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The role of amino acids is very important – the proteins in our body are replaced from the different amino acids we get when we digest the foods that have protein in them.
Amino acids can be viewed as our body’s ‘building blocks’, and actually make up around 20% of our total weight. And besides their structural importance, amino acids are also significant for things like insulin and thyroid functioning, and numerous other body processes, including clotting of blood, digestion, and disease prevention.
Although, there are lists that show as many as 25 amino acids, there are 20 that are necessary to make the different proteins needed in the body.  Of these 20, there are 9 which are essential.
Histidine is a precursor to histamines, which work to protect the body from different allergic reactions.  It is also important for building hemoglobin and helping to keep anemia from occurring.
Leucine assists with muscle recovery and increased mass from exercise.  It also helps in the regulation of blood sugar, along with supplying energy to the body. Isoleucine functions like Leucine for muscle recovery and blood sugar regulation.  Additionally, this is needed for hemoglobin to be formed. Lysine is important in the conversion process of fatty acids into energy, along with assisting the absorption of calcium.  Additionally, it is involved in the body being able to make different  enzymes, antibodies, and hormones.
Methionine is used in producing sulfur that is needed for proper metabolism.  This is also an antioxidant that is especially significant in getting lead and mercury out of the body. Phenylalanine is a precursor for a group of adrenal gland hormones that are important in the regulation of the nervous system.  It is very much involved with the brain, including cognitive functioning, and mood or depression symptoms.
Threonine helps with normal growing by maintaining the body’s proper protein balance.  It is also needed to create 2 other amino acids, Glycine and Serine, which are needed to produce collagen. Tryptophan is a precursor to serotonin, which affects the regulation of our moods and how we sleep. Something that is important to note is that what is necessary is for your protein intake to be complete on a daily basis; it is not necessary for this to be done at each meal, in order to properly meet your protein and amino acid needs. If you are eating a typical ‘Western’ diet, than you are eating lots of meat and animal products. And although you may be causing yourself other nutritional health issues from eating too much pro-inflammatory fats, you are getting plenty of grams of complete protein and amino acids to meet your needs.
If you are a vegetarian or vegan, or have generally cut back on foods like red meats or whole milk, you can still easily get plenty of complete protein. If you will eat fish or poultry, but not red meat, you still have very good sources of complete proteins.  And cold water fish like Salmon or Tuna is also very good nutritionally, because it includes the highly anti-inflammatory omega-3 DHA EPA fatty acids.
I use a combination of hemp, pea, and brown rice that also has glutamine and branched chain amino acids added.  It is completely natural and vegan, has a high correlation to whey protein, and I have found it to be highly digestible – which is why I originally tried it, because I was having stomach problems with whey protein.
As discussed, complete proteins and amino acids must be consumed in sufficient amounts, because they are critical macronutrients, and they are continually being broken down and need to be replaced. And although the amount required each day does have some variables like those below, it is a relatively simple matter to meet all protein needs with high quality complete sources.
When I began to get highly involved with fitness and learning a lot about nutrition, I was getting a lot of my information from exercise and weight lifting sites and programs.  And as I soon came to learn from more study, they recommended far more protein than is necessary – I remember reading that I should get a minimum of 1 gram of protein per pound of weight. I weighed 190 pounds at the time [way too much], and had cut my calorie intake to around 2000 calories per day.  So, that would be 190 grams at 4 calories per gram = 760 protein calories. The recommendations that I have found from different nutritional sources is for an average of .8 grams per kilogram of body weight – and also realize that if you eat a lot more that it will end up being oxidized as energy and ‘fuel’.
In healthy people, increasing protein intake to 20 to 25 percent of calories can reduce the risk of heart disease, if the extra protein replaces refined carbohydrates, such as white bread, white rice, or sugary drinks.
Really, the best thing to do is focus on a balanced nutritional diet that has eliminated as much sugar, bad fats, and processed foods as possible.  Eat raw whole foods that include omega-3 fatty acids and healthy fats, greens and fruit, and low fat sources of protein that when combined are complete proteins and essential amino acids – and you should expect to have good nutritional health. About Barry LutzAlthough my 'day job' is day trading and money management - my 'passion' is nutrition and fitness, especially after a serious health scare.
