Normal cat eye colors range from blue to copper; if abnormal eye color in cats occurs suddenly, it can signal serious health problems. Before we can determine the reasons behind abnormal eye color in cats, we must first establish and understand what is considered normal.
While it is interesting and aesthetically intriguing, cats with different colored eyes are not unusual. Just as there is a range of cat eye colors, there are also a few varities of odd-eyed cats. There are two types of partial heterochromia in cats, a condition in which one or both of a cat’s irises contain two distinct colors. Central heterochromia: The area of the iris closest to the pupil is encircled by one color, and the rest of the iris is a different color, or a noticeably different shade.
Sectoral heterochromia: There is a spot or section of the iris that has a different color than the rest.
In cats, heterochromia or odd eyes may seem abnormal, but it’s usually no cause for specific concern.
Uveitis in cats is rarely a problem of its own; it tends to be a symptom of any number of other conditions, all of which require veterinary attention and treatment.
Systemic: It might be related to a fault in a larger bodily system, including diabetes and blood pressure problems. How a cat’s uveitis is treated and resolved depends on which of these larger problems is the cause. It is a truism that the eyes are the windows to the soul, but we all know that cats are inscrutable creatures even in the best of times. About the author: Melvin Pena trained as a scholar and teacher of 18th-century British literature before turning his research and writing skills to puppies and kittens.
Several diagnostic factors must come into play when you get an abnormal result on this common test that investigates kidney function.
In a previous issue of dvm360 ("Urine specific gravity measurement and interpretation in veterinary medicine," May 2013), we discussed the variables influencing normal specific gravity values. The interpretation of urine specific gravity values of randomly obtained samples depends on knowledge of the patient's hydration status and diet history, the plasma or serum concentration of urea nitrogen or creatinine, and knowledge of drugs or fluids that have been administered to the patient. If sufficient clinical evidence is present to warrant examination of the patient's renal function by determining the serum concentration of creatinine or blood urea nitrogen, the urine specific gravity (or osmolality) should be evaluated at the same time. Varying degrees of impaired ability to concentrate or dilute glomerular filtrate are a consistent finding in all forms of primary renal failure but not all forms of renal disease.
If nonazotemic patients have impaired ability to concentrate urine, investigate causes of pathologic polyuria. Toward the bottom of this page is a practice exam, almost the same as what you will see when you come to the campus to take the on-campus exam. The ear thermometer (on the right) doesn't contact the ear drum, so it is measuring the amount of infrared light emitting from the ear. This digital thermometer measures the room temperature and can take readings of the ear or forehead. The ear and forehead measure the amount of infrared light (heat radiation) coming from the ear drum or the skin. I've seen infrared based thermometers like in the picture used to measure the temperature of a wide variety of items at a distance. The science behind these devices is the use of an LED light and a photodiode (a light detector) that looks at the level of two forms of hemoglobin. Because of the heart beat, the level of hemoglobin in capillaries in the fingers are expanding and contracting with each heart beat. Besides useful for people who have breathing problems, these are being used by pilots and mountain climbers who are at altitudes where oxygen levels are low and monitoring their oxygen saturation would be wise.
When a nurses takes someone's pulse, they pump up the cuff to the point where they can't hear the pulse. The low reading is called the diastolic pressure, which is the pressure when the heart is as rest. You may be surprised that there is a blood pressure cuff that uses an iPhone for the digital readout and storage. The science behind these modern blood glucose (sugar) meters is to draw in a set amount of blood. I was surprised to see a home test for A1C because I heard doctors describe it as a specialized test. I couldn't find out exactly how these A1C test strips and meter work, but I imagine it's similar to the way the blood sugar test strips and meter work. Protein in the urine (proteinuria) can indicate a kidney disease or some other serious condition.
Ketones in the urine (ketonuria) indicate the body is having trouble using sugar for energy, so it's using fat and proteins instead.
Blood in urine (hematuria) gives people some anxiety but isn't always a reason for concern.
Another way the density of urine is determined is by measuring how much it bends light (refracts light). When I worked at the Phoenix Crime lab back in the 70's, the breathalyzer available at that time used a solution of sulfuric acid and a salt called potassium dichromate. I think the coolest (but not the cheapest) personal medical device is the portable ultrasound imaging machine.
What sensor in the left thermometer is responsible for detecting the temperature and name one of its ingredients? Answer: Percent (%) that hemoglobin is saturated (S) with oxygen (O2) in a peripheral (p) part of the body (for example, fingers).
The below chart is from a urine test strip that measures the concentration of five different substances. If a person has a high reading for ketones, their urine (and breath) is likely to smell like what?
The home pregnancy test will measure the presence of the hormone called human chorionic gonadotropin. Answer: A band at the T region is positive indication of the hormone and therefore indicates the one tested is pregnant.

