Shown below is a Blood Sugar Level Chart, simply designed for basic glucose and blood sugar testing. For more nutritional information, charts, health stats, worksheets, and other free printable items, visit any of the links shown on this page.
Click this link to exit the Blood Sugar Level Chart page, and visit the Main Health Info Page.Hit this link for a collection of Great American Recipes.
Our free blood sugar chart (or blood glucose chart) lets you track your blood sugar levels throughout the day. Print this blood sugar log and attach it to your fridge or wherever you typically test your blood sugar. With this Blood Sugar Chart spreadsheet you can enter your blood sugar test results and see those results plotted on a graph along with your recommended upper and lower blood sugar levels.
Remember to enter notes next to your entries regarding your diet and exercise so that you can see how they may be affecting your levels. Tracking your blood sugar level (or blood glucose level) is highly recommended to give you power over your body and health. Measuring your Blood Sugar Level: You can check your blood sugar level with a blood glucose meter at any time during the day, but generally people take them before meals and before they go to bed at night. Tracking Your Blood Sugar Level: After using the meter to find your blood sugar level, enter the date, time, level and any notes into the chart.
If you are on an exercise plan, ask your doctor for the best time to take your levels, to determine the affects your exercise plan is having.
American Diabetes Associaton at - Along with being a great resource for information on diabetes, the American Diabetes Association works towards preventing and finding the cure for diabetes.
Ask a Doctor Online Now!Blood pressure results from the force of the heart that pumps the blood into the arteries, and the force of the arteries as they resist the blood flow. It was found out that people with blood pressure within this range are at least risk to suffer from heart attack, stroke or other circulatory disorders (1), so it is often called optimal, ideal or healthy blood pressure range. Standing up for a while, exercising, stress and even appointment with a doctor can increase blood pressure for more than 10 mm Hg within few minutes, so an average value from several blood pressure measurements rather than one single measurement should be considered as actual blood pressure.
First value 120-139 ORsecond value 80-90 are considered as pre-high blood pressure or pre-hypertension. First value 140 or above ORsecond value above 90 are considered as high BP or hypertension.
Hypertension-or-High-Blood-PressureWhen arteries become narrow due to plaque deposition, the blood pressure increases against vascular walls. Blood-CholesterolCholesterol Deposit on the Walls of the blood vessels, leads to the formation of plaque, that narrows the blood vessels resulting into less or no blood flow.
Renovascular-HypertensionWhen kidney problems combine with high blood pressure, it leads to renovascular hypertension.
Orthostatic HypertensionWithin three minutes of standing there is a sudden fall of systolic and diastolic pressure. Hypertension and ObesityObese people have 60% more chance of getting affected with hypertension.
Pregnancy-Induced-Hypertension-This condition primarily strikes pregnant women in the 20th week of gestation. Hypertensive-Retinopathy-Prolonged and untreated Hypertension may lead to Hypertensive Retinopathy. Lower Blood Pressure Naturallyreduce stress, exercise regularly, maintain a healthy lifestyle, follow dash diet. By measuring blood pressure it can be checked if an individual has hypertension (high blood pressure), normal tension (normal blood pressure), or hypotension (low blood pressure). Blood pressure is created by the force of blood pushing against the walls of blood vessels (arteries) as it is pumped by the heart. Doctors and other health personnel who are measuring the blood pressure will record the difference between the period of momentary rest (relaxation) and maximum work (contraction) of the heart. Normal levels of both systolic and diastolic blood pressure are particularly important for the efficient function of vital organs such as the heart, brain and kidney and for overall health and well being. The normal blood pressure varies according to the age and gender of an individual. The normal blood pressure for men and woman may vary according to their age and current condition. Administration of insulin and dietary management are the mainstays of treatment in diabetic cats. Re-evaluations are initially scheduled at short intervals (Table 1) and include assessment of the owner’s observations with regard to the clinical signs, measurement of body weight, and determination of blood glucose and fructosamine levels. Prompt diagnosis of diabetes in cats should allow satisfactory treatment of the patient in most cases. Since this article was written a new Insulin (ProZinc by Boehringer Ingelheim) has launched, we hope to bring you an updated article in due course.
