Hba1c – normal range, chart, blood test values, What is hba1c, this blood test helps find blood sugar levels and diagnose diabetes.
Decoding hba1c test for blood sugar – normal reading for, Hba1c or glycated hemoglobin test is a blood test that measures average level of blood sugar (glucose). If you have been reading my posts for a while you will recall the concept of the functional range for blood tests.
Often, the patient's glucose (blood sugar) is considered normal on their blood teat bacause it is still in the "normal" range. Having undiagnosed pre-diabetes, as this newly published article points out, can lead to elevations in TSH.
So most patients that go to the doctor with fatigue and the doctor sees elevated TSH then they immediately get put on thyroid hormone.
If you found value in this article, please use the social sharing icons at the top of this post and please share with those you know who are still suffering with a chronic thyroid symptoms despite having medical managment.
The pancreas detects the fall in the blood glucose level and releases another hormone, glucagon. In a true disease, some part of the body is in a state of abnormal physiological functioning, and this causes the undesirable symptoms. Addiction is defined as a chronic relapsing brain disease that is characterized by compulsive drug seeking and use, despite harmful consequences. The term refers to the brain’s recently discovered ability to change its structure and function, in particular by expanding or strengthening circuits that are used and by shrinking or weakening those that are rarely engaged. So, when the NIDA’s Nora Volkow and others show us changes in the brain of a substance user as compared to a non-substance user, this difference is not as novel as they make it out to be. A specific area of the brain’s hippocampus is associated with creating directional memories and a mental map of the environment.
There it was: the more years a man had been a taxi driver, the smaller the front of his hippocampus and the larger the posterior. So, the longer you drive a cab in London (that is, the longer you exert the mental and physical effort to quickly find your way around one of the world’s toughest to navigate cities), the more your brain physically changes. Learning to play the piano well will change your brain – and if you were to compare brain scans of a piano player to a non-piano player, you would find significant differences.
Its not just physical activity that changes our brains, thoughts alone can have a huge effect. Using the brain scan called functional magnetic resonance imaging, the scientists pinpointed regions that were active during compassion meditation. So by simply practicing thinking about compassion, these monks made lasting changes in their brain activity. Those who claim that addiction is a brain disease readily admit that the brain changes in evidence are arrived at through repeated choices to use substances and focus on using substances. In the discussion above, we looked at some analogous cases of brain changes to see just how routine and normal (i.e. Just as we turn down the volume on a radio that is too loud, the brain adjusts to the overwhelming surges in dopamine (and other neurotransmitters) by producing less dopamine or by reducing the number of receptors that can receive signals.
Again, this graphic is used to support the idea that we should treat addiction as a brain disease. When these studies were done, nobody was directly treating the brain of methamphetamine addicts. These methamphetamine addicts were court ordered into a treatment program (whose methodology wasn’t disclosed in the research) which likely consisted of a general mixture of group and individual counseling with 12-step meeting attendance. Even with changed brains, people are capable of choosing to change their substance use habits.
If the theory is that neural adaptations alone cause uncontrolled behavior, then this proposition can easily be shown to be false. There doesn’t seem to be any explanation or evidence that substance use is involuntary. Long story short, there is no evidence presented to prove that substance use is compulsive. So to sum up, there are at least two significant reasons why the current brain disease theory of addiction is false. Please don’t accuse me of not having compassion for people who have substance use problems. In my view, addiction (whether to drugs, food, gambling, or whatever) doesn’t fit a specific physiological category.
I think that quote is very important, because it highlights neuronal changes that occur in the same region implicated in addiction (whereas the examples I presented earlier in the article represented some other regions). The notions of addiction transformed into the language of neurology as performed by authors like Volkov, Berridge, Gessa or De Vries are completely tautological.
He essentially argues that Volkow et al take for granted that heavy drug and alcohol use is uncontrolled, identify neural correlates, and present them as evidence of uncontrollability.
The problem of course is that probably all learning produces temporary or lasting ‘change in neural systems’. The great points contained in this article would be done an injustice if I tried to sum them up here, so check it out for yourself at The Center for Drug Research University of Amsterdam.
