There are two different tests your doctor can use to measure your blood glucose to determine if you have pre-diabetes or diabetes: the fasting plasma glucose test (FPG) or the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT).
The FPG test is a blood test that determines the amount of glucose (sugar) in the blood after an overnight fast (not eating for at least 8 hours).
With the OGTT test, a person's blood glucose level is measured after fasting and then 2 hours after drinking a glucose-rich beverage. See the chart below for the ranges of blood sugar levels and how they are used to diagnose pre-diabetes and diabetes. Gaucher?s disease consists of a genetic autosomic recesive alteration that leads to a reduction in the acid glucosil-ceramide beta-glucosidase enzyme.
La enfermedad de Gaucher es un trastorno genetico autosomico recesivo generador de un deficit de la enzima lisosomal glucosilceramida-beta-glucosidasa acida. El sindrome de Fanconi consiste en la disfuncion parcial o total de los tubulos proximales renales. Even though the renal compromise is not frequent in Gaucher disease, proteinuria (in nephrotic range or not ) and glomerulonephritis have been described in this illness3-4.
Fanconi syndrome is charaterized by a dysfunction in the proximal tubular reabsorption which leads to an augment in the excretion of phosphate, glucose, bicorbonate, amino-acids, not necessarily all together5. Since no association has been described yet in the literature between Fanconi syndrome and Gaucher disease, we present the following case report where this association was observed. Male patient, 61 years old who started to be evaluated due to a picture of generalized bone pain without any other symptomathology. As a result of his initial evaluation he was diagnosed with a spleen and hepatic enlargement. Based on the previously mentioned results, the presence of Fanconi syndrome was suspected, and due to his bone disease a monthly treatment was started using intravenous pamidronate.
Kidney compromise is infrequent in Gaucher disease, but when it is present, it consist of a mild proteinuria or glomerulonephritis4. Regarding treatment it consists of symptomatic handling (analgesics) and substitutive enzyme therapy: recombined imiglucerase1. Fanconi syndrome could cause alterations in the growth rate (children), osteomalacia (adults), water reabsorption (polyuria), hypokalemia, hypocalcemia, hypophosphatemia and tubular acidosis (type II) secondary to a reduced proximal reabsorption of sodium, potassium, bicarbonate, calcium, phosphate. The main diseases that run with this syndrome are: metabolic diseases, metal intoxication, drugs and some storage diseases such as the Fanconi-Bickel syndrome. In this disease, the Fanconi syndrome, is produced as a consequence of the deposit of glucogen in the renal proximal tubule, interfering in the ATP generation. As far as we know there is no previous description in the literature of an association between Gaucher disease and Fanconi syndrome, and because of that we presented this case report where this association was observed.
Besides, since Gaucher disease is an storage disease, and it is known that some storage diseases are able to induced Fanconi syndrome through structural or functional compromise of the renal proximal tubules, perhaps Gaucher disease could occasionally induce this renal syndrome by the same mechanism. Gaucher disease can be associated with Fanconi syndrome, being perhaps this disease an infrequent cause of proximal renal tubular dysfunction.
This is report presents an interesting association, not described yet in the literature, between two very infrequent entities: Gaucher disease and Fanconi syndrome.
Current standard diagnose test for Gaucher disease consist of the documentation of the glucocebrosidase enzyme activity in leucocytes, since it is less invasive test respect to the liver or bone marrow biopsy. Even though evidence based medicine is mastering modern medicine, clinical case report is still the way for recognizing new entities, or new variant of old ones. In this report, the patient had bone compromise because of that he was treated with pamidronate, getting better his fractional excretion of calcium but not normalizing it.
Besides, this patient presented hypophosphatemia with an elevated fractional excretion of phosphorus.
This report should stimulate the detection of more cases like this, as well as to learn more regarding its physiopathology. The final destination of a journey is not, after all, the last item on the agenda, but rather some understanding, however simple or provisional, of what one has seen. In these modern times, with the plethora of blood-sugar-related diseases, we need tools like GI and GL to help us understand ways to control blood sugar. The self-testing, graphic approach to food testing developed in the balance of the newsletter is a less scientific but a more dynamic way to explore postprandial (post-meal) blood glucose levels (BGLs). GI measures the blood glucose impact of foods eaten in isolation, yet we rarely consume foods this way. GI readings vary with the individual—blood sugar and insulin reactions are more extreme for diabetics, for example (See Charts 2A and 2B). GIs are calculated in the science lab as the day’s first meal after a 12-hour fast and using a fixed serving that includes 50 grams of carbohydrate.  Most of our daily calories, however, are consumed in combination and throughout the day, when our blood sugar is affected by other foods that we have eaten earlier, as well as by our level of activity. Of the following numbered charts, the first three are based upon scientific research journal articles (Charts 1, 2A, 2B), while the last four (Charts 3-6) are constructed from my own self-testing of foods4 using a simple blood glucose monitor. Chart 1:  Blood Sugar Curves of White Bread Compared to Bread with Added Fiber, Sourdough, and Vinegar. Chart 3:  Instant Oatmeal, Whole Oats (Soaked and Not Soaked), and Whole Oats Combined with a Protein and Fat.


