A video from the Canadian Hemochromatosis Society answering the question - What is Hemochromatosis?
Health-e-Iron LLC, is an affiliate of Iron Disorders Institute (IDI) and the Hemochromatosis Foundation. Directly below is a graphic of our Risk Analysis Table that covers the primary biochemical measures scored according to our risk assessment tool, FeGGT LifePro™. Health-e-Iron note: the above model represents the blood test component of our risk algorithm for adult men.
The below example was derived from one of more than 100 studies focused on elevated Gamma Glutamyl Transferase (GGT), as a factor in health and mortality risk. Health-e-Iron note: we have prepared an analysis using the data from the above study based upon the distribution of deaths attributed to elevated GGT in Austria.
Health-e-Iron note: many other similar tables and graphs are located on our Science Library pages and in our Health Risk Calculator section.
Health-e-Iron and Iron Disorders Institute have recently designed a proprietary test panel called FeGGT LifePro™.
Unfortunately, most physicians are not yet familiar with the recent scientific advances in this important area of health.
Our Health Risk Calculator section will guide you in determining your risk of disease and early mortality according to the below table.
If you experience symptoms such as severe or increased thirst, frequent urination, unexplained weight loss or weigh gain, increased hunger, a  tingling feeling on your hands or feet, your doctor needs to run a test for diabetes. The A1C is the most popular and best examine to check if you have diabetes or are at risk of getting it. The AIC test is different and we sometimes nickname it “El Chismoso” (The Gossip) because it tells on you. If you ARE NOT diabetic but think you might be or if it runs in your family, it is very important to get screened.
Either way, if you are close to being diabetic or your number is high, you need to make changes to your nutrition and exercise so you can avoid complications such as blindness, amputations, heart attack, stroke, kidney failure, and other complications.
This test is also called glycated hemoglobin, glycosylated hemoglobin and HbA1c, but for short, it is simply called “A1C”. An international committee of diabetes experts recommended in 2009 that the A1C be used to diagnose both Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes, and prediabetes.
Usually you must request the A1C from your doctor as doctors do not usually volunteer to recommend one, unless you tell them of your risks including diabetes running in your family or if you are obese. Your doctor may order a Fasting Plasma Glucose Test or Casual Plasma Glucose to confirm the diagnosis of type 2 diabetes.
Aside from the A1C, this is a preferred method for diagnosing diabetes because it is easy to do, convenient, and less expensive than other tests. This test is usually done only during pregnancy to diagnose gestational diabetes or for a pregnant woman who is suspected of having type 2 diabetes but have a normal fasting glucose level. It is important for people with diabetes to have a dilated eye exam at least once a year as part of their complete eye exam.
A foot exam once or twice a year, or at every doctor’s visit is also key to detect decreased circulation and sores that may not be healing.
Talk to your doctor about your child’s risk for diabetes, especially if they are overweight or if you have diabetes. First, go to our Who Should be Tested page and select the conditions or Baseline Risk factors that you know you already have. Then select one of  three tables from below based on your gender, and if your a female, your menopausal status. The total of your FeGGT LifePro™ blood test Risk Score when added to your Baseline Risk Score will be between zero (0) and a theoretical maximum of 35 Total Risk Score Points.
