HOW DO YOU KNOW WHAT LDL YOU HAVE?  Certain clinical factors predict the presence of small dense LDL.
To determine LDL particle size, ask your doctor for a VAP (Vertical Auto Profile) test, which separates lipoprotein particles using a high speed centrifuge. If you don’t have insurance and can pay for just one test, get your fasting blood sugar checked. Why just focus on surogate markers, which in their own right are quite imperfect at predicting much of anything?
Thanks for a good article but I do believe bill above has a very important point in that risk factors are not the disease. He did say that the arteries could create collateral arteries and she might be completely fine in not having any procedure done.
I was a little confused about potatoes, are they okay or is cooking them a certain way (boiled instead of baked?) a healthier way to cook them?
People with diet-related heart disease can eat potatoes (not restaurant French fries prepared in unstable vegetable fat that contains excess omega 6). Excess refined carbohydrates and excess vegetable fats (containing excess omega 6 linoleic acid) are the twin culprits in plaquing up our bodies. Diabetics all differ from person to person because everyone has to take various things into consideration such as weight, height, health and family medical history as well as their gender, males may need more of a calorie intake to get through the day versus a female and an elderly person who doesn’t get much exercise may be able to get through the day with a lower blood glucose reading than one that gets out and about all the time and is really active. It is hard for some doctor’s to pinpoint what a normal range for blood glucose may be or for a normal range fasting blood glucose but for many they throw it all out there and have a standard chart that they go by, which is standard normal range for everyone. While diabetics need to be careful and monitor their normal range for blood glucose levels carefully and make sure that they don’t get hypoglycemic, which is low blood sugar and can cause hunger, fainting, shaking, etc. Healthy people, diabetics and everyone else needs to monitor for a normal range cholesterol. By keeping yourself healthy so that you can have a normal range cholesterol and also a normal range for blood glucose is an important part of living a long and healthy life.
One of the principal areas of concern for exercise professionals is assessing, recognizing and explaining disease risk factors and other physiological variables for clients. Cholesterol, which is vital to the body, is used to assemble cell membranes, produce sex hormones and form bile acids (bile acids are required for the digestion of fats).
Current research additionally suggests that inflammation plays a role in the formation of atherosclerosis (American Heart Association [AHA] 2010). Body composition measurement is a key evaluation variable to monitor and assess for a client’s physical fitness and health profile. Maximal oxygen uptake (commonly termed VO2max) is the most relevant measure of the cardiorespiratory system’s functional capacity. High blood pressure, or hypertension, continues to be a clinical risk factor for cardiovascular-related diseases, such as coronary heart disease, heart attack and stroke. The A1c (the molecule’s chemical components) test is a clinical measurement of glycemic control via a process called glycosylated hemoglobin, or HbA1c. Metabolic syndrome is a rather complex and progressive cluster of clinical disorders that increase the risk for cardiovascular disease and diabetes if a person has three or more of these risk factors.
Clients may bring their medical reports to personal trainers for further explanation and discussion.
Given the importance of the many clinical and physiological numbers discussed here, exercise professionals can provide education and promote action steps to improve well-being.
Len Kravitz, PhD, is the program coordinator of exercise science and a researcher at the University of New Mexico in Albuquerque, where he recently won the Outstanding Teacher of the Year award. Hypoglycemia, also called low blood glucose or low blood sugar, occurs when blood glucose drops below normal levels.
After a meal, glucose is absorbed into the bloodstream and carried to the body’s cells. In adults and children older than 10 years, hypoglycemia is uncommon except as a side effect of diabetes treatment. Diabetes treatment plans are designed to match the dose and timing of medication to a person’s usual schedule of meals and activities. People who experience hypoglycemia several times in a week should call their health care provider. When people think their blood glucose is too low, they should check the blood glucose level of a blood sample using a meter. Physical activity has many benefits for people with diabetes, including lowering blood glucose levels.
Some people with diabetes do not have early warning signs of low blood glucose, a condition called hypoglycemia unawareness. Hypoglycemia unawareness develops when frequent episodes of hypoglycemia lead to changes in how the body reacts to low blood glucose levels.
Epinephrine causes early warning symptoms of hypoglycemia such as shakiness, sweating, anxiety, and hunger.
Reactive hypoglycemia, also called postprandial hypoglycemia, occurs within 4 hours after meals.