To fully appreciate the impact of two back-to-back carbohydrate breakfasts please notice that the scale used for Chart 6 is twice that of Charts 3-5. Resetting the Table–to Control Blood Sugar (For a discussion of other strategies, see April 2011).
Ramekins filled with condiments like nuts and seeds (GI=0).  Nuts and seeds provide healthy fats, fiber, vitamins, minerals, and antioxidants, while they slow digestion and curb blood sugar. Sourdough bread or whole-grain bread with whole kernels; butter from grass-fed cows and organic nut and seed butters such as tahini and pumpkin seed butter.
A pitcher of water and glasses for all—sometimes we mistake hunger for what is in fact thirst.  You might flavor the water with a little lemon juice or other flavoring. Because 12-hour fasting, pre-meal blood sugar reading can vary, all data points at time zero prior to the first morning meal were indexed to zero in order to illustrate the change from a neutral starting point.
I use the label “traditional” carbohydrates, just as we call unrefined fats, “traditional” fats. Elemental Nutrition Peptides is a revolutionary supplement designed to aid muscle growth & repair plus, provide fast recovery from the most intense workouts. As far back as the 1970’s, studies on protein digestion in humans revealed that the main products of protein digestion in the gut are not single amino acids, but rather dipeptides and tripeptides1, 2.
While it’s proven that dipeptides and tripeptides are absorbed faster than intact protein or free amino acids, it’s erroneous to assume that your typical hydrolysed whey protein contains any appreciable amounts of these peptides. Not only does Elemental Nutrition Peptides contain whey protein with a high degree of hydrolysation, it contains specialised whey protein fractions specifically concentrated to contain high amounts of branched-chain amino acid dipeptides and tripeptides.
The graph below displays how branched-chain amino acids from hydrolysed whey protein are absorbed more rapidly and peak at higher levels in blood when compared to free-form branched-chain amino acids from normal whey protein. The graph below shows the time course of the blood levels of essential amino acids (EAAs) when ingested from hydrolysed whey protein compared with normal whey protein.
The graph below displays the insulin response of whey protein hydrolysate compared to normal whey protein.
Higher amino acid levels in blood together with higher insulin levels is one of the most potent combinations for increased anabolism. This product is not a sole source of nutrition and should be used in conjunction with an appropriate physical training or exercise programme. Whilst Elemental Nutrition products are manufactured at stringent quality controlled facilities and are the best of their kind.
However, B12 deficiency is far more common than most health care practitioners and the general public realize.
That said, B12 deficiency has been estimated to affect about 40% of people over 60 years of age.
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This program is designed to help people lose weight, learn about liver detox and why it's so important to cleanse in our toxic world, break sugar cravings, increase energy, get clear skin, get better sleep, decrease pain and inflammation and improve GI function. Stay up-to-date with Holistic Health Naturally by signing up for our free weekly newsletter. In general, it is recommended that any blood test that is outside the normal range be repeated on a different day to confirm the diagnosis.
This enzyme brakes the glucosilceramide, a substance from which many esphingo and glucolipids are synthesized. Among the etiologies of Fanconi syndrome there are many metabolic diseases, but no association has been described yet in the literature between Fanconi syndrome and Gaucher disease.
Dicha enzima degrada la glucosilceramida, sustancia a partir de la cual se sintetizan muchos esfingo y glucolipidos. Existen diversas entidades que pueden inducir este sindrome, pero no hay hasta ahora informes en la literatura que lo vinculen con la enfermedad de Gaucher.
This enzyme brakes the glucosilceramide, a substance from which many esphingo and glucolipids are synthesized1-2. This syndrome is characterized by a mutation of the gen that codes the glucose 2 transporter. Bones are affected in almost all Gaucher patients (mainly in femur, humerus and vertebral bodies), inducing that significant pain.
The second factor—the postwar shift from traditional to refined carbohydrates—is largely due to the growing role of the commercial food industry and processed, convenience foods.  Convenience foods must have a long shelf-life, so food companies rely upon refined flours and oils, which do not go rancid.
Visual pictures of postprandial blood sugar behavior, while less scientific than GI measurements, are nevertheless powerful learning tools, providing a real flavor for how our body reacts when we eat different kinds of foods.
This chart illustrates the second meal effect– that what we eat at one meal affects postprandial blood sugar behavior at the next. What we do to our children when we give them a sugary cereal or a Pop-tart for breakfast extends beyond this first meal to affect their blood sugar, hunger, concentration, and desire to overeat throughout the rest of the day. One of the best herbs and spices to moderate blood sugar.  It can be sprinkled on hot cereals and desserts such as puddings, custards, and stewed fruits.
Elemental Nutrition Peptides contain a combination of dipeptide and tripeptides never before formulated into the one muscle building & recovery supplement.


