DPLD: Hypersensitivity pneumonitis Disease of varying intensity and manifestation caused by the immunologic response to inhaled antigen, usually organic Hundreds of antigens have been described. Streptococcus pneumoniae is a Gram positive cocci, typically lancet shaped and occurs singly, in pairs (diplococci) or in short chains.
Meningitis: one of the most common cause of meningitis (Others are Haeomophilus influenzae, and Neisseria meningitidis).
Damages respiratory epithelium (hemolysin is similar to streptolysin O, which damages eukaryotic cells). Colony characteristics: Alpha hemolytic (partial discoloration around the bacterial colony in blood agar), mucoid colony (if organism possesses polysaccharide capsule). When Streptococcus pneumoniae of certain types are mixed with specific antipolysaccharide serum of the same type or with polyvalent antiserum on a microscope slide, the capsule swells markedly and organism agglutinate by cross linking of the antibodies. Enter your email address to subscribe to this blog and receive notifications of new posts by email.
Insulin - An islet cell-produced, anabolic hormone that controls glucose uptake, fat synthesis, and synthesis of proteins. Islet of Langerhans - Clusters of cells in the pancreas that produce the endocrine secretions of the gland.
Pancreatic duct - A conduit that passes through the pancreas, collects the pancreatic exocrine secretions of enzymes, water, and electrolytes, and carries them to the ampulla of Vater. Acute pancreatitis occurs in 1 in 500 acute admissions and severe attacks have a 20-50% mortality rate.
A small amount of pancreatic amylase normally escapes into the circulating blood and, having a molecular weight of only about 45,000, is readily excreted by the kidney into the urine.
A few hours after the onset of acute pancreatitis, serum amylase levels become elevated, but return to normal levels within two to three days. Amylase also is found in other tissues, especially in the salivary glands and Fallopian tubes (may cause elevated serum amylase in ectopic pregnancy), but amylase activity to a lesser extent is also present in many other tissues (liver, muscle, adipose tissue, kidney, brain, lung, intestine, spleen, serous ovarian tumors, some lung tumors and most body fluids and excretions). In contrast to some other serum enzymes, serum amylase is relatively stable; even at room temperature it is stable for several days. This is a benign condition in which normal amylase forms macromolecular complexes with immunoglobulins (IgG, IgM) or it exists as a large polymeric aggregate, resulting in a variety of “macroamylases,” which, because of their large molecular size, are not excreted by the kidney. Serum lipase activity is due to a number of enzymes from various sources, predominantly the pancreas. Serum lipase levels due to pancreatic disorders closely parallel the changes of serum amylase except that serum lipase may remain elevated longer than amylase (up to 2 weeks). Renal excretion of amylase depends on the serum levels, and in hyperamylasemia increased amounts of amylase appear in the urine. Patients who present with the clinical picture of pancreatitis while their serum amylase is normal. Note: This test is not frequently used since ultrasound and CT scan frequently can provide a rapid diagnosis of cholecystitis vs. Notice that the factors of urinary volume and time cancel out of the equation which eliminates the need for cumbersome, timed urinary and blood collections. Increased clearance is not a specific response to pancreatitis, but instead may be due to competition for reabsorption of low-molecular-weight proteins by the renal tubules.


