mafia’s control over health and the food industry and government regulatory agencies’ corruption.
The signs and symptoms commonly seen are fever, redness, swelling, induration or lymphadenopathy.
Let me first add that this is the short list: The Standard American Diet (SAD), antibiotics, over the counter medication such as anti-inflammatory’s (NSAIDS), illicit drugs or excessive ingestion of alcohol. The gap junctions will overtime become loose or weak providing an open door from the inside of the intestine to the inside of your body.  I mentioned last month, the cell lining of the intestine provides protection from pathogens very much the same way our skin does. If you have, like most of the population, indulged in a life time of SAD your intestine have been absorbing a very high amount of acidity from inside the intestine and transporting it to the rest of the cells in your body through the blood stream and other metabolic pathways. But I am out of time and space.  Tune in next time for the next issue of my series on intestinal health. That’s pretty big and an amazing use of functional design by nature to maximize the absorptive surface area. If I line up a bunch of bricks as if I were constructing a walkway and I then put mortar between the bricks to hold them together then coated the bricks with a protective yet permeable layer this would be a good simple visual for us to work with.
531), would establish a new program that would help chiropractic physicians and other select health care providers repay their student loans if, in exchange, the providers establish and maintain practices in medically underserved areas. Braley but it falls short.  Placing ONE Chiropractor in a large VA Health Care Center is a disservice. Officers in the Corps provide health care services in a variety of locations and venues, including care to members of the U.S.


ACA promotes the highest standards of patient care and ethics, and supports research that contributes to the health and well-being of millions of chiropractic patients. There was one small article on Yahoo News stating that there had been a release of some steam from one of the reactors with “only a small amount of radioactive material”. These particles have the potential to cause contamination with anything they come in contact with. So it might be a good idea to get some iodine pills if not for the steam cloud that is drifting westward.
As one possible way to tackle obesity, a great interest has been stimulated in understanding the relationship between different types of dietary carbohydrate and appetite regulation, body weight and body composition. IntroductionThe rising prevalence of obesity, not only in adults but also in children and adolescents, is one of the most important public health problems in developed and developing countries [1].
Classification of CarbohydratesThe classification of dietary carbohydrates is based on the degree of polymerization (DP) and type of linkage (alpha or beta).
Specific attention will be paid to fructose, either being part of sucrose or high fructose corn syrup (HFCS), because there is (inconsistent) evidence that the consumption of fructose may be part of the cause of the obesity epidemic [14]. Glycemic Index and Glycemic LoadThe glycemic response to ingestion of a carbohydrate depends on the amount, rate of digestion, absorption and metabolism of the ingested carbohydrate. The organ also helps in controlling the problem of diabetes by producing enough insulin required for decreasing blood sugar. Inflammation in pancreas causes lot of pain to the affected person and the condition is known as pancreatitis. Juice extracted from vegetables like tomato, onion and beetroot contains nutrients that are very good for pancreas.
They contain nutrients like vitamins and Iron that make the pancreas healthy and disease free. It contains flavonoids that make the pancreas healthy while treating diseases in the organ. I am being compensated for helping spread the word about Holistic Select Total Body Health, but Golden Woofs only shares information we feel is relevant to our readers. Hyperbilirubinemia (Care and treatment) Continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (Usage) Peritoneal dialysis (Usage) Liver (Transplantation) Liver (Complications and side effects). If your find that your alcohol liver damage symptoms are caused by cirrhosis you will need to get medical treatment for it. The stomach continues to break food down by churning the food in the upper stomach and by secreting acid and digestive enzymes in the lower stomach and small intestine. We don’t want the GI system to operate too rapidly but we definitely don’t want it to come to a stop. Acid blocking drugs shut off your stomach acid which removes your first line of defense against infections, prevents activation of your body’s digestive enzymes and subsequently prevents absorption of essential nutrients. Enzymes are the body’s catalysts for digesting nutrients and metabolizing within cells. Technically, coenzymes are organic nonprotein molecules that bind with the protein molecule (apoenzyme) to form the active enzyme (holoenzyme). Eating salads with greens, carrots, cucumbers, and other assorted raw vegetables and raw fruits daily is vital. Paul’s valiant contributions to the health movement and global paradigm shift are world renowned. Decisions you make about your family's healthcare are important and should be made in consultation with a competent medical professional. Unfortunately, with intestinal dysbiosis there are none of these classic symptoms.  As a clinician I have to look beyond these disease associated characteristics to ferret out the patient’s individualized response to an intestinal microbe imbalance or dysbiosis. Short term acidity would not be a problem but it is the habitual indulging in SAD that leads to the following scenario within the intestine.