Leptin is your body's #1 fat burning hormone, because it controls literally everything related to weight loss. To effectively burn fat, you need a systematic fat loss plan to follow that is based on the science of metabolism, along with leptin and insulin sensitivity. Digestive health problems come from an imbalance between healthy probiotics and bad bacteria that is toxic to your system.
This video talks about the diseases and issues to your health that comes from toxic bugs in your belly, and what can be done to get rid of them to have the best possible digestive health. Learn how a unique blend of 5 special ingredients can help control your blood sugar and insulin levels when eating carbohydrates.
Many people assume that the only people at risk of heart disease are elderly, overweight men. Green lipped mussel powder is natural whole food source for omega-3 essentially fatty acids, which are nutrients that are known to inhibit and reduce inflammation. This website is an affiliate for some of the providers of goods and services mentioned on this website. The food we eat undergoes a number of  processes and thousands of chemical reactions before it gets digested completely.
It protects us against various microorganisms (bacteria and viruses) which enter our body via food; thus helps prevent infections. Too little stomach acid leads to indigestion and increased a chance of food borne infections. Too much acid secretion (also known as hyperacidity) leads to heart burn, stomach pain, nausea, vomiting, stomach ulcers etc. Because catabolic reactions produce energy and anabolic reactions use energy, ideally, energy usage would balance the energy produced.
Catabolic reactions break down large organic molecules into smaller molecules, releasing the energy contained in the chemical bonds.
Structurally, ATP molecules consist of an adenine, a ribose, and three phosphate groups ([link]). Sources of ATP During catabolic reactions, proteins are broken down into amino acids, lipids are broken down into fatty acids, and polysaccharides are broken down into monosaccharides. Among the lipids (fats), triglycerides are most often used for energy via a metabolic process called β-oxidation.
Proteins, which are polymers, can be broken down into their monomers, individual amino acids.
In contrast to catabolic reactions, anabolic reactions involve the joining of smaller molecules into larger ones. Hormonal Regulation of MetabolismCatabolic and anabolic hormones in the body help regulate metabolic processes.
Patients with Cushing syndrome can exhibit high blood glucose levels and are at an increased risk of becoming obese. The chemical reactions underlying metabolism involve the transfer of electrons from one compound to another by processes catalyzed by enzymes. Oxidation-reduction reactions are catalyzed by enzymes that trigger the removal of hydrogen atoms. Metabolism is the sum of all catabolic (break down) and anabolic (synthesis) reactions in the body. Catabolic reactions break down larger molecules, such as carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins from ingested food, into their constituent smaller parts. Anabolic reactions, or biosynthetic reactions, synthesize larger molecules from smaller constituent parts, using ATP as the energy source for these reactions. An increase or decrease in lean muscle mass will result in an increase or decrease in metabolism. Thu vi?n H?c li?u M? Vi?t Nam (VOER) du?c tai tr? b?i Vietnam Foundation va v?n hanh tren n?n t?ng Hanoi Spring. Homocysteine is not found in our diet, and thus the answer to why it represents such a problem lies in examining how it is produced in our bodies. When proteins are metabolized, they are broken down into individual amino acids, including the sulfur-containing amino acid methionine.


The importance of homocysteine to human health first came to light in the 1960s when a doctor named Kilmer McCully became interested in homocystinuria, a rare disease that results in high homocysteine levels in the blood.
In the meantime, cholesterol was getting all the press as the cause of cardiovascular disease.
Homocysteine, perhaps working in tandem with cholesterol, may indeed be behind the development of arterial plaques, which deposit where the wall of an artery has been damaged.
High levels of homocysteine have now also been linked to diseases that cause dementia such as Alzheimer’s Disease. As if all these studies pointing to the importance of homocysteine in human health are not enough, high homocysteine levels have even been proposed as causative agents for osteoporosis, a condition where bones become progressively weaker in postmenopausal women, and presbyopia, far sightedness due to aging.
Because folic acid supplements do significantly lower homocysteine levels in the blood stream, such proposals to add folic acid to foods have been made. This distinction means they cannot be produced by the body, and must be specifically included in foods or protein supplements – do not mistakenly take this to mean whether they are important or unimportant. While we make every effort to ensure the facts are correct, we are not a source of medical advice.
The process of digestion starts right from mouth whereas the major chunk is carried out by stomach and intestine. She has done her post graduation from Pune University and she is currently pursuing her PhD in area of Diabetes Prevention.