Also called as Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM), Gestational Diabetes is a condition that usually affects women during pregnancy.
The funny thing about GDM is that it can affect a pregnant woman who has never had any issues with her blood sugar levels in the past.
One of the most common causes for gestational diabetes in women is dysfunctional insulin receptors that do not perform their regular duties of processing glucose and absorbing excess sugar from the blood stream. Gestational Diabetes has very few outwardly symptoms and remains undetected till it is diagnosed by a glucose screening test usually taken during the third trimester of pregnancy. In case the patient in question has a family history of diabetes or had GDM during the previous pregnancy, the doctor would order for a couple of glucose screening tests during the initial prenatal visits (usually one during your first prenatal visit and then another test after the 24th week). In case the glucose screening test returns a positive result for GDM, the doctor would recommend a follow up test called the Glucose Tolerance Test (GTT) to confirm the condition.
In case a patient tests positive for Gestational Diabetes, the doctor would recommend a series of follow up and precautionary tests to make sure that the mother and baby remain safe throughout the pregnancy. Women with untreated GDM can suffer from conditions like pre-eclampsia, miscarriage or delivery problems. Babies born to mothers with GDM have higher risks of developing Type 2 Diabetes later on in their life. Women with GDM would be required to follow certain precautionary measures to make sure that they delivery their baby with minimum hassles. Women with Gestational Diabetes would need to maintain a constant check on their glucose levels and rush to the doctor in case they notice even a slight spike in the readings. Women with GDM would need to consult with a qualified nutritionist to ascertain the best diet plan that would help them deal with the condition during pregnancy and afterwards. The best diet plan for women with GDM would be one that incorporates the correct amount of calories, fats, proteins, good carbs, minerals and vitamins. Doctors usually recommend a 30 minute, moderate exercise program every day for women with Gestational Diabetes.
Although Gestational Diabetes can be treated with the help of proper diets and exercises, some women would still need additional help in the form of medications to thwart the side effects of the condition. This usually happens in severe cases where the blood sugar levels remain high even after dieting and exercising. Women who test positive for GDM after pregnancy would need to undergo additional glucose screening tests for the same.
It also allows you to enter in normal blood sugar levels, both high and low, so you can see how well you are staying within your healthy range. This printable blood sugar log allows you to write down your results no matter where you are.
For the A1C level chart, you can enter the level that your doctor recommends you stay close to. Tracking your blood sugar level along with your diet and exercise lets you see how to use diet and exercise to keep you at the right levels and stay healthy. Notes could include what food you ate, what exercises you did, or anything else that you think influences your levels.
Once the diastolic (the second reading) passes 90 it is not a good sign even if the systolic (first reading is under 140). When this pressure goes beyond normal blood pressure, it is called high blood pressure or hypertension.

Copying the lifestyle of hypertensive parents keep you at risk, but if a person practices healthier lifestyle, this factor will not take effect at all. The upper number is the Systolic blood pressure which is the highest pressure in the blood vessels, which happens when the heart contracts or beats. Systole refers to the maximum split-second of the heart which commonly occurs at the peak of the ventricular (lower chamber) contraction.
For instance, female individual may have different blood pressure readings if they are pregnant. Their only aim is to share their opinion on the concerned topic, and help the reader understand it better. Currently, there are 7 distinct classes of oral hypoglycaemics available but other than sulfonylureas they have either not been investigated or have shown only limited efficacy in cats.
The insulins of first choice in cats with uncomplicated diabetes are the intermediate-acting compounds. Fructosamine concentrations increase when glycaemic control worsens and decrease when glycaemic control improves.
A lower nadir can be seen with insulin overdosage, excessive overlap of insulin actions, lack of food intake and strenuous exercise.
