Popular Articles 1 Understanding Blood Pressure Readings 2 Sodium and Salt 3 All About Heart Rate (Pulse) 4 What are the Symptoms of High Blood Pressure? This site complies with the HONcode standard for trustworthy health information: verify here. Ketoacidosis: A feature of uncontrolled diabetes mellitus characterized by a combination of ketosis and acidosis. Low blood sugar (hypoglycemia) can develop quickly in people with diabetes who are taking insulin.
Endocrine glands are ductless glands that produce and release hormones to the blood through diffusion. Endocrine glands may be strictly endocrine, such as the pituitary, thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal, pineal and thymus; or they may be organs that have hormone production as one of many functions, such as the pancreas, gonads, hypothalamus, and others. Hormones are long-distance chemical signals that are secreted by the cells to the extracellular fluid and regulate the metabolic functions of other cells. Most hormones are amino acid based, but gonadal and adrenocortical hormones are steroids, derived from cholesterol.
Water-soluble hormones (all amino acid-based hormones except thyroid hormone) exert their effects through an intracellular second messenger that is activated when a hormone binds to a membrane receptor.
Lipid-soluble hormones (steroids and thyroid hormone) diffuse into the cell, where they bind to intracellular receptors, migrate to the nucleus, and activate specific target sequences of DNA. Target cell response depends on three factors: blood levels of the hormone, relative numbers of target cell receptors, and affinity of the receptor for the hormone.
The concentration of a hormone reflects its rate of release, and the rate of inactivation and removal from the body. The half-life of a hormone is the duration of time a hormone remains in the blood, and is shortest for water-soluble hormones. Permissiveness occurs when one hormone cannot exert its full effect without another hormone being present (reproductive hormones need thyroxine to properly stimulate development of reproductive organs). Synergism occurs when more than one hormone produces the same effects in a target cell, and their combined effects are amplified (glucagon + epinephrine together stimulate more glucose release from the liver than when each acts alone). Antagonism occurs when one hormone opposes the action of another hormone (glucagon antagonizes insulin).
Nervous system modulation allows hormone secretion to be modified by the nervous stimulation in response to changing body needs.

The pituitary gland is connected to the hypothalamus via a stalk, the infundibulum, and consists of two lobes: the anterior pituitary, or adenohypophysis, and the posterior pituitary, or neurohypophysis. Two neurohormones are synthesized by the hypothalamus and secreted by the posterior pituitary.
Growth hormone (GH) indirectly (through insulin-like growth factors, IGFs) stimulates body cells to increase in size and divide.
Direct effects are insulin-sparing: mobilization of fatty acids for fuel, inhibition of insulin activity, release of glucose from liver to blood, and stimulation of amino acid uptake by cells. The thyroid gland consists of hollow follicles with follicle cells that produce thyroglobulin, and parafollicular cells that produce calcitonin. Thyroid hormone consists of two amine hormones: thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3), that act on all body cells to increase basal metabolic rate and body heat production. The parathyroid glands contain chief cells that secrete parathyroid hormone, or parathormone. The adrenal glands, or suprarenal glands, consist of two regions: an inner adrenal medulla and an outer adrenal cortex. The adrenal cortex produces corticosteroids from three distinct regions: the zona glomerulosa, the zona fasciculata, and the zona reticularis. The adrenal medulla contains chromaffin cells that synthesize epinephrine and norepinephrine (stimulus is acetylcholine released by preganglionic sympathetic fibers). Insulin is an anabolic hormone and will stimulate not only glucose uptake but also storage in the form of glycogen (glycogenesis), fat (lipogenesis) and amino acid incorporation into proteins (inhibits amino acid breakdown by liver to form new glucose molecules - gluconeogenesis). Stimuli for insulin release are primarily high blood glucose levels but insulin release is also potentiated by rising blood levels of amino acids and fatty acids and release of acetylcholine by parasympathetic neurons (all of these things happen after a meal). Glucagon is released by the pancreas in response to low blood glucose levels (primarily) and raises blood glucose levels back to within normal range by stimulating glycogenolysis, gluconeogenesis, and release of glucose to the blood by the liver. Indirectly receives input from the visual pathways in order to determine the timing of day and night. Adipose tissue produces leptin, which acts on the CNS to produce a feeling of satiety; secretion is proportional to fat stores.
Adipocytes also produce adiponectin, which enhances insulin activity, and resistin, an insulin antagonist.
Osteoblasts in bone produce osteocalcin, which stimulates pancreatic beta cells to divide and secrete more insulin.

Adiponectin levels are low in type II diabetes, suggesting higher levels may help reverse the insulin resistance characteristic of type II diabetes. Endocrine glands derived from mesoderm produce steroid hormones; those derived from ectoderm or endoderm produce amines, peptides, or protein hormones. Environmental pollutants have been demonstrated to have effects on sex hormones, thyroid hormone, and glucocorticoids. Extreme laziness in dogs is a bad sign as it can symbolize not just diabetes but any sickness that the dog is dealing with.
The stimulus for GHRH release is low blood levels of GH as well as hypoglycemia, low blood levels of fatty acids, and high blood levels of amino acids.
Hypersecretion of GH in childhood results in gigantism; in adulthood hypersecretion of GH causes acromegaly (increase in size of flat bones after epiphyseal plates of long bones have sealed).
Thryroid releasing hormone (TRH) from the hypothalamus stimulates TSH release; Thyroid hormone (Thyroxine) exerts negative feedback control of both TRH and TSH. Excretion of ketoacids (with their negative charge) by the kidney is accompanied by loss of cations, particularly K+ and Na+.
Secretion of resistin is proportional to fat stores; secretion of adiponectin is inversely proportional to fat stores. Type 1 diabetes can occur at any age, but it is most often diagnosed in children, adolescents, or young adults.Insulin is a hormone produced by special cells, called beta cells, in the pancreas, an organ located in the area behind your stomach. If caught early on, its damage can be reversed – ┬ábut if not the dog will die or be crippled for life. Insulin is needed to move blood sugar (glucose) into cells, where it is stored and later used for energy. In type 1 diabetes, these cells produce little or no insulin.Without enough insulin, glucose builds up in the bloodstream instead of going into the cells.
It may require the administration of intravenous fluids, insulin, and glucose, and the institution of changes in the person's diet. See also diabetes mellitus and ketone bodies. If you suspect diabetes in your dog, check with a veterinarian and have them take a look before it is to late.

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