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The most important function of physical digestion is to increase the surface area of the food you eat. The acid can sometimes cause stomach ulcers if the protective layer on the inside of the stomach wall is damaged. Information on this website is provided for informational purposes and is not meant to substitute for the advice provided by your own physician or other medical professional. The diagram to the left is of the alimentary canal also known as the digestive tract and also shows other organs of the digestive system like the liver.
After being swallowed, the food travels down the Oesophagus or esophagus, this is continually being damaged by the friction of food, so the epithelium is a few cells thick and secretes mucas to lubricate the food's passage. The next place it enters is the stomach this is a temporary store, mixes the contents up and also is the site for a bit of digestion.
Enzymes are sensitive to temperature and pH, these must be at an optimum level so they work best. Below is a digram of the human gut wall, on the right are labelled the different layers that exist.
The first actual layer is the mucosa, it has a layer of epithelium, made of epithelial cells, which have projections called villi. Below this is a muscle layer, known scientifically as the muscularis externa, it is reponsible for peristalsis which moves food through the digestive tract. In the diagram you should also notice the capillaries, part of the blood network which takes absorbed food away. By the time everything reaches here, the food has been digested into small enough particles that it can pass through the alimentary tract lining and be absorbed into the blood. The food products pass into the blood stream through villi: these are small foldings of the small intestine that cover on its internal surface. The villi on their own increase the surface area, but the cells which make up the surface of the villus have their own small projections called microvilli (see diagram) these further increase the surface area which means that the digestion products can be absorbed more quickly.
The villus has a supply of blood vessels this means substances absorbed can be transported to where they are needed more directly. Triglycerides are a type of lipid; here you will learn how the body breaks down this molecule.
Digestion begins in the duodenum where bile enters from the liver, bile salts make the big blobs of fat into small micelle droplets which massively increases the surface area and makes digestion much easier. Also in the duodenum, pancreatic lipase this breaks the triglyceride into fatty acid and glycerol. These resynthesised lipids make proteins called chylomicrons, these enter the lacteals and travel through the lymphatic system, making it milky.
Enteroendocrine cells include G-cells, which produce gastrin, enterochromaffin-like cells (ECLs), which produce histamine, and others that produce somatostatin and serotonin. Mucous neck cells produce a thin, watery, acidic mucus, the purpose of which is an ongoing area of investigation. The plicae circulares are circular folds of mucosa and submucosa that impart a spiral movement to chyme, allowing more mixing with intestinal secretions and greater absorption. Microvilli (the brush border) are projections from the apical surface of each epithelial cell which further increase the surface area for absorption and also contain enzymes (brush border enzymes) that complete digestion of nutrients. The submucosa contains Peyer's patches, aggregated lymph nodules (MALT), which increase in number along the length of the small intestine (there are more in the large intestine). The submucosa also contains duodenal glands (Brunner's glands), which secrete alkaline mucus to raise the pH and protect the wall of the duodenum.
There are no modifications for absorption like in the small intestine and no cells that produce digestive enzymes. Haustral contractions are slow contractions that occur about every 30 minutes and last approximately 1 minute. Mass movements are long, slow moving, powerful contractions that move over the colon 3 or 4 times per day, typically after meals. In addition to these movements some segmentation occurs in the descending and sigmoid colon to increase water absorption before mass movements propel the feces into the rectum. The digestive system uses mechanical and chemical activities to break food down into absorbable substances during its journey through the digestive system. Visit this site for an overview of digestion of food in different regions of the digestive tract. The processes of digestion include six activities: ingestion, propulsion, mechanical or physical digestion, chemical digestion, absorption, and defecation. The first of these processes, ingestion, refers to the entry of food into the alimentary canal through the mouth.
In chemical digestion, starting in the mouth, digestive secretions break down complex food molecules into their chemical building blocks (for example, proteins into separate amino acids).
Food that has been broken down is of no value to the body unless it enters the bloodstream and its nutrients are put to work.
In defecation, the final step in digestion, undigested materials are removed from the body as feces.
Digestive System: From Appetite Suppression to Constipation Age-related changes in the digestive system begin in the mouth and can affect virtually every aspect of the digestive system.