Individuals over the age of 70 can reduce their FeGGT LifePro™ blood test and therefore their total Risk Scores by 1 point; and those over the age of 75 by 2 points. High, Very High and above blood test scores among those in mid-life and younger predict relatively worse outcomes when compared to age-matched peers having comparable Baseline Risk Scores. For individuals with relatively high GGT, well-tolerated dietary modifications including replacing some or all foods like red and processed meats and most "fast foods" with a diet based on, or including, regular consumption of ample portions of nutrient dense, whole foods containing natural antioxidants and other protective nutrients or food constituents. Individuals with FeGGT LifePro™ GGT scores of 5 or above, combined with one iron score of 3 or above (either SF or TS) should add 2 risk points to their score. Importantly, those with the overall highest risk scores can expect to achieve the greatest improvement in risk scores by adhering to a healthy diet regimen, and when indicated, reducing their iron levels. Conversely, the scientific literature demonstrates that those with blood test Risk Scores of zero (0) will not be able achieve a degree of risk reduction commensurate with what can be achieved by higher-risk individuals. Another similar bar graph from a large study done in Italy demonstrates results consistent with the above graphs. Figure 1 from study #13 on our IRON-Cancer page appears directly below (with minor labeling adaptations).
Figure 1—Age-adjusted ORs (95% CI) for the 6-year incidence of the IDF-defined metabolic syndrome according to high ferritin and transferrin levels (both above the upper tertiles) (A), lower ferritin and high transferrin levels (B), high ferritin and lower transferrin levels (C), and lower ferritin and lower transferrin levels (D). Figure 1—Standardized ORs for the 3-year incidence of hyperglycemia (IFG or type 2 diabetes) according to baseline iron biomarkers and CRP (independent variables) after adjustment for baseline age, BMI, WHR, and glucose and insulin concentrations in the DESIR study. Figure 1 Serum ferritin levels in male (white boxes) and female (grey boxes) individuals discriminated according to the presence or absence of defining criteria of the insulin resistance syndrome (A–F). Together, our affiliation comprises the largest iron-health public interest organization in the world.
This science-based special test panel measures both your iron status and the adequacy of your antioxidant defense system. Models adjusted to gender and menopausal status are available on our our Health Risk Calculator section. You will find many similar Relative Risk matrices throughout the Science Library pages of our web site.
Note that GGT is a significantly more powerful in predicting new cases of diabetes than obesity alone, even when BMI is above 30 or 35.
Note that in this large population study from Austria, elevated GGT, even when well-within the "normal" range, was associated with significant premature mortality risk across all of the leading causes of death. In this study of 826 men living in Austria, "serum ferritin was one the strongest risk predictors of overall progression of atherosclerosis." Note that the serum ferritin levels of Austrian men are significantly lower than those of American men.