Metabolism is the sum of all of the chemical reactions that are involved in catabolism and anabolism. If the net energy change is positive (catabolic reactions release more energy than the anabolic reactions use), then the body stores the excess energy by building fat molecules for long-term storage. The chemical bond between the second and third phosphate groups, termed a high-energy bond, represents the greatest source of energy in a cell. During catabolic reactions, ATP is created and energy is stored until needed during anabolic reactions.The energy from ATP drives all bodily functions, such as contracting muscles, maintaining the electrical potential of nerve cells, and absorbing food in the gastrointestinal tract.
These building blocks are then used for the synthesis of molecules in anabolic reactions.Of the four major macromolecular groups (carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids) that are processed by digestion, carbohydrates are considered the most common source of energy to fuel the body. About one-half of excess fat is stored in adipocytes that accumulate in the subcutaneous tissue under the skin, whereas the rest is stored in adipocytes in other tissues and organs.
Amino acids can be used as building blocks of new proteins or broken down further for the production of ATP. During digestion, nucleic acids including DNA and various RNAs are broken down into their constituent nucleotides. Anabolic reactions combine monosaccharides to form polysaccharides, fatty acids to form triglycerides, amino acids to form proteins, and nucleotides to form nucleic acids.
Metabolic diseases are most commonly the result of malfunctioning proteins or enzymes that are critical to one or more metabolic pathways. They also show slow growth, accumulation of fat between the shoulders, weak muscles, bone pain (because cortisol causes proteins to be broken down to make glucose via gluconeogenesis), and fatigue. Adrenal insufficiency, or Addison’s disease, is characterized by the reduced production of cortisol from the adrenal gland.
The electrons in these reactions commonly come from hydrogen atoms, which consist of an electron and a proton.
They also include the breakdown of ATP, which releases the energy needed for metabolic processes in all cells throughout the body. Cac tai li?u d?u tuan th? gi?y phep Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 tr? khi ghi chu ro ngo?i l?. The story of homocysteine involves several more familiar nutritional players, the vitamins B6, B12, and B8 (more commonly known as folic acid).
Methionine is in turn broken down further in several steps to produce homocysteine, which, once formed, can be removed from the body in only two ways. It turned out that people with this condition often suffered from heart disease and strokes, even at a very young age. But although cholesterol is part of the sticky plaque material, it is has never been clear whether cholesterol itself is the culprit that breaks down the arterial wall in the first place.
Besides being suspected as a causative agent of atheroschlerosis, there are some early clues that homocysteine plays a role in proper brain function.
Deficiencies in vitamin B12 and folic acid have already been linked to neuropsychiatric disorders, although the biochemical reasons for these relationships remain to be worked out. Homocysteine has been identified as playing an important part in healthy fetal development.
Proponents note that the addition of vitamin B6 to the food supply has resulted in a gradual drop in death from cardiovascular causes since the 1960s. While high homocysteine levels are found in tandem with many ailments, proving a real biochemical connection between homocysteine and disease is important before serious recommendations can be made about diet and vitamin supplementation.
The stomach makes food easy to digest by breaking it down into fine particles and converting the complex structure of nutrients into the simpler ones. Measures such as- avoiding spicy foods, taking meals on time, including lots of fresh vegetables in the diet, quitting smoking, taking adequate sleep etc often help.
She works with Diabetes Unit, KEM Hospital (Pune), Just for Hearts (Pune), Moraya Multispeciality Hospital & Healing Hands Clinic (Chinchwad) etc. We are a team of volunteers and sfarting a new initiative in a community in the same niche.
The reactions governing the breakdown of food to obtain energy are called catabolic reactions. On the other hand, if the net energy change is negative (catabolic reactions release less energy than anabolic reactions use), the body uses stored energy to compensate for the deficiency of energy released by catabolism. They take the form of either complex carbohydrates, polysaccharides like starch and glycogen, or simple sugars (monosaccharides) like glucose and fructose.
When one is chronically starving, this use of amino acids for energy production can lead to a wasting away of the body, as more and more proteins are broken down. These nucleotides are readily absorbed and transported throughout the body to be used by individual cells during nucleic acid metabolism.
These processes require energy in the form of ATP molecules generated by catabolic reactions. Other symptoms include excessive sweating (hyperhidrosis), capillary dilation, and thinning of the skin, which can lead to easy bruising.
