The finding gives hope to British men suffering from prostate cancerDr Schwartz and colleagues at Wake Forest University in North Carolina in the U.S. Prostate cancer develops in the prostate, which is a gland in the male reproductive systemDr Schwartz said it was unclear whether it was calcium or parathyroid hormone, which is supposed to keep calcium levels under control, that is doing the damage. PW allows us to measure blood velocities at a single point, or within a small window of space. This is an example of PW at the left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) in the apical long axis. The close up on the right (circled in red) shows exactly where the machine is measuring velocities, in between the two small horizontal lines, as determined by the sonographer.
When the blood moves too fast, it cannot accurate give the velocity based on Doppler shift and a phenomenon called aliasing occurs, as shown below.
This is an example of PW with the depth of interest positioned at the mitral valve inflow level.
This is an example of CW across the LVOT and aortic valve in the 5 chamber view in someone with aortic stenosis.
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In a major breakthrough, scientists have shown that men with high levels of calcium in their blood are almost three times as likely to be killed by the disease. It requires the ultrasound probe to send out a pulsed signal to a certain depth (chosen by the operator) and then stay quiet and just listen for the reflected frequency shift from that particular depth.
The narrow window of PW often creates this appearance because with laminar flow there is a small set of velocities measured at any given time point. It requires the probe to continuously send out pulses of ultrasound along a line and continuously listen for the multitude of reflected frequency shifts that are coming back. It leads to the title in accordance with the Wikipedia naming conventions for capitalisation, or it leads to a title that is associated in some way with the conventional capitalisation of this redirect title.
With calcium tests easy to carry out and calcium-lowering drugs already on the market, it means doctors might be able to save some of the 10,000 lives lost to the cancer each year in the UK alone. The computer has already translated all of the Doppler frequency shifts it sees into velocities using the Doppler equation. In systole, the mitral regurgitation jet is aliased as the machine cannot easily assign speed or direction to the blood flow. In other words the ultrasound probe is never quiet and just listening for returned frequencies as with PW; it is both sending and receving all of the time. We know using PW above and below the valve (and inference from 2D images showing a stenotic aortic valve) that the blood flow acceleration is at the level of the aortic valve. It has two crystals, one for transmitting continuous ultrasound and one for receiving and is sometimes used in cases of aortic stenosis to get the highest velocity jet.


Because the machine has a waiting time to listen for a return, there is limit to how fast it can accurately measure the velocity of blood flow. Because of this, we are able to use continuous wave Doppler to pick up very high velocity flows, ones which PW cannot accurately measure. Note there is no 2D picture to help guide the positioning of the probe, which instead is dependent on sonographer experience. Many white points (from many doppler shift frequencies) make up the nice flow profile shown above. Unfortunately the disadvantage is that we cannot pinpoint where along the line that velocity is coming from.
Hence a combination of PW and CW are used in many cases to pointpoint both velocity and location of a particular blood flow jet of interest. It can be fatal for some men but others live with a low-grade cancer with minimal or no impact on their longevity. Think of the tremendous advances in the control of cardiovascular disease that occurred from understanding that things like blood cholesterol predict heart attack.' Confirmation of the findings could lead to men with high calcium being prescribed calcium lowering drugs, several of which are already used to treat kidney problems.



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