Acute pancreatitis often is accompanied by accumulation of effusion fluids in the peritoneal and even pleural spaces.
The hypocalcemia of pancreatitis is a complex phenomenon involving saponification as well as glucagon and gastrin release from the pancreas which in turn, stimulates calcitonin release from the thyroid, leading to phosphaturia and calciuria.
Triglycerides may be markedly elevated in acute pancreatitis often causing turbidity of the serum. Acute pancreatitis often leads to glucose intolerance, with transient hyperglycemia and abnormal glucose tolerance curves (“burnt out” pancreas).
Hyperbilirubinemia is observed, even in those patients that have no evidence of biliary obstruction. In chronic pancreatitis the biochemical changes are quite variable depending on the severity and stage of the disease. A 38 year old man presents with an eight-hour history of acute abdominal pain that followed an alcoholic binge. Since the patient’s pain appears to be intra-abdominal that is not colicky, which diseases can be excluded? I am from Canada, I was diagnosed of chronic pancreatitis in 2007 and I have tried all possible means to get cure but all to no avail, until i saw a post in a health forum about a herbal doctor from South Africa who prepare herbal medicine to cure all kind of diseases including pancreatitis, at first i doubted if it was real but decided to give it a try, when i contact this herbal doctor via his email, he prepared an herbal medicine and sent it to me via courier service, when i received this herbal medicine, he gave me step by instructions on how to apply it, when i applied it as instructed, i was cured of this deadly disease within 6 days, I am now free from the deadly disease, my digestive system is now working perfectly, i no longer feel all the horrible pains.
I was diagnosed of hepatitis in 2012 and I have tried all possible means to get cure but all to no avail, until i saw a post in a health forum about a herbal doctor from South Africa who prepare herbal medicine to cure all kind of diseases including hepatitis b virus, at first i doubted if it was real but decided to give it a try, when i contact this herbal doctor via his email, he prepared a herbal medicine and sent it to me via courier service, when i received this herbal medicine, he gave me step by instructions on how to apply it, when i applied it as instructed, i was cured of this deadly virus within 18-20 days of usage, I am now free from the virus, i was tasted negative. Greetings to the general public,I am from Philadelphia,i want to inform the public how i was cured of HERPES Simplex Virus by a Doctor called Lusanda .i visited different hospital but they gave me list of drugs like Famvir, Zovirax, and Valtrex which is very expensive to treat the symptoms and never cured me. I am from United State Of America, I was diagnosed of chronic pancreatitis in 2005 and I have tried all possible means to get cured but all to no avail, until i saw a post in a health forum about a herbal doctor from Africa who prepare herbal medicine to cure all kind of diseases including pancreatitis, at first i doubted if it was real but decided to give it a try, when i contacted this herbal doctor via his email, he prepared the herbal medicine and sent it to me via courier service, when i received this herbal medicine, he gave me step by instructions on how to apply it, when i applied it as instructed, i was totally cured of this deadly disease within 16 days, I am now free from the deadly disease, my digestive system is now working perfectly, i no longer feel all the horrible pains. Atopy is a risk factor Non-IgE mediated: usually LMW antigens with a median latency period of 2 years.
Most cases occur in older patients (greater than 50 years old) and are frequently associated alcoholism, hyperlipidemia and biliary disease.
Thus, increased entry into the blood or decreased renal excretion generally lead to increased blood levels.
Elevations >5? the upper reference limit (URL) are considered pathognomonic for pancreatitis. However, under normal conditions 50% of the circulating blood amylase is derived from the pancreas. They can easily be measured immunochemically; use of the P-isoenzyme increases specificity for acute pancreatitis.
Since this excretion is relatively rapid following moderate bouts of pancreatitis, serum levels may be borderline or normal while urinary amylase may be elevated. The test thus can be carried out simply on simultaneously collected random samples of blood and urine. Increases in amylase clearance and the ratio of amylase to creatinine clearance are observed in a number of non-pancreatic disorders, such as burns, myeloma, duodenal perforations, and following extraperitoneal surgical procedures.
If the differential diagnosis is in doubt, particularly with normal or near normal serum and urinary amylase and lipase values, a high amylase value found in an effusion fluid supports a diagnosis of pancreatitis. Since 50% of calcium is protein bound, hypoalbuminemia will further depress calcium levels.


It is of interest to mention here that in the acute “pancreatitis of hyperparathyroidism” the hypocalcemia does not occur, indicating the importance of the roles of hormones in controlling the calcium blood levels in pancreatitis. The mechanism for this elevation is not certain but may be due to hemorrhage from the pancreas. It is thought that the extravasated blood in the pancreatic area is subjected to the digestive action of the pancreatic enzymes, liberating hemin which combines with albumin to form methemalbumin. She had been diagnosed with primary hypertension and was treated with felodipine without adverse effects.
Laboratory data showed increased serum concentrations of lipase and amylase; all other hematologic and biochemical variables were normal (Table 1). Amylase returned to normal after 3 days and lipase after 7 days of admission to the hospital.
I have a full sensation in my stomach even although I havent eaten in 3 days and have been constantly belching.I had a blood test done about a week ago and my amylase level is 154 amd isoenzymes are 75. Blogging is my passion, I am working as a lecturer and Microbiologist at Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Patan Academy of Health Sciences, Lalitpur.
This condition has been observed following treatment with hog pancreatic extracts and occasionally in malabsorption syndromes, but otherwise is usually innocuous.
When the serum amylase is elevated and the lipase is normal, non-pancreatic causes of the hyperamylasemia are more likely.
It has been shown that this increase in excretion in pancreatitis is further augmented by an increased renal clearance rate of amylase (see urinary amylase). Comparisons of serum and urine tests have shown that serum enzyme tests had greater diagnostic utility than urine tests. However, methemalbuminemia is seen in many other conditions, including some with hyperamylasemia, such as ruptured ectopic pregnancy, peritoneal hemorrhage, mesenteric thrombosis, etc. With long-standing pancreatitis, sufficient pancreatic destruction may have occurred so that amylase cannot be elaborated.
I was referred to endocrinologist for low blood sugars and I have to eat every 2 hours to maintain a decent blood sugar level, but It hurts my stomach when I eat. The laboratory plays an essential role in the rapid diagnosis of acute pancreatitis allowing clinicians to make appropriate therapeutic decisions. Its clinical significance lies in the fact that the hyperamylasemia or macroamylasemia may lead to misinterpretations in the differential diagnosis of abdominal distress. I pray for you Dr Lusanda go God will give you everlasting life, you shall not die before your time for being a sincere and great men.
There was no personal or family history of pancreatitis, cholelithiasis, or hyperlipidemia. X-ray examination showed no air under the diaphragms, and there was no evidence of pleural effusion. Broncholithiasis erosion of bronchus by calcified lymph node ->extrusion of calcified materials to bronchial lumen 6.



What should your sugar level be in your blood
Fasting glucose level 81 unlock


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