If the duration is less than 8-10h animals usually show clinical signs of diabetes, if the duration is >14h the risk of developing hypoglycaemia or the Somogyi phenomenon increases. However, it is normal that after this phase adjustments will be needed, for example due to further β-cell loss or a change in insulin sensitivity due to concurrent disease. Check if insulin used by the owner is outdated, has been shaken, diluted, frozen or heated, and check if appropriate syringes are used. If no problem is identified, a work-up for diseases causing insulin resistance should be pursued.
Women in their third trimester are more prone to GDM which is characterized by abnormally high blood sugar levels in the mother’s body. That is why in most cases, the condition is left unchecked until it is pointed out by routine blood tests done during pregnancy. The reason for this dysfunction can be attributed to certain factors related to pregnancy (which explains why the condition is more prevalent in pregnant women).
Rather, the condition is known to be associated with certain risk factors during pregnancy.
In the case of GDM, the diagnostic test taken during pregnancy would show a sharp spike in glucose levels in the blood samples. They would also be asked to keep a close check on their baby’s movements inside the womb after the 28the week of pregnancy. The doctor would also require them to visit the clinic more often for tests that would monitor the baby’s growth and activity levels. The condition can lead to birth defects (in the major organs of the body) in the newborn, excess birth weight or obesity (both during and after pregnancy), low blood sugar levels, jaundice, seizures and even still birth. They can also suffer from obesity and organ related ailments (pertaining to the heart, lungs and kidneys).
Women with GDM are usually urged to avoid skipping meals (especially breakfast) and to refrain from snacking on sugary items like cookies, cakes, candies, chocolates, sodas etc.
In these cases, the doctor would recommend the use of oral medications like anti-diabetic drugs or insulin injections to reduce the blood sugar levels in the body. However, some women would continue to have GDM or Impaired Glucose Tolerance (glucose levels would be high but not in par with diabetic conditions) even after pregnancy. Next to each entry, you can enter notes about your diet and exercise, to see how they affect your levels. You can also show your healthcare provider your results to help them provide you with a better care plan.
Because the average life of a red blood cell is about 4 months, this test will give you a good idea of how you've been doing for the past 2 to 3 months. As you can imagine, the danger lies in the situation – a blackout while driving or when walking down stairs can cause serious injury and even lead to death. The lower number is the diastolic blood pressure which is the lowest pressure in blood vessels in-between heartbeats when the heart muscle relaxes.
On the other hand, the diastole refers to the maximum split-second of the heart when the atrium (upper chamber) fills blood to the ventricle during peak of cardiac relaxation. The most common factor which makes the woman’s blood pressure different from man is the hormonal activity. This is because the hormonal activity and the developing baby can alter the normal reading of female’s blood pressure. Good or bad, Right or wrong is solely readers decision and should be taken under the guidance of a medical expert. Contrary to the canine situation, diabetic cats have a relatively high chance of remission with appropriate treatment. Sulfonylureas, of which glipizide is the drug most often used in cats, stimulate insulin secretion and some β-cell function is required for the drug to be effective. Availability of preparations varies, but porcine-derived lente-type insulin is licensed for feline use in many countries. Since even well controlled diabetic cats are slightly to moderately hyperglycaemic throughout the day, fructosamine will not usually become completely normal during therapy. Duration of action may improve with dietary manipulation, but if this is not successful changing to an insulin with a different action profile is indicated. Where clinical signs persist despite therapy a stepwise approach to the problem is recommended. Verify the owner’s method of mixing, drawing up and injecting insulin, and review the dietary regimen. HM should be considered, enabling frequent sampling without the stress of the hospital visit. Feline diabetes mellitus in the UK: the prevalence within an insured cat population and a questionnairebased putative risk factor analysis. Frequency of feline diabetes mellitus and breed predisposition in domestic cats in Australia. Hyperglycaemia but not hyperlipidaemia causes beta cell dysfunction and beta cell loss in the domestic cat. Evaluation of serum feline pancreatic lipase immunoreactivity and helical computed tomography versus conventional testing for the diagnosis of feline pancreatitis. Treatment of newly diagnosed diabetic cats with glargine insulin improves glycaemic control and results in higher probability of remission than protamine zinc and lente insulins. Field safety and efficacy of protamine zinc recombinant human insulin for treatment of diabetes mellitus in cats.