Fasting hypoglycemia, also called postabsorptive hypoglycemia, is often related to an underlying disease. Symptoms of both reactive and fasting hypoglycemia are similar to diabetes-related hypoglycemia.
Causes and TreatmentThe causes of most cases of reactive hypoglycemia are still open to debate. The doctor can refer patients to a registered dietitian for personalized meal planning advice. Causes and TreatmentCauses of fasting hypoglycemia include certain medications, alcoholic beverages, critical illnesses, hormonal deficiencies, some kinds of tumors, and certain conditions occurring in infancy and childhood. If using any of these medications causes a person’s blood glucose level to fall, the doctor may advise stopping the medication or changing the dose.
Brief intolerance to fasting, often during an illness that disturbs regular eating patterns. Hope through ResearchThe National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) was established by Congress in 1950 as one of the National Institutes of Health of the U.S.
Seek Wellness is a leader in the development of targeted health care information on the Internet.
Vacuum Blood Collection Tube----- Glucose Tube, View glucose tube, grey topped tube from Guangzhou Technology Co.,Ltd. About 50 percent of all people who die suddenly from heart disease have low or normal cholesterol.
Lipoprotein(a) has been called the “heart attack cholesterol.” Lipoprotein(a) is a sticky protein that attaches to LDL and accumulates rapidly at the site of arterial lesions or ruptured plaque. HDL is made in the liver and acts as a cholesterol mop, scavenging loose cholesterol and transporting it back to the liver for recycling.
A lot of people with elevated LDL do not develop coronary artery disease, while individuals with low or modest levels often develop serious disease.  This can be explained by the LDL particle number and size.
Under an electron microscope, some LDL particles appear large and fluffy; others small and dense.


It’s becoming consensus medical opinion that only oxidized LDL can enter the macrophages in the lining of the arteries and contribute to plaque buildup. The VAP test measures the basic information provided by a routine cholesterol test, but also identifies lipoprotein subclasses, LDL and HDL. I was actually in the process of producing something very similar to this as a quick reference for my clients; you have saved me some work here! Coronary artery plaque is the disease and to date the very best way to access this killer is to measure calcified plaque in the arteries using a CAC scan. As an example, eating eggs and bacon for breakfast will boost HDL and reduce triglycerides; eating box cereal with skim milk will promote triglycerides and reduce HDL. I know it’s not ideal (she has a pacemaker and hypertension) but I asked him about it as an option because of the risks of having balloon surgery.
The next big step will be with grains & carbs which I know will be more difficult for her, she has cut back some already, so there is hope. People who are sensitive to carbs or are pre-diabetic or diabetic may need to avoid potatoes and stick with salad vegetables – eating potatoes only occasionally. High cholesterol can stem from many things such as eating too high fatty foods, too much grease, too much junk food, etc. From these evaluations and with the collaboration of medical professionals, personal trainers have a unique yet challenging opportunity to guide and encourage clients to make behavioral and lifestyle changes.
When certain blood cholesterol levels are elevated, some of the excess is deposited in the arterial walls, increasing the risk of heart disease (see Table 1). C-reactive protein (CRP), a substance the body produces in response to inflammation and infection, serves as a very good marker (or indicator) for heart disease risk. It is the highest rate at which oxygen can be consumed, distributed and used by the body during exercise.
The classification values for the ranges of blood pressure for adults can be seen in Table 5. The three different tests that can be used to determine if a person has pre-diabetes or diabetes are the fasting blood glucose test, the oral glucose tolerance test and the A1c test (see Tables 6–8). This type of test helps to detect average blood glucose concentrations over several months.
The National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP), WHO and the AHA have slightly different criteria for this cluster of diseases.
While you can certainly use such data to build a well-rounded look at your clients’ challenges, know your professional scope of practice and encourage them to discuss specific questions about their numbers with their physician. Playing the numbers game helps trainers and instructors take a proactive and communicative approach with clients in their journey toward optimal health. It is usually mild and can be treated quickly and easily by eating or drinking a small amount of glucose-rich food.