A molecule gives up a hydrogen atom, in the form of a hydrogen ion (H+) and an electron, breaking the molecule into smaller parts. The two most common coenzymes of oxidation-reduction reactions are nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD). An organism must ingest a sufficient amount of food to maintain its metabolic rate if the organism is to stay alive for very long. Oxidation-reduction reactions transfer electrons across molecules by oxidizing one molecule and reducing another, and collecting the released energy to convert Pi and ADP into ATP.
He wrote a paper describing several children with homocystinuria who had died of heart attacks. Now studies have shown that homocysteine damages the smooth vascular wall tissue, creating a scratch in the inside of the vessel where plaque can build up. When researchers looked at how nutrition could affect depression, they found that low levels of folic acid increased the symptoms of depression and prevented anti-depressant medications from working well. Now, although the research is still in its early stages, it seems that certain thinking skills, such as making sense of visual input and understanding spatial relationships, are decreased by high homocysteine levels. High maternal homocysteine levels in the bloodstream increase the chance of miscarriage, and of serious pregnancy complications such as pre-eclampsia and placental abruption.
Yet despite the mounting evidence that high homocysteine levels correlate to increased risk of heart attack, stroke, birth defects, mental health problems, and perhaps other ailments, studies still need to be done to determine if lowering homocysteine levels in the general population, perhaps by supplementing the food supply, could increase our health as a nation.
However, such plans are controversial, for one because folic acid supplements can mask the symptoms of pernicious anemia, a vitamin B12 deficiency that hampers the bone marrow’s ability to make blood, which can cause irreversible nerve damage.


Scientists will need to unearth more clues as to the harmful effects of homocysteine, and then hopefully come up with practical ideas to apply this knowledge for the health of everyone.
This is possible because of the churning movements of the stomach and the acid which stomach secretes. Conversely, anabolic reactions use the energy produced by catabolic reactions to synthesize larger molecules from smaller ones, such as when the body forms proteins by stringing together amino acids.
Approximately 40 percent of energy yielded from catabolic reactions is directly transferred to the high-energy molecule adenosine triphosphate (ATP).
The products of this reaction are a molecule of adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and a lone phosphate group (Pi). Anabolic reactions, also called biosynthesis reactions, create new molecules that form new cells and tissues, and revitalize organs. However, normally functioning proteins and enzymes can also have deleterious effects if their availability is not appropriately matched with metabolic need.
Patients with Addison’s disease may have low blood pressure, paleness, extreme weakness, fatigue, slow or sluggish movements, lightheadedness, and salt cravings due to the loss of sodium and high blood potassium levels (hyperkalemia). The loss of an electron, or oxidation, releases a small amount of energy; both the electron and the energy are then passed to another molecule in the process of reduction, or the gaining of an electron. Their respective reduced coenzymes are NADH and FADH2, which are energy-containing molecules used to transfer energy during the creation of ATP. Errors in metabolism alter the processing of carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids, and can result in a number of disease states.
As a result, the American Heart Association (AHA) has recently named homocysteine as a risk factor for heart attack and stroke.
However, while high cholesterol clearly increases the risk of having a heart attack, it has always been the case that many heart attack victims actually have normal cholesterol levels.
Although more research needs to be done, it looks like homocysteine causes toxic superoxide radicals to form in the blood, which in turn kill cells in the blood vessel walls. Of course because of the see-saw effect, patients with low folic acid levels have high levels of homocysteine, and these high homocysteine levels may themselves contribute to the problem. Such links of folic acid, vitamins B6, B12 and homocysteine to cognitive function suggest that good nutrition may help prevent, or at least delay, the onset of diseases such as Alzheimer’s, good news in an age where more and more people are living longer, healthier lives.
Such conditions can result in premature birth of the baby, low birth weight and, sadly, even the death of the baby or mother. Thankfully, in the absence of metabolic defects that keep homocysteine levels abnormally high, all the risks associated with high homocysteine levels seem to be avoidable with good nutrition.
ATP, the energy currency of cells, can be used immediately to power molecular machines that support cell, tissue, and organ function. ATP, ADP, and Pi are constantly being cycled through reactions that build ATP and store energy, and reactions that break down ATP and release energy. Among the monosaccharides, glucose is the most common fuel for ATP production in cells, and as such, there are a number of endocrine control mechanisms to regulate glucose concentration in the bloodstream. Anabolic hormones are required for the synthesis of molecules and include growth hormone, insulin-like growth factor, insulin, testosterone, and estrogen. For example, excessive production of the hormone cortisol (see [link]) gives rise to Cushing syndrome.
