2 Introduction to The Human Endocrine System The purpose of the Endocrine system is to aid in maintaining homeostasis. 4 Hormones Hormones are produced and secreted into the blood stream by the endocrine glands. 7 (What’s Metabolism?) The sum of the chemical reactions occurring within a cell or a whole organism; includes the energy-releasing breakdown of molecules (catabolism) and the synthesis of new molecules (anabolism). 12 Negative Feedback In a negative feedback system some factor, such as blood pressure, changes. 13 The Pituitary Gland: The Master Gland An outgrowth from the base of the fore-brain and in direct nervous contact with it. 15 The posterior lobe of the pituitary stores and releases hormones which have been produced by the hypothalamus. 17 The ANTERIOR Pituitary The anterior lobe of the pituitary, unlike the posterior lobe, produces its own hormones.
24 Control of Pituitary Hormone Secretions : Brought about by the hypothalamus, which monitors the levels of hormones and other chemicals in the blood and forms a connection between the nervous and endocrine systems. 25 Control of Secretions from the Anterior Pituitary The hypothalamus contains neurosecretory cells which produce and release pituitary hormone releasing factors into the capillaries in the upper part of the anterior pituitary these releasing factors stimulate specific cells in the anterior pituitary to produce and release the various tropins and other hormones of the anterior pituitary into the blood leaving the pituitary gland, to be carried to their target organs.
26 Control of the secretions from the posterior pituitary Unlike the anterior pituitary, the posterior pituitary does not actually produce its own hormones. 32 The Parathyroid Glands: These are located as two pairs of small glands on either side of the thyroid gland They secrete parathormone which increases plasma calcium concentrations (opposite effect to calcitonin) Parathormone stimulates the breakdown of calcium in the bones and causes it to be released into the blood. 33 Over secretion of parathormone: Hyperparathyroidism causes the bones to soften due to excess calcium released from the bone.
34 Under secretion of parathormone: Hypoparathyroidism causes muscle cramps due to lack of calcium for muscle contraction, it is all absorbed into bone.
35 The Adrenal Glands: These are located just above each kidney They consist of two layers, an outer cortex and an inner medulla.
36 Secretions from the adrenal cortex: Glucocorticoids - the most important being cortisol (a steroid hormone). These stix are available at any brick-and-mortar or Internet pharmacy that sells human diabetic supplies.
If the foil-wrapped Ketostix, rather than the ones in vials are purchased, you may find it less wasteful. Some reasons for preferring testing glucose levels by using blood over urine testing is that the urine used in testing may have been in the bladder for hours.
Urine testing [6] also makes it more difficult to determine whether any hyperglycemia noted is the result of a Somogyi rebound pattern or a true need for an increase in insulin dosage.
It's important to time the test accurately and not take into account any color changes on the Ketostix strip which occur after 15 seconds. In a diabetic, any urinary ketones above trace, or any increase in urinary ketone level, or trace urinary ketones plus some of the symptoms above, are cause to call an emergency vet immediately, at any hour of the day.