Answer: It means the test is complete and one should then look to see if a band is at the T region.
Answer: Cocaine, amphetamine, THC (marijuana), opiates like opium, morphine and heroin, and PCP. THC is tetrahydrocannabinol, which is the psychoactive chemical in the cannabis plant (marijuana). Unlike the pregnancy test, a band of color showing up at the T region on a drug test indicates what? Answer: Methamphetamine is the same as amphetamine but methamphetamine has an extra methyl group on it. When ethyl alcohol (ethanol) is completely oxidized (burned) in a fuel cell, 12 electrons are produced as electrical current for each molecule of ethanol. On the exam, you might be asked to balanced one or two of the compounds in the equation, but not the whole equation. As the alcohol gets converted to acetic acid, the potassium dichromate gets converted to chromium(III) sulfate, Cr2(SO4)3.
The initial color of the solution is yellow.  What is responsible for the yellow color? After the alcohol is turned into acetic acid, the solution is dark green.  What is responsible for that color? Let's say you were trapped in a mine and you took 1.2 liters of water and did electrolysis on it to get some oxygen, how many grams of oxygen would you get?
Which is the most predominant element in water if you base it on its percent of the weight of water? Which is the most predominant element in water if you base it on its percent of the number of atoms in water? Let it be known that the vast majority of kittens are born with blue eyes, which typically settle into a specific color by the time they reach 3 months of age.
The general rule of thumb for cat eye color genetics is that the fewer melanocytes a cat has available, the lighter the shade of eye color, and the more there are, the darker and deeper they will be. The one we’re most familiar with is complete heterochromia, a condition in which one eye has more melanocytes than the other, leading to a mature cat whose eyes are each a different solid color.
While old folk wisdom has long suggested that cats with blue eyes or cats with one blue eye are also deaf, it is not a valid generalization in practice. Changing eye color as an adult or mature cat, on the other hand, is not only abnormal, but it can also be a sign of dangerous health issues. The eyes of a cat with uveitis may change to a different color abruptly, become cloudy, or turn red with irritation. He enjoys making art, hiking, and concert-going, as well as dazzling crowds with operatic karaoke performances.
Because the kidneys have substantial functional reserve capacity, impairment of their ability to concentrate or dilute urine may not be detected until at least two-thirds (dogs) or more (cats) of the total population of nephrons has been damaged.
My motivation for doing it was partly because I think the average person should take advantage of the tools of science. That's a good opportunity to monitor health needs at home and to learn more about the science behind these devices and tests.
As electronics got more miniaturized and sophisticated, devices like these have gotten cheaper and common place.
Even after she got over the pneumonia, she would often complain about not being able to breath.
A pressure of 126 mmHg meant the person's heart beat had the pressure to raise the mercury in the tube to a height of 126 millimeters (about 5 inches). The A1C test is a common blood test used to diagnose type 1 and type 2 diabetes and to gauge how well a person has been managing his or her diabetes. The more the inner tube extends above the surface of the urine, the more dense the urine is. Anti-bodies are proteins created by the immune system to neutralize a foreign bacteria or virus, but also can attach itself to a specific protein. Dark green is after reacting with alcohol, which forms the dark green chromium(III) sulfate. The device is a personal or portable breathalyzer for measuring blood alcohol content in the blood. Even though it's called the personal ultrasound device, it's marketed more to doctors than the average consumer, but eventually it will be affordable to consumers. It means that it either adds oxygen atoms or it behaves like oxygen, which is to strip electrons away from things.
The reading is the percent of the hemoglobin in red blood cells that are coated with sugar (glucose).
Mature cat eyes take their hue from the amount of pigment cells in the iris, known as melanocytes, that are present during the processes of growth and development. Cat eyes that present with strange colors, different colors, odd patterns, or those that change color suddenly during adulthood may signal serious health issues. What appears blue to us is simply a reflection of the transparent parts of a cat’s eyes. The answer is genetic, and it’s tied to the white-spotting gene, which is associated with coat color.
There is a higher reported incidence of blue-eyed, white-coated cats that have or develop hearing problems, and odd-eyed cats have a similarly higher rate of hearing issues than others, but neither blue eyes nor heterochromia necessarily mean that a cat’s ears are at risk. The uvea, the part of the eye that contains the pigment, is the source of the first of these.
A cat might start blinking rapidly, pawing repeatedly at the affected eye or eyes, or walk around with one eye shut.
Unlike humans, a cat’s physical growth and maturation tends to be accompanied by a change in their eye color. He has a one-year-old female Bluetick Coonhound mix named Idris, and his online life is conveniently encapsulated here. In some instances, interpretation may require serially performed evaluation of urine specific gravity on multiple samples.
Because an adequately concentrated urine sample associated with an abnormal elevation in the serum creatinine or urea nitrogen concentration suggests the probability of prerenal azotemia, whereas intrarenal azotemia is probable in patients with elevated serum urea nitrogen and creatinine concentrations and less concentrated urine (Tables 1, 2 and 3). Once the ability to concentrate or dilute urine has been permanently destroyed, repeated evaluation of urine specific gravity will not help in the evaluation of progressive deterioration of renal function.