With the exception of alcohol, addictive drugs produce their biological and psychological changes by binding to specific receptor sites throughout the body.

There are no published studies that establish a causal link between drug-induced neural adaptations and compulsive drug use or even a correlation between drug-induced neural changes and an increase in preference for an addictive drug. There are no published studies that establish a causal link between drug-induced neural adaptations and compulsive drug use or even a correlation between drug-induced neural changes and an increase in preference for an addictive drug. For example, in a frequently referred to animal study, Robinson et al. When we accept the unproven view that addiction and alcoholism are brain diseases, then it will lead us down a long, painful, costly, and pointless road of cycling in and out of ineffective treatment programs and 12 step meetings.
If you want to end or alter your own substance use habits you need to make the choice to do so. I endeavor to give accurate information here that will help people to understand that change is possible, and that they are not doomed to a lifetime of addiction. Just to contribute to these arguments in the comment section…I have been shooting heroin and using other opiates for years. Alexander, I’m happy to see there IS someone, besides me, who acknowledges we have CHOICE in all we do and say!!
Totally agree 100%i am not an addict never have been; family members have been .I try to understand why they tink its a disease am i misding something? I am an addict and currently prescribed suboxone and I agree 100%that Addiction is NOT a disease.
I’ve been looking for such a summary as posted above (along with the other ideas presented on this site) for a bit now. In its short history, the science of neuroplasticity has mostly documented brain changes that reflect physical experience and input from the outside world. A team of researchers scanned the brains of London taxi drivers and compared their brains to non-taxi drivers. What’s more, whether the brain changes or not, there is much research which shows that the brain is slave to the mind. As a result, dopamine’s impact on the reward circuit of a drug abuser’s brain can become abnormally low, and the ability to experience any pleasure is reduced. Drug addiction erodes a person’s self-control and ability to make sound decisions, while sending intense impulses to take drugs. They were not giving them medication for it (there is no equivalent of methadone for speed users), and they weren’t sticking scalpels into the brains of these meth addicts, nor were they giving them shock treatment. They choose to stop using drugs, and as the brain scans above demonstrate – their brain activity follows this choice. In other words, besides affirming that something causes something else, it is necessary to indicate how the cause operates to produce the alleged effect. You do not know that, and if you attack my motives in this way it just shows your own intellectual impotence and sleaze. I think Marc Lewis PhD and I may disagree on a few things, but it seems we may see eye to eye on the logic I presented above about such brain changes being routine, and thus not indicative of disease.
Yet we wouldn’t want to call the excitement you get from the love of your life, or your fifth visit to Paris, a disease. Also, continuation of learned behavior may be functional in the eyes and experience of the person but less so in the eyes of the outsider. As self-administered drug doses greatly exceed the circulating levels of their natural analogs, persistent heavy drug use leads to structural and functional changes in the nervous system. This article’s scope needs to remain limited to the question of whether or not addiction is a disease. Choosing to change then, really means that they rethink whether heavy substance use is their best viable option.
Suboxone is still a drug and the side affects from getting of it are sometimes worse than heroine itself. Acquiring navigational skills causes a “redistribution of gray matter in the hippocampus” as a driver’s mental map of London grows larger and more detailed with experience.
And indeed, the longer and more intensely you apply yourself to any skill, thought, or activity – the more it will change your brain, and the more visible will be the differences between your brain and that of someone who hasn’t been focused on that particular skill. Activity in the left prefrontal cortex (the seat of positive emotions such as happiness) swamped activity in the right prefrontal (site of negative emotions and anxiety), something never before seen from purely mental activity.
This is why the abuser eventually feels flat, lifeless, and depressed, and is unable to enjoy things that previously brought them pleasure. Notice how the third image shows a brain in which the red level of activity has returned almost to normal after 14 months of abstinence.
But the depths to which the brain disease theory of addiction can be negated go even further, because the basic theory of addiction as representing uncontrolled substance use has never been explained.