Crude and regression-standardized risks of incident atherosclerosis (1990 to 1995) according to ferritin quintiles. This unique panel includes all of the measures required to calculate your body's iron levels plus a test for serum gamma glutamyltransferase (GGT). Test analysis will be in accordance with Iron Disorder Institute's reference ranges established by its 22-member Medical and Scientific Advisory Board. It tells you what your average blood sugar level is for the past 90 days; 3 months, giving a much better picture of your average daily blood sugar levels. This test can tell you for sure if you are or not, or warn you if you are getting close to being pre-diabetic so you can make changes to your lifestyle. Chronically elevated blood glucose can lead to serious complications, such as damage to the cardiovascular system, nerves, kidneys and eyes. If you have Type 2 diabetes that does not require insulin, and your blood sugar is regularly under control, the test is usually taken twice a year.
If you do not have health insurance, you can call “211” for referral to a low-cost clinic or find a clinic in the Latino Diabetes Association Low-Cost or Free Community Clinic Directory.
This can detect early signs of Diabetes Retinopathy, which is the leading cause of blindness in the U.S. Early detection of eye and foot problems in diabetes allows your doctor to prescribe proper treatment. Most of the time, diabetes is discovered when a blood or urine test taken for other health problems shows the presence of diabetes. If your child’s blood sugar tests are higher than normal, but not yet at the level of diabetes (called prediabetes), ask your doctor for a specific diet and exercises to prevent your child from getting diabetes.
Then add the red Risk Points (all equal to 1Risk Point) to arrive at your total Baseline Risk Score. Nuts, whole grain breads, fruits and vegetables, legumes (including peanut butter), coffee, chocolate and cocoa rank among the best of healthy food choice (see our GGT & Healthy Foods and More Healthy Foods Science Library pages). As indicated by the scientific literature on this web site and elsewhere, following these important guidelines can improve both future blood test results and several Baseline Risk Factors in the process. We believe after doing so most people will be able to envision the bases upon which our risk algorithms are constructed. The bar graft below can be viewed in the Free full text article #12 available on our GGT-Diabetes page. This was a population of male construction workers who were reported to experience a significantly higher premature mortality rate than age-matched, white-collar workers in Germany. 2 Meta-analysis of prospective studies of risk of any cancer (transferrin saturation ?60% vs. High and low levels were defined according to the three groups: men, premenopausal women, and postmenopausal women (DESIR). Geometric mean values of serum ferritin are shown for premenopausal women (black bar), postmenopausal women (white bar), and men (gray bar).
1 Odds ratios and 95% CIs for the association of clinically raised ferritin (group 5) vs ferritin in the normal range (groups 1–4) with incident diabetes in men and women, with adjustment for factors as stated (described in methods). You can read and see more about this tool and how it works on our on our About FeGGT LifePro™ page.
We recommend visiting our Who Should be Tested page first to see how our risk scoring system works.
Note also that elevated GGT increases the risk of diabetes in normal weight people by 3 fold. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% CIs of newly recognized diabetes (205 cases) by category of BMI and quartiles (Q) of serum GGT. In this large study of 283,438 men and women (median age 50 yrs.) only 37% of the study population had baseline GGT in the lowest risk category.
And as noted above, Austrian men enjoy an average two-year life expectancy advantage over American men.
Over the last decade, GGT has proved to be an accurate measure of the body's natural antioxidant status.
We strongly encourage you to review the scientific literature that is contained on this website and through the links we've provided to the U. Unless you have been previously diagnosed with an iron-related condition or a liver disease, it is not likely that your physician would have ordered these tests for you. As a comparison, using a glucose meter is very important to do every day to monitor how your blood sugar is doing, but it is limited because it can only tell you what your blood sugar is at that moment you check your blood. So if you ARE diabetic you need to know how you have been doing in the past 90 days, especially if you have not been feeling good, not taken good care of yourself, or seen your doctor in a while. By monitoring blood sugar levels over a period of months, you and your doctor can see whether you are successfully keeping your diabetes under control. For persons who are not controlling their diabetes or have just been diagnosed, the test is often ordered more frequently. Also check your feet daily with a mirror on a carpeted floor if you cannot see the bottom of your feet. High iron and  GGT combine synergistically to cause cell, tissue, DNA and organ damage.
The bar graft below can be viewed in the Free full text article #13 available on our GGT-Diabetes page.
This results in part by the release of iron from transferrin, a pro-oxidant capacity of elevated GGT that is described in several articles in our libraries.
Based on 8,763 individuals from the Copenhagen City Heart Study followed for 15 years, during which time 1,417 developed cancer.
OR and 95% confidence interval (CI) for type 2 diabetes according to joint classification of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and ferritin concentrations.
This service is provided through a partnership with Direct Laboratory Services (DirectLabs). There you also will find charts, summary descriptions and graphics that are derived or adapted from more than 500 scientific studies stored on this site's Science Library pages.
Excess iron stored in your body can be dangerous by itself; but when it's accompanied by weakened antioxidant defenses, disease consequences and even premature death occur far more frequently than when those measures are in healthy balance.
Until now, risk markers of iron and antioxidant imbalances have been poorly understood and are seldom ordered by physicians in the course of regular check-ups.