The exam will ask questions about what you learn below plus there will be some questions from the online exam.
As the temperature goes up, the electrical resistance comes down and that is converted to a temperature reading on the display. For this wrist version, you can see the wave which is the changing levels of hemoglobin from which the pulse can be calculated.
Using a blood pressure monitor like the one in the picture could have warned him that his blood pressure was too high despite the medication he was taking. These are often placed on the wrist but not always as accurate as those placed on the upper arm. The glucose in the blood reacts with an enzyme called glucose oxidase that pulls 2 hydrogen atoms off of the glucose molecule. The science behind it must be like the blood glucose strips and meters, but with an additional enzyme to identify the level of cholesterol. The computer chip in the devices translate the degrees the light bends into density (specific gravity) of the urine.
As the alcohol got converted, the potassium dichromate got converted to chromium(III) sulfate, Cr2(SO4)3. Since people don't breath out hydrogen, then this test uses ethyl alcohol as the fuel to generate electricity. Because any cat might carry this gene, there is no specific breed or cat coat color that is necessarily associated with odd eyes. Uveitis, or inflammation of the uvea, can cause a cat’s eye color to change significantly and suddenly. Some cat breed standards insist upon a specific eye color; for instance, a Russian Blue must have green eyes, while those of a Siamese must be blue. Therefore, serial evaluation of urine specific gravity is of greatest aid in detecting functional changes earlier during the course of progressive primary renal failure or in monitoring functional recovery associated with reversible renal diseases. However, after realizing how unsafe these were, you can't really find these in the stores anymore. One type of thermocouple is used by your gas water heater or gas oven to sense if the pilot light is on. In the hospital I noticed they used a device called the Pulse Oximeter to measure her pulse and oxygen levels. That might have saved him the devastating effects from the stroke that he still suffers with. The test strip has a reagent (a chemical that reacts with some other chemical) that is specific for acetoacetic acid (a common ketone found in urine). This is the same kind of instrument used to measure the charge of a battery (by measuring sulfuric acid density). Saliva is placed on the bottom indentations, and it travels up the strip to where the letters are. To make that conversion, an oxygen atom is added to the alcohol and a hydrogen atom is removed. If your cat is fully grown and her eye color changes suddenly or without warning, it can be a sign of a serious health problem. However, when computers got smaller and less expensive, it was possible to own a computer and take advantage of everything it could do. So the Breathalyzer had a light pass through the solution and the change in the color correlated with the amount of alcohol in the breath. It cost $200, but was very useful in discovering that her oxygen levels were truly very low. So we bought one of these automatic blood pressure monitors and checked his blood pressure about 3 times a day.
One problem density can indicate is an imbalance in electrolytes such as potassium and sodium ions. The electron flows down a wire and is measured with an electrical meter which shows up as a reading on the display.
To find the amount of alcohol in the blood, the machine multiplied by 2100 because the blood always has 2100 times more alcohol in it compared to the alcohol in the breath. The metals that are selected to be sandwiched together to make these thermocouples can be chromium, nickel, copper, tungsten, and platinum. This prompted the doctor to prescribe a portable oxygen concentrator that gave her pure oxygen when she needed it.
Again specific antibodies for each drug is present in the strip along with a dye attached to the antibody. The more alcohol present the more electron current will flow, which makes the reading go up.
As they are exposed to heat, they generate an electrical voltage, which can be converted to a reading on the display window. Blood cells live for 2 or 3 months, which is why this test gives you an idea of the blood sugar level over the last 2 or 3 months.
Apparently the drug attaches to the antibody and dye and creates a group that is not carried along by the urine to the T area. This device is called a fuel cell because it is using alcohol as a fuel to generate electricity. Only if the drug is NOT present does the urine carry the antibody and dye combination to the T area. In the future, your cellphones will likely run off of drinking alcohol (ethyl alcohol) or methyl alcohol because alcohols can produce a lot more electricity for a longer period. Again, if the antibody-dye combination forms a line at the T area, then that drug was not present. In other words, your cellphone will stay charged for a month without adding more alcohol to it.

Normal blood glucose levels 3 hours after eating 101
Blood sugar one hour after a meal
Normal sugar levels during gestational diabetes


  1. 19.07.2015 at 15:35:10

    Diabetes that is found for with a simple saliva test (Adrenal taking insulin or medication that.

    Author: NIKO_375
  2. 19.07.2015 at 11:24:53

    Still present but the insulin per day (fasting or pre-breakfast.

    Author: DelPiero