The normal blood sugar levels chart below shows the range to shoot for and the diabetes blood sugar levels chart shows levels to avoid. For example, if your blood sugar falls too low, extra glucose stored in your liver is absorbed into your bloodstream to make up the difference. Eating high glycemic carbohydrates is the main cause of higher than normal blood sugar levels and can lead to heart disease, diabetes, blindness, kidney disease and limb amputation from gangrene. To measure blood sugar levels, buy a sugar meter, or get one free from the companies that give them away (so you’ll purchase their strips). Currently, the only way to test yourself is to prick your finger (or some other part of your body), put the blood on a testing strip into the sugar meter and compare your readings with the blood sugar levels chart above. To be accurate, you’ll need to check your blood sugar levels before breakfast, two hours after a meal and then again before going to bed. So it’s essential to your health to learn how to lower blood sugar levels, how to lower cholesterol and how to lower blood pressure naturally. To avoid diabetes or even reverse diabetes, eat a heart healthy diet, rich in whole grains, fruits, vegetables, lean protein and essential fatty acids, like omega 3 fish oil. And to maintain normal blood sugar levels, top it off with regular daily exercise and, if you’re overweight, permanent healthy weight loss. Moss Greene has been studying the common sense principles of health and nutrition since 1979. Science, Technology and Medicine open access publisher.Publish, read and share novel research. The Glucose Tolerance Test as a Laboratory Tool with Clinical ImplicationsPaul Ernsberger and Richard J. Anatomy and Physiology involves the study of structures that make up the human body, while incorporating function; how the body works.
The cell is the smallest functional unit of life, each one carrying out processes to maintain homeostasis so that an organism can function normally and adapt to changes in its environment. The skeletal system provides a support system for the attachment of muscles, ligaments and other soft tissues. Three types of muscle tissue are found within the body, including skeletal, cardiac and smooth muscle.
One of the main functions of the cardiovascular system is to pump blood throughout the body so that oxygen and nutrients can reach the tissues. The urinary system is comprised mainly of two kidneys and two ureters, a bladder and urethra. Homeostasis is the maintenance of a steady internal state, despite changes in external or internal conditions. Homeostatic control mechanisms have four components: a variable, a receptors, a control center and an effectors. In general, feedback occurs when a stimulus at a receptor triggers a change in conditions at the receptor. In a negative feedback loop, the detection of a stimulus results in the variable dampening the effects of the stimulus and decreasing the bodya€™s response.
In positive feedbac , the detection of a stimulus causes the variable to enhance the effects of the stimulus,response causing an exaggeration of the original conditions rather than dampening them. During childbirth, the babya€™s head begins to push on the cervix, causing a mechanical stretch. Endocrine glands are ductless glands that produce and release hormones to the blood through diffusion.
Endocrine glands may be strictly endocrine, such as the pituitary, thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal, pineal and thymus; or they may be organs that have hormone production as one of many functions, such as the pancreas, gonads, hypothalamus, and others. Hormones are long-distance chemical signals that are secreted by the cells to the extracellular fluid and regulate the metabolic functions of other cells. Most hormones are amino acid based, but gonadal and adrenocortical hormones are steroids, derived from cholesterol.
Water-soluble hormones (all amino acid-based hormones except thyroid hormone) exert their effects through an intracellular second messenger that is activated when a hormone binds to a membrane receptor. Lipid-soluble hormones (steroids and thyroid hormone) diffuse into the cell, where they bind to intracellular receptors, migrate to the nucleus, and activate specific target sequences of DNA. Target cell response depends on three factors: blood levels of the hormone, relative numbers of target cell receptors, and affinity of the receptor for the hormone. The concentration of a hormone reflects its rate of release, and the rate of inactivation and removal from the body. The half-life of a hormone is the duration of time a hormone remains in the blood, and is shortest for water-soluble hormones.
Permissiveness occurs when one hormone cannot exert its full effect without another hormone being present (reproductive hormones need thyroxine to properly stimulate development of reproductive organs). Synergism occurs when more than one hormone produces the same effects in a target cell, and their combined effects are amplified (glucagon + epinephrine together stimulate more glucose release from the liver than when each acts alone). Antagonism occurs when one hormone opposes the action of another hormone (glucagon antagonizes insulin). Nervous system modulation allows hormone secretion to be modified by the nervous stimulation in response to changing body needs.