The brick sealant, being the mucosa, is where healthy bacteria and unhealthy microbes live. If the skin is compromised by a cut or laceration, bacteria can enter and infection can occur. In the Integrative Healthcare Model intestinal health is key to overall health and well-being.
While working toward this degree I worked part time with a field testing company x-raying welded pipe and cast iron.
These bills, if enacted into law, would increase patient access to vital health care—which includes chiropractic care—and benefit chiropractic physicians and students.
The staff doctor will be overwhelmed and patients will be waiting for months.  If you are a Vet or DC, I would encourage you to contact these legislators and inform them of the understaffing issue inherent in the bill. If you have a puppy and the puppy does its business on the floor the smell is radiation, when you step in it that is contamination.
Then, in the event that they cannot contain the reactor damage and there is a much bigger problem of a reactor core melt down. The present article reviews the conclusions from recent reviews and meta-analyses on the effects of different starches and sugars on body weight management and metabolic disturbances, and provides an update of the most recent studies on this topic.
Even though more and more people are becoming aware of the magnitude of the problem and the serious consequences associated to the development of obesity [2,3], it continues to grow.
This divides carbohydrates into three main groups, sugars (DP 1–2), oligosaccharides (short-chain carbohydrates) (DP 3–9) and polysaccharides (DP > or = 10) [12]. The term “starches” in this review addresses only the starch polysaccharides (amylose, amylopectin and modified starches). To describe the physiological effect of a food’s carbohydrate content on postprandial blood glucose concentration, the glycemic index of foods (GI) has been introduced [19].
We should try to improve the health of pancreas by eating healthy foods that nourish the organ. Garlic is a rich source of sulfur and some other nutrients that improve the health of pancreas tissues. Did you know that most dog digestive problems are caused by a diet that simply doesn’t work. Also survival is poor if tumors are large invade blood vessels or have spread outside the liver. Primary biliary cirrhosis: In this rare disorder an unclear process slowly destroys the bile ducts in the lver.
Regular alcohol abuse can cause serious health effects with the liver as one of the main organs being affected. The most common factors are as follows If the condition of inflamed liver is prolonged without proper treatment the condition could lead to a more serious issue wherein damaged liver cells will create scarring in the The MRI show it passed the fatty Available Data on the Safety of Hepatitis B Vaccines.
When elimination slows down the body reabsorbs the toxins and this is referred to as autointoxication.
The confounding situation for a practitioner is that a particular microbe imbalance in one patient may present with dermatitis while in a different patient same microbe may present as neuropathy or inflammatory arthritis. After, let’s say five years of SAD (from ages five to ten), it will have altered the Ph to acidic, which will lead to an over growth of unhealthy microbes. The same way the opening of the gap junctions of the intestinal wall allows for bacteria and in worse cases, macromolecules to cross the intestine into the body cavity.
11, would also benefit the public and the profession by requiring the inclusion of chiropractic physicians in the U.S. It can be taken up by the body where it will travel to the thyroid resulting in thyroid cancer. From the literature reviewed in this paper, potential beneficial effects of intake of starchy foods, especially those containing slowly-digestible and resistant starches, and potential detrimental effects of high intakes of fructose become apparent.
Lifestyle changes together with genetic predisposition play an important role in the obesity problem [4]. The glycemic index of a food quantifies the area under the glycemic response curve (AUC) of a test food, compared to the same amount (usually 50 g of available carbohydrate) of a reference food, most often glucose or white bread [19].
As a pet parent, it is essential to understand your dog’s digestive process in order for you to know the right diet for your dog. There are dog foods in the market that can help alleviate some of your dog’s digestive problems.
Treatment for metastatic east cancer varies from person to Find a list of hormone therapy drugs used to treat metastatic east cancer nodular regenerative hyperplasia of the liver treatment disease symptoms nash and whether they are given in pill form or by AMERICAN FAMILY PHYSICIAN Thyroid Liver Kidney Blood Test Disease Rash Skin Thyroid Liver Kidney Blood Test Disease Rash Skin Symptoms Symptoms Milk thistle has been used as a cytoprotectant for the treatment of liver disease the symptoms have pretty much subsided with a few hives here and there and Premium-quality milk thistle complex provides 175 mg of standardized milk thistle extract plus standardized extracts of turmeric plus dandelion root .