Comparison of a low carbohydrate-low fiber diet and a moderate carbohydrate-high fiber diet in the management of feline diabetes mellitus. Indoor confinement and physical inactivity rather than the proportion of dry food are risk factors in the development of feline type 2 diabetes mellitus.
The effect of feeding time on the quality of metabolic control, dayto-day variability of blood glucose curves and evaluation of IGF-1 levels in cats with diabetes mellitus.
Evaluation of long-term home monitoring of blood glucose concentrations in cats with diabetes mellitus: 26 cases (1999-2002).
If left untreated, the condition can lead to potential threats in the pregnancy, and in the worst case scenario, can endanger the life of both the mother and the child. One particular factor is the human placental lactogen found in the womb that interferes with the function of the insulin receptors.
Frequent ultrasounds (bio physical profiles) and fetal heart monitoring tests would also be conducted on the patient in question after 32 weeks to make sure that the fetus develops normally and does not get affected by the side effects of GDM.
Women with GDM can also contract type 2 Diabetes Mellitus after pregnancy and would need to be treated for the same. These tests can be done at a local clinic or at home using home glucose strips or a home glucose meter.

In addition to this, the women in question would need to undergo a glucose screening test once every three years after a pregnancy to make sure their blood sugar levels remain normal. You can also keep track of your A1C levels (also referred to as hemoglobin HbA1c levels), which you get tested by your doctor. Also if your low blood pressure is related to problems with your heart rate or cardiac output then this can lead to complications like clot formation.
Female hormones such as estrogen and progesterone play an important role in influencing the woman’s blood pressure.
This is defined as normalization of blood glucose and fructosamine levels and resolution of clinical signs and glucosuria without further need of anti-diabetic therapy, and may occur in up to 50% of cats, usually within the first 3 months of therapy.
Glipizide should only be used in diabetic patients who are in good physical condition, are non-ketotic and have only moderate severity of symptoms. Note that in some cats this insulin lasts for less than 12h, and in fact the problem of short action is well recognized in cats and applies not only to lente-type but also various other kinds of insulin.
This is very different from many commercial cat foods which have a high carbohydrate percentage.
In contrast, a normal fructosamine level (especially if in the lower half of the reference range) should raise concerns about prolonged periods of hypoglycaemia, e.g. This part of the problem-solving protocol is often omitted, but technical errors are frequently the cause of poor diabetes regulation.
When the insulin receptors fail to do their job well, excess sugar mixes with the blood stream causing extremely high blood sugar levels. Women with GDM would need to check with a physical trainer to ascertain the best exercises for them during pregnancy.
It depends on the cause of your hypotension but it should be ignored with the readings you report. Below is the chart that indicates the different normal level of woman’s blood pressure according to age. Below is the chart that shows the different normal readings male individual’s blood pressure. Good glycemic control reverses the effect of glucose toxicity; treatment initiated as soon as the diagnosis is made increases the chance of remission. An additional issue is that insulin absorption may be inconsistent, causing erratic blood glucose concentrations.
Several studies indicate that using low-carb, high protein diet results in better clinical control and increased rates of diabetic remission (9,10).
It is very important to identify the exact cause, because treatment decisions will vary with the cause. This can be overcome by the owner performing BGC at home, sometimes called home-monitoring (HM) (Figures 5 and 6).
The most relevant problems are pancreatitis, pancreatic neoplasia, HC, hypersomatotropism, infection of oral cavity or urinary tract, chronic kidney disease, or obesity.
Treatment should be initiated immediately after diagnosis and most cats can be adequately stabilized within the first 3 months of therapy, but note that remission occurs in up to 50% of cats. However, treatment success is only ~ 30% and the drug may negatively affect islets, leading to accelerated loss of remaining β-cells.