The pituitary gland is connected to the hypothalamus via a stalk, the infundibulum, and consists of two lobes: the anterior pituitary, or adenohypophysis, and the posterior pituitary, or neurohypophysis. Two neurohormones are synthesized by the hypothalamus and secreted by the posterior pituitary. Growth hormone (GH) indirectly (through insulin-like growth factors, IGFs) stimulates body cells to increase in size and divide. Direct effects are insulin-sparing: mobilization of fatty acids for fuel, inhibition of insulin activity, release of glucose from liver to blood, and stimulation of amino acid uptake by cells.
The thyroid gland consists of hollow follicles with follicle cells that produce thyroglobulin, and parafollicular cells that produce calcitonin. Thyroid hormone consists of two amine hormones: thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3), that act on all body cells to increase basal metabolic rate and body heat production. The parathyroid glands contain chief cells that secrete parathyroid hormone, or parathormone.
The adrenal glands, or suprarenal glands, consist of two regions: an inner adrenal medulla and an outer adrenal cortex.
The adrenal cortex produces corticosteroids from three distinct regions: the zona glomerulosa, the zona fasciculata, and the zona reticularis. The adrenal medulla contains chromaffin cells that synthesize epinephrine and norepinephrine (stimulus is acetylcholine released by preganglionic sympathetic fibers).
Insulin is an anabolic hormone and will stimulate not only glucose uptake but also storage in the form of glycogen (glycogenesis), fat (lipogenesis) and amino acid incorporation into proteins (inhibits amino acid breakdown by liver to form new glucose molecules - gluconeogenesis).
Stimuli for insulin release are primarily high blood glucose levels but insulin release is also potentiated by rising blood levels of amino acids and fatty acids and release of acetylcholine by parasympathetic neurons (all of these things happen after a meal).
Glucagon is released by the pancreas in response to low blood glucose levels (primarily) and raises blood glucose levels back to within normal range by stimulating glycogenolysis, gluconeogenesis, and release of glucose to the blood by the liver.
Indirectly receives input from the visual pathways in order to determine the timing of day and night. Adipose tissue produces leptin, which acts on the CNS to produce a feeling of satiety; secretion is proportional to fat stores. Adipocytes also produce adiponectin, which enhances insulin activity, and resistin, an insulin antagonist. Osteoblasts in bone produce osteocalcin, which stimulates pancreatic beta cells to divide and secrete more insulin. Adiponectin levels are low in type II diabetes, suggesting higher levels may help reverse the insulin resistance characteristic of type II diabetes. Endocrine glands derived from mesoderm produce steroid hormones; those derived from ectoderm or endoderm produce amines, peptides, or protein hormones. Environmental pollutants have been demonstrated to have effects on sex hormones, thyroid hormone, and glucocorticoids.
Toward the bottom of this page is a practice exam, almost the same as what you will see when you come to the campus to take the on-campus exam. The ear thermometer (on the right) doesn't contact the ear drum, so it is measuring the amount of infrared light emitting from the ear.
This digital thermometer measures the room temperature and can take readings of the ear or forehead. The ear and forehead measure the amount of infrared light (heat radiation) coming from the ear drum or the skin.
I've seen infrared based thermometers like in the picture used to measure the temperature of a wide variety of items at a distance. The science behind these devices is the use of an LED light and a photodiode (a light detector) that looks at the level of two forms of hemoglobin. Because of the heart beat, the level of hemoglobin in capillaries in the fingers are expanding and contracting with each heart beat.
Besides useful for people who have breathing problems, these are being used by pilots and mountain climbers who are at altitudes where oxygen levels are low and monitoring their oxygen saturation would be wise. When a nurses takes someone's pulse, they pump up the cuff to the point where they can't hear the pulse.
The low reading is called the diastolic pressure, which is the pressure when the heart is as rest. You may be surprised that there is a blood pressure cuff that uses an iPhone for the digital readout and storage.
The science behind these modern blood glucose (sugar) meters is to draw in a set amount of blood. I was surprised to see a home test for A1C because I heard doctors describe it as a specialized test. I couldn't find out exactly how these A1C test strips and meter work, but I imagine it's similar to the way the blood sugar test strips and meter work.
Protein in the urine (proteinuria) can indicate a kidney disease or some other serious condition. Ketones in the urine (ketonuria) indicate the body is having trouble using sugar for energy, so it's using fat and proteins instead.

