Extended IL-22 treatment in HFDIO restores glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity, normalizes islet insulin secretion and suppresses oxidative stress, ER stress and inflammation. Figure 5: Extended IL-22 treatment in HFDIO restores glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity, normalizes islet insulin secretion and suppresses oxidative stress, ER stress and inflammation. Mucosal Diseases Group, Mater Research Institute–The University of Queensland, Translational Research Institute, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia. Metabolic Medicine Group, Mater Research Institute–The University of Queensland, Translational Research Institute, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia.
MIN6N8 cells were loaded with dihydroethidium (DHE) which fluoresces and binds DNA after oxidation by O2 – and the nuclear dye DAPI. Video 4: DHE activation in cells treated with IL-23 following a 30 min pretreatment with IL-22. The original TIFF images were compressed into JPG format to prepare the videos to reduce file size. Other changes would also occur as consequence of circadian rhythm, caused by cortisol fluctuations (Wright et al. Some parameter ranges were similar to those obtained in amphibians, birds or mammals; others were very different. Both postprandial and circadian effects were excluded from the present study design due to previous fast and basal condition of samples, and also because blood extraction was carried out in uniform morning hours. These parameters are useful to evaluate sanitary, metabolic and nutritional state on captive bullfrogs. Scarce regulation mechanisms and higher tolerance to hemodilution and hemoconcentration, would cause a great oscillation of blood values in frogs (Goldstein 1982).
Specimens present in Argentina come from genetic lines imported from Brazil, and they are adapted to the tropical climate (Roman 1994). There are more than 200 bullfrog hatcheries in Argentina which produce meat marketed at a high price (Carnevia 1995). The bullfrog is characterized by its size; in captivity it can reach 300 g liveweight after 12 months. Since aging causes a decrease in the food conversion index, frogs are sacrificed when they are 6-7 months old and weigh 170-180 g (Lima and Agostinho 1992). This frog is generally fed with balanced pellets which are similar to those elaborated for fish as its true nutritional requirements are still unknown (Carnevia 1995). Nevertheless, the climate of this area is mainly warm and it favors hatcheries to respond the main market demand, that is, the continuity of production along the year (Roman 1994). Indoor captivity is the system chosen to rear this animal as escapes would be dangerous to the ecosystem. When it settles in any lagoon, the original aquatic fauna could rapidly become extinct due to the high food consumption (Lima and Agostinho 1992) of this species in which cannibalism would not be unusual (Longo 1985).
Coccidia, as Babesiosoma stableri, would be located inside erythrocytes; Lankesterella minima would also parasite tad-poles and adult frog RBC (Desser et al.
Hematocrit would decrease in anemias, and it would increase in dehydration and postprandial stage. Hematocrit and hemoglobin would diminish as a consequence of alimentary deficiencies and prolonged fast (Singh 1978).
Erythrocytes indicators in the nutritional state panel show a decrease owing to insufficient protein, vitamins B12, E, niacin and folic acid intake (Kolb 1987).
1998), as well as eicosanoids (Herman and Luczy 1999) and natriuretc peptides synthesis increase (Uchiyama et al. Appropriate erythropoiesis would require a continuous and balanced affluence of minerals such as Fe, Cu, Co and Se; nutritional lacks would also provoke hematocrit and hemoglobin decrease (Jain 1993). 1998) have active participation in acclimatization mechanisms and corporal fluid retention in R. However, this ratio was similar to those published on carnivorous and monogastric herbivores (58-64%, Coppo 2001; 60-75%, Kolb 1987, Coles 1989, and 60-77%, Jain 1993).
Samples from 90 frogs (9-21 months old, 50-350 g liveweight, 50% each sex), were taken in each breeding place. Thirty six per cent of the samples was taken during winter time, and 64% during the remaining seasons.
The 32 remaining animals were reared on an extensive system (semi-captivity), in a closed lagoon where frogs selected exclusively "natural" food. Amphibian leukocytes may possess properties different to those of mammals, because temperature would greatly affect the cellular inflammatory response (Dias and Catao-Dias 1989). The sample was a venose and arterial blood mixture, since frogs, with their anatomical characteristic, possess a unique ventricle (Goldstein 1982).

There was a previous blood hemolysis and centrifugation to eliminate erythrocyte nuclei, and hemoglobin was later evaluated by photocolorimetry (Drabkin technique, using Wiener Lab reagents). The obtained bleeding time (341 s = 5.7 min) was similar to those published on human beings and domestic mammals (2-5 min, Kaneko 1989, Coles 1989, Coppo 2001).