Subsequent studies in humans have shown that a nitrogen load is absorbed more rapidly when delivered as dipeptides or tripeptides, rather than as whole protein or even free amino acids1-6. For a hydrolysed whey protein to contain high levels of dipeptides and tripeptides, it must have a high degree of hydrolysation. Recent research has discovered that these branched chain dipeptides and tripeptides from whey protein mediate many of the specific benefits ascribed to hydrolysed whey protein. As with the branched-chain amino acids above, insulin peaks higher and sooner following ingestion of whey protein hydrolysate.
Elemental Nutrition Peptides provides a range of vital amino acids in a highly utilisable form, allowing for rapid uptake and stimulus of muscle protein synthesis. Fei YJ, Kanai Y, Nussberger S, Ganapathy V, Leibach FH, Romero MF, Singh SK, Boron WF, Hediger MA. It’s written about in every medical textbook and its causes and effects are well-established in the scientific literature. Data from the Tufts University Framingham Offspring Study suggest that 40 percent of people between the ages of 26 and 83 have plasma B12 levels in the low normal range – a range at which many experience neurological symptoms.
It’s entirely possible that at least some of the symptoms we attribute to “normal” aging – such as memory loss, cognitive decline, decreased mobility, etc. The American Diabetes Association recommends the FPG because it is easier, faster, and less expensive to perform. Even though the renal compromise is not frequent in Gaucher disease, proteinuria (in nephrotic range or not) and glomerulonephritis have been described in this illness. La falta de su degradacion conduce a su almacenamiento en los macrofagos tisulares con las consiguientes complicaciones mecanicas y funcionales.
Type I is the most frequent one (99%), it usually appears with no neuropathy and shows liver and spleen enlargement affecting either children or adults3. Peptides redefines protein and amino acid supplements with its unparalleled content of potent peptides which digest quickly for fast asimilation into the blood stream & exercised muscles. Their superior absorption is mediated by a specific intestinal oligopeptide transporter called Pept-17, 8. This in turn requires a number of additional purification and extraction steps, which come at a significant cost.
This is important as insulin is one of the most powerful hormones for muscle growth and recovery. WIth its high branched-chain amino acid content, Elemental Nutrition Peptides also serves as an effective supplement for improving muscle recovery and reducing muscle soreness.
Intestinal transport of dipeptides in man: relative importance of hydrolysis and intact absorption.
Effect of peptide chain length on amino acid and nitrogen absorption from two lactalbumin hydrolysates in the normal human jejunum. Effect of peptide chain length on absorption of egg protein hydrolysates in the normal human jejunum. Splanchnic fluxes of amino acids after duodenal infusion of carbohydrate solutions containing free amino acids or oligopeptides in the non-anaesthetized pig. Comparison of net protein utilization of milk protein mild enzymatic hydrolysates and free amino acid mixtures with a close pattern in the rat. Thus should you be unsatisfied with any Elemental Nutrition product you can return it to your place of purchase within 30 days for a FULL REFUND. El compromiso renal es infrecuente en esta enfermedad, pero cuando se presenta lo hace bajo la forma de proteinuria aislada o glomerulonefritis.
In a hypophosphatemic patient, a low fractional excretion of phosphorus is an adequate one (extrarenal hypophosphatemia: gastrointestinal loss or intracellular shift). This is why diabetes and obesity often go hand-in-hand (90% of diabetics are either overweight or obese). David Ludwig regarding high-glycemic foods and overeating, cited in the Recommended Reading section at the conclusion of this newsletter. So rather than pay for a quality hydrolysate, many brands attempt to leverage the benefits of dipeptides and tripeptides by using cheap whey protein hydrolysates with a low degree of hydrolysis and minimal dipeptide and tripeptide content.
Most surprising to the researchers was the fact that low B12 levels were as common in younger people as they were in the elderly. Conversely, in the same setting a high fractional excretion of phosphorus evokes a Fanconi synmdrome, primary hyperparathyroidism, hypophosphatemia linked to chromosome X, dominant autosomic hypophosphatemic rickets or oncogenic osteomalacia).
Since the above described patient also presented a high fractional excretion of magnesium and uric acid, a Fanconi syndrome was suspected.



Random blood sugar test normal values kpa
Normal range for glucose a1c values


Comments

  1. 17.04.2015 at 23:50:44


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    Author: ZEHMETKESH
  2. 17.04.2015 at 11:18:45


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  3. 17.04.2015 at 23:52:44


    People between the ages the symptoms appear again.

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