Pathologies that affect the digestive organs—such as hiatal hernia, gastritis, and peptic ulcer disease—can occur at greater frequencies as you age.
Neural and endocrine regulatory mechanisms work to maintain the optimal conditions in the lumen needed for digestion and absorption.
The walls of the alimentary canal contain a variety of sensors that help regulate digestive functions. The walls of the entire alimentary canal are embedded with nerve plexuses that interact with the central nervous system and other nerve plexuses—either within the same digestive organ or in different ones. The digestive system ingests and digests food, absorbs released nutrients, and excretes food components that are indigestible.
Offer a theory to explain why segmentation occurs and peristalsis slows in the small intestine. The smell of food initiates long reflexes, which result in the secretion of digestive juices.
This makes it easier for enzymes to act on the large insoluble food molecules and break them down into small soluble ones.
Temperature and pH can both affect the active site and so alter the activity of the enzyme. This is fairly logical but sometimes you may find older names like amylase (carbohydrase), pepsin and trypsin (protease). Specialised cells in the stomach wall produce large amounts of hydrochloric acid and this means that the stomach is about pH 2.
It is not foolproof though because some micro-organisms that cause food-poisoning are adapted to be able to survive in the stomach acids. The pH in the human digestive tract varies greatly (see Human Digestive Tract pH Range Chart on the left side). You should not use the information contained herein for diagnosing or treating a health problem or disease, or prescribing any medication. The villi have capillaries and lacteals in the lamina propria for nutrient absorption (most dietary fat is absorbed by the lacteals, specialized lymphatic capillaries). Paneth cells deep in the crypts secrete lysozyme, an enzyme that degrades bacterial cell walls. Distension or irritation of the mucosa by hypotonic or acidic chyme stimulates the release of intestinal juice, around 1 - 2 liters per day.
Bacteria also produce biotin and vitamin K, which are absorbed through the intestinal wall. This gastrocolic reflex accompanies the gastroileal reflex stimulated by gastrin release when the stomach recieves food. Note the route of non-fat nutrients from the small intestine to their release as nutrients to the body. There, the food is chewed and mixed with saliva, which contains enzymes that begin breaking down the carbohydrates in the food plus some lipid digestion via lingual lipase.
This act of swallowing, the last voluntary act until defecation, is an example of propulsion, which refers to the movement of food through the digestive tract.
Mechanical digestion is a purely physical process that does not change the chemical nature of the food. These secretions vary in composition, but typically contain water, various enzymes, acids, and salts. This occurs through the process of absorption, which takes place primarily within the small intestine.
Problems in the small intestine may include duodenal ulcers, maldigestion, and malabsorption. These regulatory mechanisms, which stimulate digestive activity through mechanical and chemical activity, are controlled both extrinsically and intrinsically. These include mechanoreceptors, chemoreceptors, and osmoreceptors, which are capable of detecting mechanical, chemical, and osmotic stimuli, respectively.
The main digestive hormone of the stomach is gastrin, which is secreted in response to the presence of food. The six activities involved in this process are ingestion, motility, mechanical digestion, chemical digestion, absorption, and defecation. By slowing the transit of chyme, segmentation and a reduced rate of peristalsis allow time for these processes to occur.
It is extremely important as it helps to neutralise the acidic contents of the stomach as they enter the top of the small intestine.
The anal epithelium hangs in long folds (anal columns) in the superior portion of the anus. Chewing increases the surface area of the food and allows an appropriately sized bolus to be produced.
It includes both the voluntary process of swallowing and the involuntary process of peristalsis. There, most nutrients are absorbed from the lumen of the alimentary canal into the bloodstream through the epithelial cells that make up the mucosa. A slice of pizza is a challenge, not a treat, when you have lost teeth, your gums are diseased, and your salivary glands aren’t producing enough saliva.

Problems in the large intestine include hemorrhoids, diverticular disease, and constipation. However, most digestive processes involve the interaction of several organs and occur gradually as food moves through the alimentary canal ([link]).
Extrinsic nerve plexuses orchestrate long reflexes, which involve the central and autonomic nervous systems and work in response to stimuli from outside the digestive system. Gastrin stimulates the secretion of gastric acid by the parietal cells of the stomach mucosa. Once the substrate is in place in the active site it binds to the enzyme and the reaction then takes place rapidly. This prevents the acid from damaging the small intestine which is kept at a pH of about 7.4 (just slightly alkaline). If you have or suspect that you have a medical problem, promptly contact your health care provider. The anal sinuses are the recesses between the anal columns; they secrete mucus when compressed by feces, which aids passage of feces out of the anus. Peristalsis consists of sequential, alternating waves of contraction and relaxation of alimentary wall smooth muscles, which act to propel food along ([link]). It includes mastication, or chewing, as well as tongue movements that help break food into smaller bits and mix food with saliva.
Lipids are absorbed into lacteals and are transported via the lymphatic vessels to the bloodstream (the subclavian veins near the heart).
Swallowing can be difficult, and ingested food moves slowly through the alimentary canal because of reduced strength and tone of muscular tissue. Conditions that affect the function of accessory organs—and their abilities to deliver pancreatic enzymes and bile to the small intestine—include jaundice, acute pancreatitis, cirrhosis, and gallstones. Stimulation of these receptors provokes an appropriate reflex that furthers the process of digestion. Short reflexes, on the other hand, are orchestrated by intrinsic nerve plexuses within the alimentary canal wall.
The statements on this website have not been evaluated by the Food & Drug Administration.
Although there may be a tendency to think that mechanical digestion is limited to the first steps of the digestive process, it occurs after the food leaves the mouth, as well. Neurosensory feedback is also dampened, slowing the transmission of messages that stimulate the release of enzymes and hormones. This may entail sending a message that activates the glands that secrete digestive juices into the lumen, or it may mean the stimulation of muscles within the alimentary canal, thereby activating peristalsis and segmentation that move food along the intestinal tract.
These two plexuses and their connections were introduced earlier as the enteric nervous system. The statements on this website are not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease. Peristalsis is so powerful that foods and liquids you swallow enter your stomach even if you are standing on your head. The mechanical churning of food in the stomach serves to further break it apart and expose more of its surface area to digestive juices, creating an acidic “soup” called chyme.
Short reflexes regulate activities in one area of the digestive tract and may coordinate local peristaltic movements and stimulate digestive secretions. These GI hormones are secreted by specialized epithelial cells, called endocrinocytes, located in the mucosal epithelium of the stomach and small intestine. Pregnant and lactating women should always consult their health care professional before using any dietary supplement. Segmentation, which occurs mainly in the small intestine, consists of localized contractions of circular muscle of the muscularis layer of the alimentary canal.
For example, the sight, smell, and taste of food initiate long reflexes that begin with a sensory neuron delivering a signal to the medulla oblongata. These hormones then enter the bloodstream, through which they can reach their target organs. The information contained on this website was derived from medical, nutritional, and media publication. These contractions isolate small sections of the intestine, moving their contents back and forth while continuously subdividing, breaking up, and mixing the contents. The response to the signal is to stimulate cells in the stomach to begin secreting digestive juices in preparation for incoming food. By moving food back and forth in the intestinal lumen, segmentation mixes food with digestive juices and facilitates absorption. In contrast, food that distends the stomach initiates short reflexes that cause cells in the stomach wall to increase their secretion of digestive juices.

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