Depending on the cause of the excess, treatment may be as simple as discontinuing the use of cortisol ointments. Victims also may suffer from loss of appetite, chronic diarrhea, vomiting, mouth lesions, and patchy skin color. These two reactions always happen together in an oxidation-reduction reaction (also called a redox reaction)—when an electron is passed between molecules, the donor is oxidized and the recipient is reduced.
Now, new research is suggesting that homocysteine plays a part in such diverse health concerns as osteoporosis, depression, Alzheimer’s disease and pregnancy.
Secondly, homocysteine can be made into the amino acid cysteine through a process called transulfuration, a process that requires two enzymes to work in concert with vitamin B6. And thus there must be more to the story, and the search for answers has led back to those early observations by Dr. Homocysteine appears to inappropriately stimulate some nerve cell receptors, which can hinder normal brain function.
Clearly, preventing high homocysteine levels during pregnancy is important for the health of both mother and child. Excess glucose is either stored as an energy reserve in the liver and skeletal muscles as the complex polymer glycogen, or it is converted into fat (triglyceride) in adipose cells (adipocytes). Clinically, Cushing syndrome is characterized by rapid weight gain, especially in the trunk and face region, depression, and anxiety. Diagnosis typically involves blood tests and imaging tests of the adrenal and pituitary glands.
Oxidation-reduction reactions often happen in a series, so that a molecule that is reduced is subsequently oxidized, passing on not only the electron it just received but also the energy it received. To understand how one molecule can do so much, we need to take a closer look at this compound.
Thus, if a person ingests lots of protein, and there is not enough folic acid, B6 and B12 available to help digest it, homocysteine levels can build up in the blood stream.
He suggested that maybe the homocysteine had something to do with how these cholesterol deposits were formed inside the arteries. High homocysteine levels also lead to high levels of S-adenosylmethionine (SAM, which is needed to make neurotransmitter molecules) and S-adenosyl homocysteine (which inhibits the proper methylation of some brain chemicals). Luckily, because folic acid has gotten so much attention as a vital nutrient for preventing serious neural tube birth defects such as Spina Bifida, pregnant women and women planning to get pregnant are already routinely advised to take folic acid supplements, which has the added benefit of keeping homocysteine levels down as well. Vitamin B6 is found in starchy foods such as whole grains, potatoes, bananas, as well as turkey and tuna, and vitamin B12 is found in meat, seafood and dairy products. It is worth mentioning that tumors of the pituitary that produce adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), which subsequently stimulates the adrenal cortex to release excessive cortisol, produce similar effects. Where surgery is inappropriate, radiation therapy can be used to reduce the size of a tumor or ablate portions of the adrenal cortex.
As the series of reactions progresses, energy accumulates that is used to combine Pi and ADP to form ATP, the high-energy molecule that the body uses for fuel.
Although these findings were published in a good journal, they didn’t capture the imagination of medical researchers, and Dr. And as if that were not enough, homocysteine can also thiolate (add sulfur groups) to LDLs, which causes them to be even more sticky and also attracts more white blood cells.
Thus, elevated homocysteine levels may adversely affect a whole range of brain processes, and cause or worsen psychological abnormalities. The results from these studies that link high homocysteine levels with poor pregnancy outcomes now make taking those folic acid supplements during pregnancy doubly important. The remaining 60 percent of the energy released from catabolic reactions is given off as heat, which tissues and body fluids absorb. Increased levels of these vitamins in the blood stream result in a reduction of homocysteine levels. Of course because high homocysteine and low folic acid levels go hand in hand, it is hard to know which of these molecules is more important in combating depression. Indeed, studies have shown that oral folic acid supplements are effective in bringing homocysteine levels down. This evidence, and studies linking high homocysteine to both heart attack and clogging of the arteries (atheroschlerosis), finally prompted the AHA to add homocysteine to the more well known risk factors for heart disease (such as smoking, high blood pressure, high cholesterol levels, obesity and lack of exercise). In a seesaw effect, as folic acid levels rise in the blood stream, levels of homocysteine drop.




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