If you are testing urine for glucose, the time you test likely affects results in this way: mid-day urine glucose tests would reflect the nadir of glucose in the system--this also represents the peak of the insulin.
When the bg readings are high enough to produce some ketones, you've taken action to bring them down and they are normal once more, it is possible to still see some positive urine ketone test results.
If your pet is taking any type of vitamin supplements, it should be noted on his or her medical records.
Because most urine tests measure acetoacetic acid, and not the most commonly found beta-hydroxybutyrate acid, it is possible to have ketones present and get a negative urine test result.
Further, it's also possible to have high levels of beta-hydroxybutyrate acid, get a negative urine ketone test result, but to have the test turn positive as the ketosis improves, due to the tests' measuring acetoacetic acid and not beta-hydroxybutyrate acid. Positive-Any other color except yellow or clear [73] May be the result of other disease processes.
Cornell University-Feline Health Center-Urine Monitoring Flash MovieHow to Read Ketone Test Strips. OBJECTIVES ? Review pancreatic hormones ? Synthesis, secretion, mechanism of action and functions of insulin. Aetiology of Diabetes Aetiology of Diabetes Type 1 Diabetes (10-15%) results when the body’s immune system destroys its own beta cells in the pancreas. Their effects are long term, controlling functions such as growth, metabolism, maturity and the balance of chemicals in the body. The Pituitary Gland Structure The pituitary gland consists of two lobes, the anterior and the posterior lobes. The hormones travel by way of specialized nerve cells from the hypothalamus to the pituitary. Like the posterior lobe, the anterior lobe is richly supplied with nerves from the hypothalamus. The hormones released from the posterior pituitary are produced in the hypothalamus and pass down neurosecretory cells into the cells of the posterior pituitary.
In adults this condition causes over- activity, decreased body weight, increased heart rate and blood pressure, which can lead to heart failure - called thyrotoxicosis.
This hormone stimulates the conversion of proteins and fats to glucose for use in cellular respiration and makes available amino acids for protein synthesis necessary for the repair of cells.
These are reagent indicator strips that test urine for only ketone (ketostix) or for both ketones and glucose (ketodiastix). Stix do expire, so check the unopened expiration date when you buy them and record the date you open them.
You may test your pet's urine for glucose because you've been instructed to do so by the vet as a method of gauging regulation or your pet is undiagnosed and you want to determine whether there is hyperglycemia.
Because of this, it may not be a reliable indicator of what systemic glucose levels are at the time of testing. Ketones evaporate quickly, so there's a chance of getting a false negative test result if you're testing older urine.

If you see any color change in the glucose portion of the stix, that means that your pet has exceeded its renal threshold since it last urinated. EMERGENCY CASE Decreased Glucose transport into tissues leads to Hyperglycemia, which gives rise to Glucosuria, Increased Lipolysis leads to formation of Ketone bodies, Resulting in Ketonemia and Ketonuria. Hormones are chemical regulators produced by cells in one part of the body that affect cells in another part of the body. Seeing negative urine glucose test, especially repeated negative ones, can mean the pet is approaching hypoglycemia. When you're getting normal bg readings, it means that there are no more ketones being produced. Others catch urine in a dedicated spoon, ladle, or other collection device and dip the stix into the urine.
Acetone is exhaled in Lungs and passed out in breath, Acetoacetic acid and ?- Hydroxybutyric acid causes acidosis [HCO3-] in blood falls causing Metabolic acidosis and more Carbonic acid (H2CO3) is formed, Carbonic acid is converted to CO2, which then stimulates respiratory center to remove excess CO2. It is for this reason that the pituitary gland is often called the master gland, as it regulates the secretions of a number of other endocrine glands. Hormones are secreted from the nerve ends of the cells of the hypothalamus and transported in the blood to the pituitary gland. Goiter is when there is no iodine, therefore the precursor to thyroglobin builds up in the thyroid gland. Knowing that the pet's blood glucose levels are too low means that you can take action with a sugar source or some food to ward off a possible hypo episode.
Note that positive urinary glucose results are not indicative of your pet's blood glucose level at the time it urinated. What you are seeing when you test urine for ketones and the blood glucose is in normal ranges are the "leftovers" of the ketones which were produced by the high bg episode.
Most of these hormones activate specific cells in the pituitary, causing the release of pituitary hormones, which are then carried by the blood to target tissues. You are then only using what you need when you need it, having the rest still sealed and potent until the indicated expiration date.
They will continue to show up in the urine for a while but their concentration will become less and less until they're gone. Receptors in the carotid arteries detect the change in blood pressure and send a message to the brain. Be sure to read the colors at those time intervals because the colors will continue to darken and a later reading will be an incorrect result.

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  1. 12.08.2014 at 22:35:44

    Tough to get a reading on your from mother to baby to provide.

    Author: Lelli
  2. 12.08.2014 at 23:54:20

    And I think that is what had it under control before.

    Author: Kavkazec
  3. 12.08.2014 at 20:29:51

    Minutes and do not start driving depending on your glucose levels at diagnosis.

    Author: Olmez_Sevgimiz