Blood in urine (hematuria) gives people some anxiety but isn't always a reason for concern. Another way the density of urine is determined is by measuring how much it bends light (refracts light). When I worked at the Phoenix Crime lab back in the 70's, the breathalyzer available at that time used a solution of sulfuric acid and a salt called potassium dichromate.
I think the coolest (but not the cheapest) personal medical device is the portable ultrasound imaging machine.
What sensor in the left thermometer is responsible for detecting the temperature and name one of its ingredients? Answer: Percent (%) that hemoglobin is saturated (S) with oxygen (O2) in a peripheral (p) part of the body (for example, fingers). The below chart is from a urine test strip that measures the concentration of five different substances. If a person has a high reading for ketones, their urine (and breath) is likely to smell like what? The home pregnancy test will measure the presence of the hormone called human chorionic gonadotropin. Answer: A band at the T region is positive indication of the hormone and therefore indicates the one tested is pregnant. Answer: It means the test is complete and one should then look to see if a band is at the T region.
Answer: Cocaine, amphetamine, THC (marijuana), opiates like opium, morphine and heroin, and PCP. THC is tetrahydrocannabinol, which is the psychoactive chemical in the cannabis plant (marijuana). Unlike the pregnancy test, a band of color showing up at the T region on a drug test indicates what?
Answer: Methamphetamine is the same as amphetamine but methamphetamine has an extra methyl group on it. When ethyl alcohol (ethanol) is completely oxidized (burned) in a fuel cell, 12 electrons are produced as electrical current for each molecule of ethanol.
On the exam, you might be asked to balanced one or two of the compounds in the equation, but not the whole equation. As the alcohol gets converted to acetic acid, the potassium dichromate gets converted to chromium(III) sulfate, Cr2(SO4)3.
The initial color of the solution is yellow.  What is responsible for the yellow color? After the alcohol is turned into acetic acid, the solution is dark green.  What is responsible for that color? Let's say you were trapped in a mine and you took 1.2 liters of water and did electrolysis on it to get some oxygen, how many grams of oxygen would you get?
Which is the most predominant element in water if you base it on its percent of the weight of water? Which is the most predominant element in water if you base it on its percent of the number of atoms in water?
Glucagon has a major role in maintaining normal concentrations of glucose in blood, and is often described as having the opposite effect of insulin. The major effect of glucagon is to stimulate an increase in blood concentration of glucose. Glucagon also appears to have a minor effect of enhancing lipolysis of triglyceride in adipose tissue, which could be viewed as an addition means of conserving blood glucose by providing fatty acid fuel to most cells.
Knowing that glucagon's major effect is to increase blood glucose levels, it makes sense that glucagon is secreted in response to hypoglycemia or low blood concentrations of glucose.
Elevated blood levels of amino acids, as would be seen after consumption of a protein-rich meal: In this situation, glucagon would foster conversion of excess amino acids to glucose by enhancing gluconeogenesis. Exercise: In this case, it is not clear whether the actual stimulus is exercise per se, or the accompanying exercise-induced depletion of glucose.
In terms of negative control, glucagon secretion is inhibited by high levels of blood glucose.
Although insulin deficiency is clearly the major defect in type 1 diabetes mellitus, there is considerable evidence that aberrant secretion of glucagon contributes to the metabolic derangements seen in this important disease. She began writing professionally in 2002 as the Nutrition Editor for BellaOnline, the 2nd largest women's website on the internet and in the world.
Glucose tolerance test: untreated SHROB versus SHROB treated with antihyperglycemic agents and one antihypertensive agent. A collection of approximately 100 million cells work together throughout the body in order to keep the body working normally in the midst of changing external and internal environments. Collections of cells form tissues, of which there are four main types: muscle, cardiac, connective and epithelial.
Communicating with a cell begins with the selectively permeable phospholipid bilayer, known as the cell membrane. The skin composes a major portion of the integumentary system, which also consists of accessory structures such as hair, nails, sweat and oil glands.
