Science, Technology and Medicine open access publisher.Publish, read and share novel research. Oxidative stress and the use of antioxidants in diabetes: linking basic science to clinical practice. Determination of the production of superoxide radicals and hydrogen peroxide in mitochondria.
High protonic potential actuates a mechanism of production of reactive oxygen species in mitochondria.
Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. Modern diabetes mellitus treatment will not protect you from the complications of diabetes.
The real key to healing Type 2 and prediabetes is reversing your cells' insulin resistance -- not just lowering your blood sugar. IntroductionDiabetes mellitus is a group of metabolic diseases characterized by hyperglycemia resulting from defects of insulin action, insulin secretion or both [1]. Modern treatments for diabetes mellitus or as it is most commonly known, type2 or type 1 diabetes, is based mainly upon the lowering of blood glucose through the use of prescription drugs.


Diabetes has taken place as one of the most important diseases worldwide, reaching epidemic proportions.
Drugs like Avandia or Glucophage are used to lower blood sugar and if they fail to do the trick, then the patient is instructed to self administer insulin injections and to constantly monitor their blood sugar.
Global estimates predict that the proportion of adult population with diabetes will increase 69% for the year 2030 [2].Hyperglycemia in the course of diabetes usually leads to the development of microvascular complications, and diabetic patients are more prone to accelerated atherosclerotic macrovascular disease. These complications account for premature mortality and most of the social and economical burden in the long term of diabetes [3]. In truth, no glucose-lowering drug has ever been shown to produce a reliable reduction in diabetic complications.
Increasing evidence suggests that oxidative stress plays a role in the pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus and its complications [4].
Hyperglycemia increases oxidative stress, which contributes to the impairment of the main processes that fail during diabetes, insulin action and insulin secretion.
In addition, antioxidant mechanisms are diminished in diabetic patients, which may further augment oxidative stress [5, 6].
Oxidative stress At the beginning of life, the organisms obtained their energy (ATP) by anoxygenic photosinthesis, for which oxygen was toxic.


Most of the metabolic pathways were developed during this anaerobic stage of life, in which oxygen came later. Cyanobacteria started producing oxygen from photosynthesis, which raised the atmospheric oxygen, and favored those organisms which have evolved into eukaryotic cells with mitochondria, able to use oxygen for a more efficient energy production [9].Whenever a cell’s internal environment is perturbed by infections, disease, toxins or nutritional imbalance, mitochondria diverts electron flow away from itself, forming reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS), thus lowering oxygen consumption.
This “oxidative shielding” acts as a defense mechanism for either decreasing cellular uptake of toxic pathogens or chemicals from the environment, or to kill the cell by apoptosis and thus avoid the spreading to neighboring cells [9]. The term “oxidative stress” has been used to define a state in which ROS and RNS reach excessive levels, either by excess production or insufficient removal. Being highly reactive molecules, the pathological consequence of ROS and RNS excess is damage to proteins, lipids and DNA [10]. Consistent with the primary role of ROS and RNS formation, this oxidative stress damage may lead to physiological dysfunction, cell death, pathologies such as diabetes and cancer, and aging of the organism [11].



Non fasting blood sugar levels canada chart
What is hypoglycemia nhs trust


Comments

  1. 22.08.2015 at 11:37:33


    The blood while dehydrating for the test.

    Author: Dasdafsdf
  2. 22.08.2015 at 15:41:17


    Newly released evidence is now showing that.

    Author: Jetkokos
  3. 22.08.2015 at 13:49:49


    Their levels were lower less likely to develop complications tiny patch.

    Author: aci_hayat