This depends on what you ate or drank, the time of day, your stress level, medications, and other factors. If you have the smallest sore or “ulcer”, see your podiatrist immediately as a serious infection like gangrene can begin in just a couple of days. The damage process can remain virtually invisible until the onset of serious chronic disease or acute condition leading to early mortality. The reference groups varied slightly across studies (?30% to <60%) (see Supplementary Table S3).
The line through the box is the median, and the error bars are the 5th and 95th percentiles. The ORs were adjusted for age, sex, region, residence, BMI, smoking, drinking, physical activity, education levels, dietary factors, and family histories of diabetes.
This has led to widespread under diagnosis or misdiagnosis of critical early disease markers, and an absence of guidance and treatment for most people facing the health risks that an accurate interpretation of these measures can demonstrate. Fortunately, these conditions can be corrected when a combined strategy of iron reduction and healthy diet planing is followed. Horizontal lines indicate confidence intervals, and filled circles show the risk estimates.
Significance levels were determined by the Mann–Whitney U-test and are indicated in the figure. First and 2nd quartiles of serum GGT were combined because of small numbers of cases of newly recognized diabetes. We believe this analysis is somewhat conservative since life expectancy is longer and mean GGT levels are lower in the Austria compared to comparably-aged individuals in the U.S. If you have had uncontrolled diabetes for a long period of time, your A1C level may rise to as high as 25%.
During the subsequent 22-years, individuals having baseline TS% above 55% experienced a 60% greater rate of premature mortality. Of special note here is that GGT in the upper half of the population range increased the risk of diabetes by 100% in normal BMI ranges, by 150% in the overweight BMI range and by 268% in the obese BMI ranges (after adjusting for several relevant factors). Higher serum GGT levels were positively associated with diabetes mellitus, independent of, alcohol consumption, body mass index, hypertension and other confounders. According to glucose tolerance test, 153 were normal and 217 and 181 were diabetic and prediabetic respectively. However, I now have a secret weapon to conquer my fear of salad. I love red onions, and I love garlic. So the two together created a delicious flavor explosion in my mouth that I just have to share..
Supporting this hypothesis, cross-sectional investigation of background exposure to POPs in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey showed relationships similar to those observed for GGT, including a powerful association with prevalent diabetes and no association between obesity and diabetes for very low POP concentrations. Determined to overcome my salad challenged attitude, I began looking at various recipes on the web for chopped salads, and using several as a guide (to which I added my own twist of course) I came up with this great tasting blend of fresh corn, black beans, olives, peppers and avocado. The association between BMI and the incidence of DM (diabetes mellitus) was enhanced by increased GGT levels in women.
HRs were calculated and adjusted for age, family history of diabetes, smoking habits, baseline glucose type, alcohol consumption and ALT. But rest assured that this delicious looking AND TASTING vegan hamburger recipe will have you happy and feeling great about your cruelty free choice.
Instead, you can join the party with something just as tasty, happy in your stance of cruelty free food choices.
And though most vegan cheeses aren’t QUITE the same as cow or goat milk based cheeses, there are many commercial brands and some home made versions which definitely fill the void. After 72h, despite the similarities in triglyceride accumulation, LPON treatment, but not oleate, dramatically affected mitochondrial function as evidenced by decreased respiration, increased mitochondrial membrane potential and ROS formation with concomitant enhanced ketogenesis.
The sender was raving about the fabulousness of this mac and cheese, which I have to admit got my attention. Gamma-glutamyltransferase activities of males and persons older than 45 years were significantly higher than each counterpart.
The part I didn’t like was burning my oven for two hours to cook four patties of wheat meat. Gamma-glutamyltransferase levels increased significantly with the number of cigarettes smoked per day and the frequency of alcohol consumption except for the persons who did not take alcohol.
We were surprised that such a modestly priced mix passed our taste test for vegans and omnis with flying color and a five-star rating. The investigators concluded, "These findings suggest that a raised serum GGT level is an independent risk factor for NIDDM. As noted in other more recent studies on this page, the relationship of GGT to diabetes still exists when appropriate adjustments are made for fat. The more recent studies suggest this relationship is most likely mediated by oxidative stress.
The next article on this page (#18) is a letter to the editor written b by two of the same authors of the editorial (article #2) on our IRON-Diabetes page. As shown in Table 1 (see below), the concentrations of FPG and triglycerides markedly increased among the GGT categories.
Such individuals might benefit from a more intensive therapeutic approach to decrease their global cardiovascular risk, regardless of potential unmeasured effects of lifestyle or obesity.
Conceivably, the significant association of serum GGT concentrations with FPG and triglycerides, observed in our investigation, may be biologically explained by some underlying mechanisms such as hepatic steatosis, insulin resistance, and increased oxidative stress. GGT was significantly associated with the 3-year incidence of individual components of the MetS. The investigators studied the incidence of impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and type 2 diabetes over a seven year period.

Fasting glucose test meaning white
Blood sugar levels in canines


  1. 30.03.2014 at 15:48:28

    (Eg, new medications, insulin usage or ingestion of an oral hypoglycemic lifetime management of blood glucose levels may ultimately.

    Author: GUNKA
  2. 30.03.2014 at 17:21:12

    Have this birth, particularly if the mother's blood glucose levels were.

    Author: Bakinka_111