Unfortunately, that ideal is often not realized due to poor farming practices and cooking foods. William Donald Kelley’s ground breaking cancer curing work with mega-dose proteolytic enzyme metabolic therapy during the 1960s.
Of the two, cobalt was the stronger isotope; it can punch 5 inches of solid steel without blinking.
This supports the intake of whole grains, legumes and vegetables, which contain more appropriate sources of carbohydrates associated with reduced risk of cardiovascular and other chronic diseases, rather than foods rich in sugars, especially in the form of sugar-sweetened beverages. Large numbers of new products and technological advances have led to a lifestyle characterized by the high availability of energy-dense foods and a high level of physical inactivity [5].
Generally, foods with a GI ? 55 are classified as low GI, whereas foods with a GI ? 70 are classified as high GI foods.
Thistle is an old English name for a large family of plants occurring chiefly in Europe and Asia. The high acid environment is the first domino in what will now be a long chain of unfortunate events likely leading to pathology.
Bruce Braley (D-Iowa) would designate certain types of health care providers as “frontline” providers. Although, weight loss is usually not so difficult to attain, especially for people with a strong motivation, the real problem remains in the maintenance of the achieved body weight, since during this period individuals have to continue with habits learned during the intervention in an environment that promotes just the opposite.
Low-GI foods are those that elicit a low postprandial glucose response which, in turn, induces a lower rise in circulating insulin and related gastrointestinal hormones, such as incretins, gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP), and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). ACA and ACC worked closely with the sponsor of the bill to ensure that chiropractic physicians are specified in the bill as qualifying for this status. The lower but sustained insulin secretion reduces free fatty acids levels improving cellular glucose metabolism [20]. Nevertheless, lifestyle change in diet and physical activity are still regarded as the primary strategy for weight loss, weight management, as well as for improving metabolic alterations [6].
Consequently, blood glucose levels remain closer to baseline despite continued glucose absorption from the small intestine. Dietary recommendations have not changed much over the last forty years and the most commonly recommended macronutrient distribution is still 50–60% for carbohydrates, 30% for fat and 10–20% for proteins. In contrast, high-GI foods increase insulin secretion leading to a postprandial hyperinsulinemia, which has a lipogenic effect.


Energy restriction and adherence to the energy-restricted diet appear to be more important than the macronutrient distribution of such a diet in causing weight loss [7]. Because the glycemic response to food ingestion not only depends on the GI but also on the total amount of carbohydrates ingested, the concept of glycemic load (GL) has been introduced. However, increasing evidence shows that changes in protein, carbohydrate and lipid proportions could be a key factor to improve body weight regulation after a weight loss program [8]. Thus, macronutrient distribution, together with food properties (energy density, satiety value, taste, metabolic response elicited, etc.), are all nutritional factors conditioning energy balance. Therefore, the GL provides a summary measure of the relative glycemic impact of a typical serving of the food. Therefore, they have the potential to contribute to better maintenance of body weight and better metabolic regulation.Scientific evidence shows that high-fat diets have a high energy density and low satiety value, which facilitate passive overconsumption [9].
Foods with a GL ? 10 have been classified as low GL, and those with a value ? 20 as high GL [21]. On the other hand, high-protein diets could be an alternative, since proteins have a high satiety effect that may favour energy intake control [10].
Indeed, high carbohydrate and specifically high sugar consumption are often considered particularly harmful with respect to energy balance disturbances due to their specific properties related to postprandial metabolism, the balance between nutrient storage and oxidation, the effects on hunger and satiety, and hence on caloric intake and energy balance (Figure 1). The present article reviews the conclusions from the latest reviews and meta-analyses, if available, on the effects of different starches and sugars on parameters of body weight management and metabolic disturbances and provides an update of the most recent studies on this topic. Short-Term Effects on Energy Intake and SatietyAlthough the mechanisms are not totally clear, a primary mechanism by which starches are thought to regulate satiety and food intake is through their effect on blood glucose. Most nutritional intervention studies use GI to compare the effects after carbohydrate consumption. Two recent reviews concluded that consumption of high-GI foods increase hunger and decrease satiety levels in short-term human intervention studies [23,24]. Postprandial plasma glucose, insulin and appetite (hunger, fullness, and desire to eat) were measured over 4 h.