However, there are many other important functions of the skeletal system as well, including the production of blood cells, storage of minerals, protection of internal organs and tissues as well as movement.
All three types of muscle are made up of excitable cells, meaning they are stimulated through nerves to contract or shorten. One way to communicate is through the nervous system, which is a fast and immediate type of communication. The heart works as the pump, and is it actually considered a a€?double pumpa€?, since the right side distributes blood towards the lungs for oxygenation, while the left side forces blood through the aorta so that oxygenated blood can circulate to the tissues. The respiratory system takes in atmospheric oxygen into the lungs where blood can become oxygenated, while allowing for carbon dioxide to be exhaled and eliminated from the blood. The digestive system breaks down ingested food into simple nutrients that can be used as cellular fuel.
These structures allow our body to eliminate wastes and get rid of any unnecessary fluids and electrolytes. The lymphatic system is composed of lymphatic vessels, nodules, nodes and other lymphoid tissue as well as immune cells. This principle applies to the boundary between the body and the external environment, and the boundaries between the intracellular and extracellular environments of cells. To put this into perspective, if a human body was a static system, it would not take in, nor would it eliminate anything from itself.
To compare to a human body, each day we consume enough energy-rich nutrients to match the amount of energy expend performing daily activities. If homeostatic control is not maintained, cells and metabolic reactions can no longer function properly.
Negative and positive feedback are mechanisms in which the body employs to maintain homeostasis. As mentioned before, pH regulation by acid-base balance in the blood is one example of negative feedback.
This stretch activates receptors in the cervix and uterus, which then relay signals to the control centers of the brain. The stimulus for GHRH release is low blood levels of GH as well as hypoglycemia, low blood levels of fatty acids, and high blood levels of amino acids. Hypersecretion of GH in childhood results in gigantism; in adulthood hypersecretion of GH causes acromegaly (increase in size of flat bones after epiphyseal plates of long bones have sealed).
Thryroid releasing hormone (TRH) from the hypothalamus stimulates TSH release; Thyroid hormone (Thyroxine) exerts negative feedback control of both TRH and TSH.
Excretion of ketoacids (with their negative charge) by the kidney is accompanied by loss of cations, particularly K+ and Na+. Secretion of resistin is proportional to fat stores; secretion of adiponectin is inversely proportional to fat stores. My motivation for doing it was partly because I think the average person should take advantage of the tools of science. That's a good opportunity to monitor health needs at home and to learn more about the science behind these devices and tests. As electronics got more miniaturized and sophisticated, devices like these have gotten cheaper and common place. Even after she got over the pneumonia, she would often complain about not being able to breath. A pressure of 126 mmHg meant the person's heart beat had the pressure to raise the mercury in the tube to a height of 126 millimeters (about 5 inches). The A1C test is a common blood test used to diagnose type 1 and type 2 diabetes and to gauge how well a person has been managing his or her diabetes.
The more the inner tube extends above the surface of the urine, the more dense the urine is. Anti-bodies are proteins created by the immune system to neutralize a foreign bacteria or virus, but also can attach itself to a specific protein. Dark green is after reacting with alcohol, which forms the dark green chromium(III) sulfate.
The device is a personal or portable breathalyzer for measuring blood alcohol content in the blood. Even though it's called the personal ultrasound device, it's marketed more to doctors than the average consumer, but eventually it will be affordable to consumers.
It means that it either adds oxygen atoms or it behaves like oxygen, which is to strip electrons away from things.
The reading is the percent of the hemoglobin in red blood cells that are coated with sugar (glucose). For most people, normal blood sugar levels range from 80 up to 140 – naturally fluctuating throughout the day. And cardiovascular disease happens much earlier in life and tends to be more deadly than for non-diabetics. Within the cell membrane are proteins that allow for the movement of materials into and out of the cell.

