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Author: admin, 15.06.2015Negative punishment is the act of taking away something the dog wants as a way to decrease unwanted behavior. If not, it's time to brush up on your dog training knowledge and skills before administering punishment. Negative Association - All punishment runs the risk of creating a negative association to something in the environment - or the environment, itself - or the person that is handling the dog when the punishment is delivered. One example of how these methods increase stress involved a dog that suffered severe diarrhea at each training session with her former trainer, a man who used collar corrections on a prong collar, causing the dog to cry in pain.
Sensitization- Because traditional behavior modification methods involve setting the dog up to exhibit the undesired behavior and then punish it, the dog must be repeatedly exposed to the trigger that incites the behavior.
Positive training methods, on the other hand, work towards desensitizing the dog through carefully controlled, limited exposure.
The difference between the two types of trainers is that, although many of us were skilled in the use of aversive methods, reward-based trainers continued to learn from other professionals, stayed open-minded to the possibility that there were other ways and even better ways, and, eventually, we abandoned aversives as we learned how to better teach dogs to do what we want. Dog owners hide behind a tree, as their dogs wait with bags of food freely available. No aversives necessary!
Mention training methods to a group of dog trainers, and you might want to prepare for a fight at the dog park. A recent study in Germany measured the Cortisol (stress hormone) levels of dogs trained with shock collars.
The more a dog is exposed to a trigger and has a negative experience, the more likely the chance of sensitizing the dog, making the dog more sensitive to that trigger. Each exposure is paired with something pleasant, often food, which changes the dog's association to the trigger. Training your dog can help prevent whining, unnecessary barking, jumping, begging, chasing cars, pulling on a leash, and much more. The meat powder of course caused the dogs to salivate.Initially, the bell ringing was a completely unrelated event to the dogs salivating. In the dogs that received random, poorly timed shocks (much as would be delivered by the average dog owner), the Cortisol levels increased over 300% just by entering the room where the dogs had been shocked one month after the training had taken place. At the same time, the dog is taught an alternate, more acceptable behavior to perform when the trigger is present, such as looking at the owner instead of lunging or barking at another dog. But by repeating the ringing of the bell before the meat powder was given, the dogs learnt the bell ringing meant that meat was on its way.
As stress is the main cause of most behavior problems, increasing a dog's stress levels runs the risk of causing behavior problems that were not present or exacerbating existing problems. When your Labrador hears the rattle of the dog bowl, he starts to salivate, and when he sees you pick up his dog lead he gets frantically excited about going outside for a walk.
And this is where science based training stands apart from the traditional training methods.A science based trainer will have an understanding of the traditional methods, dominance theory and wolf pack theory.
But they know these theories have been debunked and proven false, that coercion and physical punishment is unnecessary and those methods can lead to dogs with suppressed personalities and only ‘obeying through fear’.Science based trainers try to train dogs in the most humane ways possible, taking into account the dogs psychological needs and natural ways of learning. They try to work with the dog and not merely try to rule them with an iron fist.And science based training is forever changing. As new studies are undertaken, new evidence comes to light and old theories are thrown out and new ones brought in, causing old methods to be thrown out and new ones adopted.The majority of science based training centers on operant conditioning, but many more factors are taken into account. For example, before trying to change a behavior, everything surrounding and leading up to it is first studied and understood.The world of science based training is so large that an entire library could be filled with the information available. I couldn’t begin to tackle the subject here fully, so for those that are interested, I can only suggest heading to Google where you’ll find many thousands of articles discussing the subject.Positive Reinforcement TrainingAlthough positive reinforcement is a part of operant conditioning, when used to describe a sole method of training it refers to a trainer who exclusively uses positive reinforcement and makes this the absolute pivotal method of their technique.
Good behaviors get rewarded, but bad or unwanted behaviors simply go ignored.I’ve read this method can work but it isn’t usually very effective because the dog is never told that a behavior is wrong.
It’s generally agreed some form of punishment simply must be used in conjunction.Negative Reinforcement TrainingThe word ‘negative’ here doesn’t mean bad and it certainly doesn’t mean being abusive to your dog. Karen Pryor was and is a real trailblazer when it comes to operant conditioning and clicker training, so the info on her site is second to none.ConclusionThis article touched upon a few of the main concepts you must use to train your Labrador effectively.
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