Hypoglycemia can also result, however, from other medications or diseases, hormone or enzyme deficiencies, or tumors. A health care provider can explain which diabetes medications can cause hypoglycemia and explain how and when to take medications. A registered dietitian can help design a meal plan that fits one’s personal preferences and lifestyle. Drinking alcoholic beverages, especially on an empty stomach, can cause hypoglycemia, even a day or two later. Those whose goal is tight control should talk with a health care provider about ways to prevent hypoglycemia and how best to treat it if it occurs.
People with diabetes should get to know their signs and symptoms and describe them to their friends and family so they can help if needed. They may need a change in their treatment plan: less medication or a different medication, a new schedule for insulin or medication, a different meal plan, or a new physical activity plan.
However, physical activity can make levels too low and can cause hypoglycemia up to 24 hours afterward. People with hypoglycemia may have trouble concentrating or seeing clearly behind the wheel and may not be able to react quickly to road hazards or to the actions of other drivers.
This condition occurs most often in people with type 1 diabetes, but it can also occur in people with type 2 diabetes. The body stops releasing the hormone epinephrine and other stress hormones when blood glucose drops too low. Without the release of epinephrine and the symptoms it causes, a person may not realize that hypoglycemia is occurring and may not take action to treat it.
Symptoms may include hunger, sweating, shakiness, dizziness, light-headedness, sleepiness, confusion, difficulty speaking, anxiety, and weakness. The oral glucose tolerance test is no longer used to diagnose reactive hypoglycemia because experts now know the test can actually trigger hypoglycemic symptoms.
Some researchers suggest that certain people may be more sensitive to the body’s normal release of the hormone epinephrine, which causes many of the symptoms of hypoglycemia.
Although some health professionals recommend a diet high in protein and low in carbohydrates, studies have not proven the effectiveness of this kind of diet to treat reactive hypoglycemia. Medications, including some used to treat diabetes, are the most common cause of hypoglycemia. This condition can result in temporary hypoglycemia in newborns, which is common in infants of mothers with diabetes.
These deficiencies can interfere with the body’s ability to process natural sugars, such as fructose and galactose, glycogen, or other metabolites. Specializing in pelvic health and wellness information and backed by leading healthcare professionals, Seek Wellness develops and implements consumer-oriented programs and services. If monitored early enough, elevated CRP can be an early warning of a heart attack several years in advance. Elevated homocysteine is a result of B-vitamin deficiencies, particularly folic acid, B-6 and B-12. Triglycerides are blood fats made in the liver from excess energy – especially carbohydrates.
The big, fluffy particles are benign, while the small dense particles are strongly associated with increased risk of heart disease.
At the same time, however, people need to be prepared for the statin sales pitch they will likely get at their doctor’s office. There’s plenty of evidence that high carbohydrate diets are associated with elevated blood sugar, high insulin, elevated triglycerides and depressed HDL. In 21 Days to a Healthy Heart, the case study Maria reversed type II diabetes using an Atkins-style diet (confirmed by the Mayo Clinic). Because they are a relatively fast release of sugar in the gut (high glycemic), it makes sense to combine them with a source of natural fat.
Ele-vated blood triglycerides (fats) are also an underlying cause of coronary heart disease, as some fat particles can collect on arterial walls and lead to atherosclerotic plaque. The blood vessel test for inflammation is called the high-sensitivity CRP, or hs-CRP, test.
Note: When systolic and diastolic pressures fall into different categories, choose the higher category for classification.


Collaborate with the physician to construct appropriate programs for clients with specific medical challenges.
If a person takes in more glucose than the body needs at the time, the body stores the extra glucose in the liver and muscles in a form called glycogen.
In some people with diabetes, this glucagon response to hypoglycemia is impaired and other hormones such as epinephrine, also called adrenaline, may raise the blood glucose level.
If left untreated, hypoglycemia can get worse and cause confusion, clumsiness, or fainting. For good diabetes management, people with diabetes should take diabetes medications in the recommended doses at the recommended times. Heavy drinking can be particularly dangerous for people taking insulin or medications that increase insulin production. School staff should be told how to recognize a child’s signs and symptoms of hypoglycemia and how to treat it. To prevent problems, people at risk for hypoglycemia should check their blood glucose level before driving.
People with hypoglycemia unawareness may need to check their blood glucose level more often so they know when hypoglycemia is about to occur.