The results indicated that consumption of uncooked WM, a slowly digestible starch, leads to lower postprandial glucose and insulin concentrations without an effect on appetite compared to the consumption of rapidly digested MS [25]. The meals (50 g carbohydrates) consisted of refined wheat bread (RWB), wholegrain wheat bread (WWB), refined wheat pasta (RWP) and wholegrain wheat pasta (WWP) and were served after an overnight fast. Appetite ratings and blood glucose were assessed for 180 min after which an ad libitum lunch meal was served and EI measured.
Results showed that wholemeal breads increased satiety measures compared to their refined counterparts; however no differences were observed in the subsequent EI [26].
Forty-seven healthy subjects consumed a breakfast and, two hours later, a snack containing barley, wheat, or refined rice, followed 90 min later by an ad libitum lunch. The intake of a whole grain high-fiber barley, whole grain wheat, or refined rice breakfast and snack did not decrease energy intake at lunch [27].
A randomized crossover intervention study by Aston and coworkers [28], consisting of two consecutive 12-week periods to assess the effects of a reduced glycemic index diet on appetite, did not find differences in satiety, nor in energy intake from a midmorning snack 2 h and an ad libitum lunch 4 h after a high or low GI breakfast differing in GI by 12 units at the end of the intervention period in 19 subjects [28]. Resistant starch, a fermentable carbohydrate, has been proposed to have properties similar to dietary fiber [29] and therefore could also affect satiety and exert a beneficial role in weight regulation. Some in vivo studies in humans have shown that meals high in resistant starch resulted in lower glucose and insulin responses and induced greater satiety for 2–6 h [30]. Fibers were baked in muffins and were chosen in order to represent soluble, insoluble, and RS characteristics.
Twenty healthy subjects (7 men and 13 women) tested the five different muffins (identical macronutrient content) in five different visits where the satiety level was evaluated postprandially for 3 h. Results showed that subjects were less hungry after eating RS than after eating the low fiber muffin and RS stimulated less desire for food intake than the low fiber treatment. Twenty young healthy adult males consumed either RS or placebo divided equally between two mixed meals (breakfast and lunch) on two separate occasions. Effects on appetite were assessed using an ad libitum test meal 3 h after the lunch was consumed and from 24-h diet diaries for the whole 24 h of the study day.
There was a significantly lower energy intake following the RS supplement compared to the placebo supplement at both the ad libitum test meal and over the 24 h [31].
Effect on Energy ExpenditureThe more prolonged energy availability after SDS consumption may also lead to a more extended increase in energy expenditure. However, there are few studies regarding the effects of starch consumption on energy expenditure.
The 24 h energy expenditure was significantly increased after 14 days on the sucrose diet compared with the other diets.
However, this increase was explained by the increased intake of energy and fructose on this diet [32]. A review by Dulloo and co-workers of energy balance studies in animal models suggested that a tendency for sugar-fed animals to have higher metabolizable energy intakes which induced increases in metabolic rate [33].
The reviewed studies indicated that differences in energy balance between sugar and starch are small and that any increase in thermogenesis that occurred in some of the groups fed sugar-rich diets was in response to the higher energy intake rather than due to a lower efficiency of utilization of sucrose per se [33].
Metabolic rate was measured by indirect calorimetry in the fasting state and postprandially for 5 h. Results showed that the replacement of digestible starch by RS in a single meal lowered DIT, however, the ingestion of lactulose resulted in a substantial rise in DIT which was related to its fermentation [34]. A more recent crossover study by Keogh and coworkers [35] examined the effect of barley flour, high in soluble fiber and amylose, incorporated into breakfast and lunch compared with otherwise identical meals containing white wheat flour on the thermic effect of food. Energy expenditure was measured before and after the test lunch, showing no differences in the thermic effect of the foods. Effect on Body WeightMuch interest has been focused on the relationship between glycemic index and body-weight loss or body weight regulation. Acute meal studies seem to point to an effect of glycaemic index on appetite and hence on body weight regulation, however, the results of longer-term studies of weight loss are not as clear. Indeed, recent conclusions from different reviews suggest that there is no evidence that an ad libitum diet with a low-GI causes more weight loss than a diet with a high-GI when total carbohydrate intake is not different [36]. Likewise, it is also confirmed that there is insufficient evidence that an exchange of sugar for non-sugar carbohydrates in the context of a reduced-fat ad libitum diet or energy-restricted diet result in greater weight reduction [37]. On the other hand, an overall systematic review suggested an overall positive effect of low glycemic or low glycemic load diets on weight loss [38]. Both the higher protein content and the lower GI improved completion rate and weight loss maintenance [39]. Animal studies observed that a diet high in RS reduced adipose tissue with no changes in body weight, suggesting a central role of short-chain fatty acids [40]. A recent study showed that an amylose-rich, high RS, ad libitum diet resulted in both less body weight and less body fat gain than a high amylopectin, low RS, diet [41]. Mice fed the high GI diet showed a rapid-onset (from week 5) marked increase in body fat mass compared to mice in the other three starch groups [42]. In combination, the findings described above suggest that RS and SDS are attractive dietary targets for weight gain prevention and weight loss diets. Starch Intake and LipidsAlthough there is strong evidence that the amount and type of fat in the diet can have strong effects on metabolism, the types of carbohydrates influencing metabolic parameters is also of great interest.