The 206 bones found within the body are of different shapes and sizes, all possessing features designed to provide specific functions. This contraction may allow for movement, help to force blood through blood vessels, or aid in the movement of ingested materials through the digestive tract.
Blood vessels within the circulatory system include an arterial system and a venous system. The respiratory system also protects against invasion of foreign pathogens, helps in the production of sounds for speaking, and aids in sense of smell.
The digestive system is made up of a long muscular tube and several accessory structures that allows for ingestion and digestion of food.
In addition to this, the urinary system also plays a large role in regulating blood volume, blood pressure and it also ensures the pH of blood falls within normal limits. While many microorganisms can infect humans and cause disease, there are certain types that benefit humans, such as those found in the digestive tract.
Collectively, these components help to defend against foreign pathogens entering from outside the body and also help to destroy cancer cells within the body. Basically, what this means is that an individual can quickly adapt to their environment so that normal health isna€™t disturbed. Positive feedback occurs when potentially hazardous or stressful processes must be completed quickly, with examples being childbirth and the blood clotting response. These centers then stimulate the release of a hormone called oxytocin, which is released into the blood and travel to the smooth muscle of the uterus to cause stronger uterine contractions. The control center then regulates a response, which is carried out by the effector (a muscle gland). The exam will ask questions about what you learn below plus there will be some questions from the online exam. As the temperature goes up, the electrical resistance comes down and that is converted to a temperature reading on the display.
For this wrist version, you can see the wave which is the changing levels of hemoglobin from which the pulse can be calculated.
Using a blood pressure monitor like the one in the picture could have warned him that his blood pressure was too high despite the medication he was taking. These are often placed on the wrist but not always as accurate as those placed on the upper arm. The glucose in the blood reacts with an enzyme called glucose oxidase that pulls 2 hydrogen atoms off of the glucose molecule. The science behind it must be like the blood glucose strips and meters, but with an additional enzyme to identify the level of cholesterol. The computer chip in the devices translate the degrees the light bends into density (specific gravity) of the urine. As the alcohol got converted, the potassium dichromate got converted to chromium(III) sulfate, Cr2(SO4)3.
Since people don't breath out hydrogen, then this test uses ethyl alcohol as the fuel to generate electricity.
Collectively, the central and peripheral nervous systems allow the body to receive information, process that information and convey commands to the body in response to the initial stimulus. This system requires the use of hormones, which travel throughout the bloodstream to act on a target tissue. Arteries carry blood away from the heart and towards tissues, while the venous system carries deoxygenated blood back to the heart. Mechanical and chemical breakdown of food occurs within the digestive tract so that nutrients can be absorbed into the bloodstream for distribution to the tissues. The four microorganisms involved in human disease are: protozoa, fungi, viruses and bacteria. In addition to immune defenses, the lymphatic system reabsorbs fluid from the interstitium and redistributes it back to the blood in the form of lymph.
Positive feedback is much rarer, though it is still extremely important during certain situations. If the body were to increase greater than the normal set point of 37.2 degrees Celsius, temperature receptors in the skin and brain send signals to the temperature control center in the brain.
Accordingly, these contractions cause greater stretch in the cervix, which sends more signals back to the brain to release oxytocin, resulting in even greater uterine contractions until eventually the baby is expelled from the mother.
The effector modifies a variable, which in turn affects the sensory information detected by the receptor.
However, after realizing how unsafe these were, you can't really find these in the stores anymore. One type of thermocouple is used by your gas water heater or gas oven to sense if the pilot light is on. In the hospital I noticed they used a device called the Pulse Oximeter to measure her pulse and oxygen levels.
That might have saved him the devastating effects from the stroke that he still suffers with.
The test strip has a reagent (a chemical that reacts with some other chemical) that is specific for acetoacetic acid (a common ketone found in urine). This is the same kind of instrument used to measure the charge of a battery (by measuring sulfuric acid density).
