The final destination of a journey is not, after all, the last item on the agenda, but rather some understanding, however simple or provisional, of what one has seen. In these modern times, with the plethora of blood-sugar-related diseases, we need tools like GI and GL to help us understand ways to control blood sugar. The self-testing, graphic approach to food testing developed in the balance of the newsletter is a less scientific but a more dynamic way to explore postprandial (post-meal) blood glucose levels (BGLs). GI measures the blood glucose impact of foods eaten in isolation, yet we rarely consume foods this way. GI readings vary with the individual—blood sugar and insulin reactions are more extreme for diabetics, for example (See Charts 2A and 2B). GIs are calculated in the science lab as the day’s first meal after a 12-hour fast and using a fixed serving that includes 50 grams of carbohydrate.  Most of our daily calories, however, are consumed in combination and throughout the day, when our blood sugar is affected by other foods that we have eaten earlier, as well as by our level of activity.
Of the following numbered charts, the first three are based upon scientific research journal articles (Charts 1, 2A, 2B), while the last four (Charts 3-6) are constructed from my own self-testing of foods4 using a simple blood glucose monitor. Chart 1:  Blood Sugar Curves of White Bread Compared to Bread with Added Fiber, Sourdough, and Vinegar. Chart 3:  Instant Oatmeal, Whole Oats (Soaked and Not Soaked), and Whole Oats Combined with a Protein and Fat. To fully appreciate the impact of two back-to-back carbohydrate breakfasts please notice that the scale used for Chart 6 is twice that of Charts 3-5. Resetting the Table–to Control Blood Sugar (For a discussion of other strategies, see April 2011). Ramekins filled with condiments like nuts and seeds (GI=0).  Nuts and seeds provide healthy fats, fiber, vitamins, minerals, and antioxidants, while they slow digestion and curb blood sugar. Sourdough bread or whole-grain bread with whole kernels; butter from grass-fed cows and organic nut and seed butters such as tahini and pumpkin seed butter. A pitcher of water and glasses for all—sometimes we mistake hunger for what is in fact thirst.  You might flavor the water with a little lemon juice or other flavoring. For the dressing, mix and whisk together equal parts, shoyu, mirin, and tahini.  Add dressing to quinoa salad, toss and enjoy.
Because 12-hour fasting, pre-meal blood sugar reading can vary, all data points at time zero prior to the first morning meal were indexed to zero in order to illustrate the change from a neutral starting point. I use the label “traditional” carbohydrates, just as we call unrefined fats, “traditional” fats. Glycohemoglobin (hba1c, a1c) – webmd, Glycohemoglobin is a blood test that measures the amount of sugar (glucose) bound to hemoglobin. Glycohemoglobin (hba1c, a1c) – webmd, Increase their blood glucose levels have more glycohemoglobin (sugar bound to your a1c level in your target range can lower your normal?
Glycohemoglobin (hba1c, a1c): healthwise medical, People who have diabetes or other conditions that increase their blood glucose levels have more glycohemoglobin than normal.
Glycated hemoglobin – wikipedia, the free encyclopedia, Normal levels of glucose produce a normal amount of glycated hemoglobin. How to lower hemoglobin a1c levels – buzzle, Measuring the hemoglobin a1c levels is helpful in deciphering the risk involved in developing diabetes. Translating a1c to a blood sugar level – diabetes daily, A different perspective regarding what is happening behind the scenes with your weight when hemoglobin a1c intitially improves. A1c and eag: american diabetes association®, What is the difference between eag and the average on my monitor?
Home blood glucose (sugar) monitoring, hemoglobin a1c, Daily home blood glucose (sugar) monitoring tells you what your blood glucose level is at that very moment.