Red blood cells (RBC) concentration was determined by means of Neubauer hemocytometer microscopic count using Biopur diluters, and the packed cell volume (PCV, hematocrit) was measured by capillary centrifugation (12 000 g, 5 min). White blood cells (WBC) concentration was obtained from stained smear count (Giemsa), considering corrections according to PCV value. Erythrocyte indices such as mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), and MCH concentration (MCHC), were obtained by conventional calculation.
In coagulative anomalies is also important to determine the plasma fibrinogen concentration, to discard eventual hypo-, dis-, and a-fibrinogenemias provoked by hemorrhagic diathesis, hepatopathies, and malnutrition (Kaneko 1989, Pesce and Kaplan 1990). Fibrinogen was calculated by the difference between plasma and serum proteins (Coles 1989), using an Erma-D refractometer. Amphibian thrombocytes would provide the necessary factors to form thromboplastin, which would transform fibrinogen into fibrin (Eckert 1992, Curtis and Barnes 2001). Urinalysis (density, pH, sediment, and chemical composition) was carried out by conventional laboratory techniques (Coppo 2001).
Sodium and potassium were evaluated using Biopur reagents, in a Metrolab 305-D flame photometer.
The separation of proteins (albumin and alpha, beta and gamma globulins, on cellulose acetate) and lipoproteins (alpha and beta, on agarose gel) was carried out by electrophoresis (Pesce and Kaplan 1990).
Parametric descriptive statistics included measures of central tendency (arithmetic mean, x), dispersion (standard deviation, SD) and ranges. The extremely low density obtained confirms that the urine of this frog is significantly hyposmotic. Recent studies demonstrate that urinary vesical wall has the ability to regulate its water permeability (Candia et al. Confidence intervals were adjusted around arithmetic means, but individual ranges were wide.
Protection against water loss is mainly based on the oliguria: urine will concentrate until it is isosmotic in relation to plasma.
No amphibian can produce urine which could be hyperosmotic in relation to blood (Wilson 1989).
Urine concentration mechanisms based on solutes resorption (until they are hypertonic to plasma), are characteristic of mammals, not amphibian.
It is acid (up to 5) on carnivores, and alkaline on herbivores (up to 8.4) (Kaneko 1989, Coles 1989). Urinary pH would be from 5-8 on birds, diminishing up to 4.7 in aquatic species when they are submerged (Coles 1989). Glucose tubular resorption would be total in this species, because its presence in urine was not verified in any of the cases; glucosuria is abnormal in all domestic animals (Coles 1989, Kolb 1989).
Urobilinogen found in the urine of the studied frogs would be normal, because it is the hemoglobin metabolism terminal product; it is habitually present in urine of both carnivorous and herbivores species (Coppo 2001). Germs and cylinders presence is abnormal on mammalsA’ urine, but the existence of epithelial (genital and urinary) cells is usual, as well as some leukocytes, such as those found in frogs. The presence of abundant phosphate, carbonate and urate crystals reported respectively in carnivores, herbivores and birds (Coles 1989), contrasts with the absence of crystals in the urine of these frogs. Plasma proteins intervene in acid-base balance, immunity, coagulation, colloid-osmotic pressure, and blood viscosity; they also transport hormones, vitamins, lipids, bilirubin, calcium, zinc, iron and copper (Kolb 1987, Kaneko 1989). Albumins are excellent indicators of protein biosynthesis; they also operate as nutritional reserve of amino acids, which would be habitually exchanged between plasma and tissues, mainly in skeletal muscles (Coppo 2001). Proteinogram is of clinical interest because it facilitates the diagnosis towards alterations such as alimentary lacks, malabsorption, hepatopathies, inflammations, and renal, coagulative, and immunologic dysfunctions (Coles 1989, Pesce and Kaplan 1990, Coppo 2001). Uric acid is the excretion residue of nucleic acids (mammals), and proteins (birds) (Kolb 1987, Coppo 2001).
Environment salinity increase would cause urea retention because it increases the urea hepatic synthesis and decreases the urea renal excretion.
This fact could be proved in Rana cancrivora specimens exposed to fresh water versus sea water. This clearly indicates that frogs utilize urea to maintain their hyperosmolarity with the environment (Wilson 1989). In hatcheries, several infections, intoxications, and parasitosis (myxosporea) affect frogs kidneys; in the same sense, certain metabolic illnesses cause renal obstruction with NPN retention (Lima and Agostinho 1992). Canine, feline, equine, ruminant and some rodents would have "HDL pattern", characterized by plasma alpha lipoprotein pre-dominance.