The loss of the body’s ability to release stress hormones after repeated episodes of hypoglycemia is called hypoglycemia-associated autonomic failure, or HAAF. A vicious cycle can occur in which frequent hypoglycemia leads to hypoglycemia unawareness and HAAF, which in turn leads to even more severe and dangerous hypoglycemia. Rare enzyme deficiencies diagnosed early in life, such as hereditary fructose intolerance, also may cause reactive hypoglycemia. Sepsis, which is an overwhelming infection, and starvation are other causes of hypoglycemia. Shortages of cortisol, growth hormone, glucagon, or epinephrine can lead to fasting hypoglycemia. Insulinomas can cause hypoglycemia by raising insulin levels too high in relation to the blood glucose level. Persistent hyperinsulinism in infants or children is a complex disorder that requires prompt evaluation and treatment by a specialist.
The NIDDK conducts and supports research in diabetes, glucose metabolism, and related conditions. A discussion about LDL subclasses and LDL subclass testing follows in the summary of this article. Elevated homocysteine is associated with increased risk of heart attack, stroke, and all cause mortality.
While the Lp(a) level is largely genetically determined, it can be influenced by nutritional factors, such as high blood sugar and trans fatty acid consumption.
As an example, if TG = 80 and HDL = 80, your ratio is 1:1 representing low risk of heart disease. Frying them in lard or using sour cream and butter on baked potatoes slows the sugar-release and adds nutrition. If that number gets too high then you are putting yourself in harm’s way and taking the chance or risks of a heart attack or stroke. Table 4 displays VO2max value ranges for both men and women by 10-year age stratifications. For example, if a client’s systolic blood pressure is 125 mm HG (millimeters of mercury) and the diastolic blood pressure is 95 mm HG, then the classification for this client is stage 1 hypertension. Table 10 provides other selected blood variables (with normal values) and a brief description about each variable. Rice, potatoes, bread, tortillas, cereal, milk, fruit, and sweets are all carbohydrate-rich foods. But with diabetes treated with insulin or pills that increase insulin production, glucose levels can’t easily return to the normal range. In some cases, health care providers may suggest that patients learn how to adjust medications to match changes in their schedule or routine.
People with diabetes should eat regular meals, have enough food at each meal, and try not to skip meals or snacks. Studies have shown that preventing hypoglycemia for a period as short as several weeks can sometimes break this cycle and restore awareness of symptoms.
In these cases, treating the illness or other underlying cause will correct the hypoglycemia. Researchers supported by the NIDDK are investigating topics such as the causes of hypoglycemia and whether use of continuous glucose monitoring devices can help prevent hypoglycemia.Participants in clinical trials can play a more active role in their own health care, gain access to new research treatments before they are widely available, and help others by contributing to medical research.
Because Total Cholesterol (TC) and LDL cholesterol are not the most reliable predictors of heart disease, they are not posted in the following chart. If your TG = 200 and your HDL = 50, your ratio is 4:1 representing serious risk of heart disease. Glucagon will rapidly bring the blood glucose level back to normal and help the person regain consciousness. Health care providers may therefore advise people who have had severe hypoglycemia to aim for higher-than-usual blood glucose targets for short-term periods.
It worked for Maria – it can work for others too who are overweight, pre-diabetic, and clot-prone. The health care provider may suggest extra blood glucose checks, especially after strenuous exercise.
Treatment involves both short-term steps to correct the hypoglycemia and medical or surgical measures to remove the tumor.
Trade, proprietary, or company names appearing in this document are used only because they are considered necessary in the context of the information provided. If a product is not mentioned, the omission does not mean or imply that the product is unsatisfactory.
Established in 1978, the Clearinghouse provides information about diabetes to people with diabetes and to their families, health care professionals, and the public.
The NDIC answers inquiries, develops and distributes publications, and works closely with professional and patient organizations and Government agencies to coordinate resources about diabetes.Publications produced by the Clearinghouse are carefully reviewed by both NIDDK scientists and outside experts. Executive summary of the third report of The National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) Expert Panel on detection, evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults (Adult Treatment Panel III). The Clearinghouse encourages users of this publication to duplicate and distribute as many copies as desired.NIH Publication No. Seventh report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure. Executive summary of the third report of the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) Expert Panel on detection, evaluation and treatment of high blood cholesterol in adults (Adult Treatment Panel III).



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Comments

  1. 23.06.2015 at 19:44:19


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    Author: BoneS
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