Nevertheless, when the case for the disease is presented, the idea that drug use is involuntary is taken for granted as true. Priming dose experiments have found that alcoholics are not triggered into uncontrollable craving after taking a drink. I have a great deal of compassion for people with these problems – I was once one such person. It is widely – if not universally – assumed that these neural adaptations play a causal role in addiction. They concluded that this was a “recipe for addiction.” However, they did not evaluate whether their findings with rodents applied to humans, nor did they even test if the dendritic modifications had anything to do with changes in preference for cocaine in their rats. Second, in follow-up studies, which tested Robinson et al.’s claims, there were no increases in preference for cocaine.

I realize this, but I chose to change, and in reality everyone who moves beyond problematic substance use chooses to change as well. The only way I know to come to new conclusions is to re-examine the issues methodically, and this may often mean gathering new information and perspectives. If you want quotes from PhDs and such (as if I haven’t given enough here already) go to my Quotes From Experts About Addiction page. While discussing a recent bout of depression with my sponsor, she claimed that God, not me, had pulled me out of the state. Conventional chiropractic and neurometabolic services are completely separate services and each is provided in strict compliance with the rules and regulations set forth by the separate agencies. A sprawling circuit that switches on at the sight of suffering also showed greater activity in the monks. Now, they need to take drugs just to try and bring their dopamine function back up to normal. I am trying to get at the truth of the nature of addiction, so that the most people can be helped in the most effective way possible.
It has to be, so that we can pursue different rewards as we develop, right through childhood to the rest of the lifespan. No doubt addiction is a frightening, often horrible, state to endure, whether in oneself or in one’s loved ones. We know of people remaining married in spite of-in the eyes of a beholder- a very bad marriage. In principle then it is possible that the drug-induced neural changes play little or no role in the persistence of drug use. Please be civil in your comments, and many of your angry comments may already be answered on my FAQs page, so maybe check that out before you scream at me.
I don’t believe addiction is truly a disease either, but make that decision for yourself once you are actually sober. What happened was one day I got up even though I didn’t feel like it, and went through the day like normal, even though it was hard, and continued to build back up from there.
If you wish to receive natural health services you must first sign a Client Services Agreement. So did regions responsible for planned movement, as if the monks’ brains were itching to go to the aid of those in distress.
To say that addiction is chosen behavior is simply to make a statement about whether the behavior is within the control of the individual – it is not a judgment of the morality of the behavior or the individual choosing it. In fact, each highly rewarding experience builds its own network of synapses in and around the NAC, and that network sends a signal to the midbrain: I’m anticipating x, so send up some dopamine, right now! Third [an analysis of epidemiological studies] shows that the likelihood of remission was constant over time since the onset of dependence. Helpers can provide accurate information that troubled people can use to change their perspective and come to believe they have better viable options than continued heavy problematic substance use.
Every addict I’ve heard claim they have this disease that they cannot do anything about is either misinformed or uses the word disease as an excuse for their behavior. I had been a zombie for weeks, and without outside help, realized I needed to do something different, so I took action.
But, even when a person herself sees some behavior as counter functional, it is not necessarily seen as addiction. While you will be able to view the content of this page in your current browser, you will not be able to get the full visual experience.
During and after each of these experiences, that network of synapses gets strengthened: so the “specialization” of dopamine uptake is further increased. Please consider upgrading your browser software or enabling style sheets (CSS) if you are able to do so. Why should we need to believe they have a disease to help them if the mess is substance use related?
Since drugs change the brain, these results suggest that the changes do not prevent quitting, and the slope of [an analysis of epidemiological studies] implies that drug-induced neural changes do not even decrease the likelihood of quitting drugs once dependence is in place. You can also choose to stop using drugs after using drugs and changing your brain with those drugs.
This experience turned me to the bigger picture of AA and its codes of what you are taught to believe about yourself. The idea presented above is correct, I did drink because it was my best option for feeling ok in the life I was in, but I’ve moved on from that life. I lately have been feeling like AA, as a society, depends on and promotes the weaknesses of its members. The saddest part for me has been, that by teaching me I am different, and that I need to surround myself with other alcoholics, I’ve let myself be practically estranged from prior friends and family. I was aware that when I stopped using dope I would be sick, BUT my brain would eventually change again and I wouldn’t be sick.

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