Comparison of blood glucose, hba1c , and fructosamine, np, The hemoglobin a1c is an important part of long term blood glucose monitoring. A1c chart: understanding the ac1 test, A brief, yet informative article explaining the a1c test, the a1c chart and how they are used in diagnosing, managing and treating patients with diabetes. Diabetes: fructosamine blood glucose level test, The fructosamine test is a blood test, like the a1c, except that it measures glycated protein in the blood instead of glycated hemoglobin. Diabetes chart- convert hba1c to equivalent blood glucose, Free printable charts and tools to better understand, track and manage your blood glucose.. Factors which determine the overall water weight of a human being include sex, age, mass and body fat percentage. The remaining one-third of body water is outside cells, in the extracellular fluid compartment (ECF). Exchange of gases, nutrients, water, and wastes between the three fluid compartments of the body.
In the image above, the ECF compartment is divisible in two compartments: (1) Plasma, the fluid portion of blood, and (2) interstitial fluid (IF), the fluid in the spaces between tissue cells. Nonelectrolytes have bonds (usually covalent bonds) that prevent them from disassociating in a solution. Electrolytes have much greater osmotic power than nonelectrolytes because each electrolyte molecule disassociates into at least two ions. Regardless of the type of solute particle, water always moves according to osmotic gradients — from an area of lesser osmolarity to an area of greater osmolarity.
If you look at the bar graph above you can see that each fluid compartment has a distinctive pattern of electrolytes.
Electrolytes are the most abundant solutes in body fluids and determine most of their chemical and physical reactions, but they do not constitute the bulk of dissolved solutes in these fluids. Osmotic and Hydrostatic pressures regulate the continuous exchange and mixing of body fluids.
Exchanges between the interstitial fluid and intracellular fluid occur across plasma membranes. If you study biology or medicine, having a solid understanding of homeostasis is extremely important. The second factor—the postwar shift from traditional to refined carbohydrates—is largely due to the growing role of the commercial food industry and processed, convenience foods.  Convenience foods must have a long shelf-life, so food companies rely upon refined flours and oils, which do not go rancid. Visual pictures of postprandial blood sugar behavior, while less scientific than GI measurements, are nevertheless powerful learning tools, providing a real flavor for how our body reacts when we eat different kinds of foods. This chart illustrates the second meal effect– that what we eat at one meal affects postprandial blood sugar behavior at the next. What we do to our children when we give them a sugary cereal or a Pop-tart for breakfast extends beyond this first meal to affect their blood sugar, hunger, concentration, and desire to overeat throughout the rest of the day.
One of the best herbs and spices to moderate blood sugar.  It can be sprinkled on hot cereals and desserts such as puddings, custards, and stewed fruits. Because of this, no electrically charged species are created when nonelectrolytes dissolve in water. For instance, a molecule of sodium chloride (NaCl) contributes twice as many solute particles as glucose, and a molecule of magnesium chloride (MgCl2) contributes three times as many.
Beside the relatively high protein content in plasma, the extracellular fluids are very similar.
Proteins and nonelectrolytes (phospholipids, cholesterol, and triglyceride) found in the ECF are large molecules.


Although water moves freely between the compartments along osmotic gradients, solutes are unequally distributed because of their size, electrical charge, or dependence on transport proteins. The hydrostatic pressure of blood forces nearly protein-free plasma out of the blood into the interstitial space.
Because water moves freely between compartments, however, the osmolarities of all body fluids are equal. Adipose (fat) tissue is the least hydrated tissue in the body (20% hydrated), even bone contains more water than fat. Most nonelectrolytes are organic molecules — lipids, glucose, urea, creatinine, for example.
For the most part, electrolytes include organic salts, some proteins, and both organic and inorganic acids and bases. They account for around 90% of the mass of dissolved solutes in plasma and 60% in the IF, and 97% in the ICF.
The image at the top of this article summarizes the exchanges of gases, solutes, and water between the three fluid compartments within the body. Compensating adjustments between the plasma and the other two fluid compartments follow quickly so that balance is restored.
The filtered fluid is then almost completely reabsorbed into the bloodstream in response to the colloid osmotic pressure of plasma proteins. Increasing the ECF solute content (mainly sodium chloride) causes osmotic and volume changes in the ICF — generally, a shift of water out of cells. This is why diabetes and obesity often go hand-in-hand (90% of diabetics are either overweight or obese). David Ludwig regarding high-glycemic foods and overeating, cited in the Recommended Reading section at the conclusion of this newsletter.
Total body water declines after infancy, and by the team one reaches old age, total body water is only about 45%. However, plasma contains fewer chloride molecules than interstitial fluid, because non-penetrating protein molecules are usually anions and plasma is electrically neutral.
In general, substances must pass through both the plasma and interstitial fluid to reach the intracellular fluid.
Under normal circumstances, lymphatic vessels pick up the small net leakage that remains behind in the interstitial space and return it to the blood. But ion fluxes are restricted and, in most cases, ions move selectively, by active transport or through channels. In contrast to extracellular fluid, intracellular fluid contains only small amounts of sodium and chloride.
Movements of nutrients, respiratory gases, and wastes are typically unidirectional (both ways).
In the graph above, notice that sodium and potassium ion concentrations in ECF and ICF are nearly opposite. The distribution of these ions on the two sides of cellular membranes reflects the activity of cellular ATP-dependant sodium-potassium pumps, which keep intracellular sodium concentrations low and potassium concentrations high.
Renal mechanisms can enforce ion distribution by secreting potassium into the filtrate as sodium is reabsorbed from the filtrate.



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Comments

  1. 02.02.2016 at 18:35:39


    Her - her family, friends and.

    Author: dracon
  2. 02.02.2016 at 20:31:37


    Wait 15 minutes and check your blood again.

    Author: dfd