When these animals are fed on fatty diets, cholesterol is linked by HDL rather than LDL, avoiding noxious effects due to protective action attributable to HDL.
Human beings, pigs, rabbits, marmots, and several monkey species, would respond to the "LDL pattern", because when they consume fat, they increase their beta lipoprotein and they are exposed to a major atherogenic risk (Bauer 1997, Coppo 2001).
Bearing in mind that C-LDL level was higher than C-HDL level, and that alpha lipo-protein ratio was lower than beta lipoprotein ratio, frogs would join in the "LDL pattern" rather than the "HDL pattern". Cholesterol would rise in the initial phase of starvation (due to high fat mobilization), but in case of prolonged fast its plasma concentration tends to decrease (Kaneko 1989, Coles 1989, Pesce and Kaplan 1990, Coppo 2001). Plasma glucose would be regulated through insulin, glucagon, adrenaline, cortisol, and thyroid hormones (Curtis and Barnes 2001). Physiologically, glucemia might vary by effects of age and physical exercise; pathologically it would alter in malnutrition, stress, and endocrine and hepatic failures (Coles 1989, Kaneko 1989, Coppo 2001). The kalemia reported on amphibians was approximately similar to that found in this trial on R. Fresh water frogs are hyperosmotic in its environment, that is the reason why they tend to incorporate water by the skin and decrease their corporal saline concentration (Goldstein 1982). Homeostasis is achieved with abundant hypotonic urine and an increase in electrolytes tubular resorption and salt cutaneous absorption (Eckert 1992). Mineral nutritional deficiencies are frequent in frog hatcheries, especially related to calcium lack, which provokes osseous malformations (Lima and Agostinho 1992). The effect of anesthesia or the employment of another technique for the enzymatic assay could be the cause of such difference. During normal bone growth in young animals, a large amount of ALP is in plasma; osteopathies also results in increased plasma ALP.
Recently, GGT has been found to be liver specific and is used as an indicator of hepatobiliary disease.
Increased plasma AST is associated with cell necrosis of the liver and skeletal or cardiac muscle, starvation and lack of vitamin E. CHE is originated in liver, pancreas, intestinal mucosa and brain; decrease in CHE has been reported in liver failure, muscular dystrophy, chronic renal disease and organophosphate insecticide intoxication (Coles 1989, Kaneko 1989, Pesce and Kaplan 1990, Coppo 2001). In spite of the close phylogenic relationship between amphibians and birds, some parameters were quite different (RBC, hemoglobin, MCV, lymphocytes, creatinine, glucose, ALP, urinary density and sediment). Several frog blood values were similar to those found in human beings (ALT, GGT, bleeding and coagulation time), and both domestic monogastric (neutrophils, lymphocytes, LDL-C, Cl, LDH) and polygastric mammals (fibrinogen, AST).
Algunos intervalos fueron semejantes a los obtenidos en anfibios, aves o mamA­feros, pero otros resultaron muy diferentes. Estos parA?metros son A?tiles para evaluar estados sanitario, metabA?lico y nutricional de la rana toro en cautiverio.
Localization and changes in distribution of brain alpha 2 and beta-adrenoceptors in response to acclimation state in american bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana). Seasonal changes in the cardiorespiratory responses to hypercarbia and temperature in the bullfrog, Rana catesbeiana. Effects of feeding on metabolism, gas transport, and acid-base balance in the bullfrog, Rana catesbeiana. Ultraestructural observations on the developmental stages of Lankesterella minima (Apicomplexa) in experimentally infected Rana catesbeiana tadpoles. Influence of temperature on the inflammatory cell response induced experimentally with a foreign body in the tail of giant bullfrog tadpoles, Rana catesbeiana.
ExplotaciA?n diferencial de los recursos trA?ficos en cuatro especies de bufonidos del nordeste argentino. Bioaccumulation of polychlorinated biphenyls in ranid frogs and northern water snakes from a hazardous waste site and a contaminated watershed. Helminths of two native frog species (Rana chiricahuensis, Rana yavapaiensis) and one introduced frog species (Rana catesbeiana) from Arizona. Acute and chronic toxicity of ammonium nitrate fertilizer to amphibians from southern Ontario. Physiological significance of behavioral hypothermia in hypoglycemic frogs (Rana catesbeiana). Effects of homologous natriuretic peptides in isolated skin of the bullfrog, Rana catesbeiana.
Influence of cortisol on the larval bullfrog thyroid axis in vitro and in vivo and on plasma and ocular melatonin.

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