In this sense, slowly digestible starch seem to be related to some benefits on lipid metabolism, while rapidly digestible starch or high glycemic index carbohydrates are associated with a higher prevalence of the metabolic syndrome [63].
Low glycemic index foods may alter serum lipids by prolonging absorption time, spreading the nutrient load, and modifying the endocrine and metabolite response to food [64]. It has been also suggested that low glycemic index foods or carbohydrates that are not so resistant to absorption, but rather are slowly absorbed, possess some of the features of dietary fiber in providing a substrate for colonic bacterial fermentation [64].
In the small intestine, they form lente or sustained release carbohydrates which have been related to improvements in blood lipid profiles in hyperlipidemic individuals [65].
Resistant starch may lower plasma lipid levels, especially plasma cholesterol, by delaying gastric emptying, thereby limiting hepatic lipogenesis owing to less glucose as substrate and less insulin as an activator.
It may also interfere with digestive enzymes decreasing substrates availability for hepatic lipid synthesis or it may interfere with micelle formation, resulting in less cholesterol absorption.
Likewise, RS may inhibit hepatic cholesterol biosynthesis due to the inhibitory effects of propionate (derived from colonic fermentation of RS) on HMG-CoA reductase activity [66].In a randomized crossover study of matched diets differing only in GI and glycemic load (GL) by Shikany et al.
In larger cohort studies, low glycemic index foods or low glycemic index diets have been associated with higher HDL-cholesterol levels and reduced incidence of diabetes and cardiovascular disease [67]. Likewise, in an older, metabolically controlled, study of 20 type 2 diabetic men and women fed high and low glycemic index diets for two 24-day periods by Jarvi et al. RS seems to decrease plasma cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations [30], but little is still known about the impact of RS on lipid metabolism. Animal studies indicate that a high RS diet leads to a lower weight of fat depots and can reduce serum total cholesterol triacylgycerol concentrations [70,71].
In humans, five weeks of RS feeding lowered fasting cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations [72]. Breath samples were collected hourly following the meal and gluteal fat biopsies were also obtained at 0 and 24 h. Resistant starch, regardless of dose, had no effect on carbohydrate metabolism, free fatty acids or triacylglycerol concentration, nor on meal fat storage.
However, data from indirect calorimetry showed that an addition of 5.4% RS to the diet significantly increased postprandial fat oxidation by 23%.
Thus, the authors suggested that replacement of total dietary carbohydrate with RS increases postprandial lipid oxidation and may decrease fat accumulation in the long term [30].The intervention study by Robertson et al.
Eight non-diabetic subjects and four subjects with diet-controlled type 2 diabetes participated in a randomized cross-over study by Culling et al. Volunteers had to follow three isoenergetic diets, each for three days: high-fat (50% energy from fat), high-starch and high-sugar (70% energy from carbohydrate each). Analysis of the variables showed that fasting triacylglycerol (TG) concentrations were greatest following the high-sugar diet, and lowest following the high-fat diet.
Postprandial metabolism of two starches with different rates of hydrolysis in vitro was studied by Ells et al.
One contained predominantly rapidly digestible starch and the other contained predominantly slowly digestible starch. Ten healthy female volunteers ate each test starch as part of a moderate fat test meal (containing 75 g test starch and 21 g fat) in a double-blind randomized crossover design. The metabolic response to each starch was measured after an overnight fast, in an acute 6 h study, before and after 14 days of daily consumption of 75 g test starch.



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