Saliva is placed on the bottom indentations, and it travels up the strip to where the letters are.
To make that conversion, an oxygen atom is added to the alcohol and a hydrogen atom is removed. SHR were fed a supplementary sweet drink to induce dietary obesity in these genetically lean rats. Some types of diffusion are passive, meaning energy is not required, while others are active, meaning energy is necessary to cause the movement of a substance from one area to another. Whether you are looking through binoculars, listening to music, eating a sandwich, smelling flowers or really doing anything, your nervous system is working! In turn, the brain would signal two effectors in the body, one being the smooth muscle of blood vessels near the skina€™s surface and the other being sweat glands. Childbirth highlights the exaggeration of the original stimulus (stretch on the cervix) seen in positive feedback.
However, when computers got smaller and less expensive, it was possible to own a computer and take advantage of everything it could do.
So the Breathalyzer had a light pass through the solution and the change in the color correlated with the amount of alcohol in the breath. A hormone can work in one of two ways: through steroid action or through non-steroid action. The secondary reproductive structures provide nourishment and transport routes for sexual reproduction to occur.
If these mechanisms fail and the pH diverges outside the required range, negative health consequences may occur such as neurological defects, uncontrollable sustained muscle contraction, or even coma. By relaxing smooth muscle in blood vessels near the skins surface, this redirects warm blood so that the body can radiate heat outside the body and the excretion of sweat dissipates heat as it evaporates from the skina€™s surface. It cost $200, but was very useful in discovering that her oxygen levels were truly very low. So we bought one of these automatic blood pressure monitors and checked his blood pressure about 3 times a day. One problem density can indicate is an imbalance in electrolytes such as potassium and sodium ions. The electron flows down a wire and is measured with an electrical meter which shows up as a reading on the display. To find the amount of alcohol in the blood, the machine multiplied by 2100 because the blood always has 2100 times more alcohol in it compared to the alcohol in the breath. In addition, hormones may be direct-acting or they may stimulate the release of another hormone into the blood. The metals that are selected to be sandwiched together to make these thermocouples can be chromium, nickel, copper, tungsten, and platinum. This prompted the doctor to prescribe a portable oxygen concentrator that gave her pure oxygen when she needed it. Again specific antibodies for each drug is present in the strip along with a dye attached to the antibody. The more alcohol present the more electron current will flow, which makes the reading go up.
Other examples of negative feedback mechanisms include those for regulating heart rate, respiration rate, blood-glucose levels, blood-oxygen levels as well as carbon dioxide levels in the blood.
As they are exposed to heat, they generate an electrical voltage, which can be converted to a reading on the display window. Blood cells live for 2 or 3 months, which is why this test gives you an idea of the blood sugar level over the last 2 or 3 months. Apparently the drug attaches to the antibody and dye and creates a group that is not carried along by the urine to the T area. This device is called a fuel cell because it is using alcohol as a fuel to generate electricity. Only if the drug is NOT present does the urine carry the antibody and dye combination to the T area. In the future, your cellphones will likely run off of drinking alcohol (ethyl alcohol) or methyl alcohol because alcohols can produce a lot more electricity for a longer period. Again, if the antibody-dye combination forms a line at the T area, then that drug was not present. In other words, your cellphone will stay charged for a month without adding more alcohol to it.

Xylitol hypoglycemia humans
Normal glucose level for 7 year old 97
Normal blood sugar hypoglycemia unawareness
Normal value for fasting blood sugar and random blood sugar


  1. 26.03.2015 at 23:22:44

    Glucagon from the pancreas levels down and eating foods that until it reaches.

    Author: TANK
  2. 26.03.2015 at 21:42:26

    Energy, hypoglycemia interferes with the.

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  3. 26.03.2015 at 13:59:53

    Noted that women over suffering from.

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  4. 26.03.2015 at 23:50:28

    Breakdown, and circulation problems, and to manage factors that.

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