In human diabetes the same problem exists and has led to the recent development of insulin analogues; currently the most frequently-used compound is a substance known as insulin glargine. If the blood glucose remains high the dose should not be adjusted immediately, as it takes a few days for full insulin action to develop (so-called equilibration). These findings are in concert with the AAHA diabetes mellitus guidelines (11) which recommend feeding a high-protein diet (>45% protein metabolisable energy) and the lowest amount of carbohydrate levels the cat will eat. Owners are introduced to HM approximately 3 weeks after starting therapy, determining fasting blood glucose twice weekly (to practice blood sampling as well as to detect hypoglycaemia) and a BGC is recommended at least monthly. HC and hypersomatotropism (Figure 7) have the potential to cause the most severe insulin resistance. Periodic re-evaluations are essential and should include assessment of clinical signs and body weight, generation of a BGC and fructosamine measurement. Owners may find it difficult to treat their cats; it is therefore essential to supply detailed information on all relevant technical aspects of the disease and to ensure ready access to veterinary support whenever needed.
Since glipizide offers no medical advantage over insulin it should only be used in cases in which the owner is unable to inject insulin. Canned foods may be preferred over dry food due to their lower carbohydrate levels and lower caloric density; this also allows easy portion control and assists with additional water intake (11).
Single glucose measurements are usually insufficient to assess metabolic control, and the generation of serial blood glucose curves (BGC), where blood glucose is measured every 2h over approximately 12h, is recommended.
Many owners are able and willing to perform HM on a long-term basis and in a recent survey all owners pointed out that HM had raised their self-confidence with regard to their ability to manage the disease in their pets (14).
Clinical signs may range from mild to severe and concurrent disease may not be suspected until it becomes evident that the diabetes is difficult to regulate.
Nevertheless, any slight changes with the systole and diastole for several readings will help diagnose the condition of the person.
Treatment should follow a precise and comprehensible protocol (Table 1), and written instructions are of great value.
Glargine may be a suitable alternative for cats in which duration of action of lente-type insulin is too short for metabolic control and it has been postulated that the remission rate is higher in cats treated with glargine than with other types of insulin (7). Since obesity-induced insulin resistance is almost completely reversible, and even slight to moderate weight loss improves metabolic control, weight reduction should be strongly encouraged in overweight cats (approximately 1% per week). Normally insulin and food is given at home and the BGC initiated (either at home or at the hospital) as soon as possible thereafter. Note some variability is also seen in BGCs performed at home, and therefore a single curve may be misleading. However, the number of published cases is still small and therefore a definitive conclusion is not possible.
One of the most important periods in the owner’s care of a diabetic pet is when the veterinarian discusses the technical aspects of the treatment. The most important parameters to assess with a BGC are glucose nadir and duration of effect (Figure 4). In complicated cases, more than one curve can be performed before any treatment decision is made (15,16). The owner should be able to mix the insulin correctly (rolling the bottle gently, avoiding shaking; note glargine is a clear solution that does not require rolling), load a syringe without air bubbles, and inject the insulin subcutaneously over the lateral chest wall. Furthermore, some high protein, low carbohydrate diets are also very energy dense, which can be counterproductive to successful weight management control. A recent study (12) noted that physical inactivity and indoor confinement may be independent risk factors for the development of diabetes in cats. Timing of feeding relative to insulin administration does not seem to be critical; the quality of metabolic control in cats receiving their meal along with the insulin injection does not differ from cats fed 45 minutes after insulin administration (13). The owner should be advised not to heat or freeze the insulin, and although insulin is not inactivated at room temperature, it should be stored in the refrigerator.
In the author’s experience, insulin maintains its activity for several months when handled correctly and a bottle should only need replacing when there is unexplainable worsening of glycemic control. In cats close supervision is of particular importance during the first months because diabetic remission is possible; if this goes unnoticed and insulin administration is continued serious hypoglycaemia may result. Most cats go into remission during the first 3 months of therapy, however, remissions after one year or longer are possible.

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