This form of diabetes develops much more gradually and so symptoms may not be apparent for many years. Individuals with diabetes rapidly become hyperglycaemic and their blood glucose level remains above normal.
Healthy individuals will release insulin to store the excess glucose and return their blood glucose level to normal. Blood glucose in the diabetic rises and stays above normal.The healthy person regulates their glucose back to normal. In the UK, there are significant variations in the frequency of type 2 diabetes between different population groups.
The graph shows the incidence of diabetes in adults over the age of 16 from different population groups (type 1 plus type 2). As families relocate from Asia to Europe, their lifestyle and diet may change to ones that increase the risk of developing diabetes.
Genetic screening of families where someone has diabetes could lead to the identification of family members who have genes that make them susceptible to diabetes.
When glucose is high in the blood but unable to enter cells, the body starts using stores of fat for energy, which results in the production of acidic ketones as a by-product.
Science, Technology and Medicine open access publisher.Publish, read and share novel research. Health and fitness-related gadgets are emerging as a huge trend at this yeara€™s CES, and several companies used Monday eveninga€™s Digital Experience press event to demo their offerings. One of them was iHealth Labs, here talking up two new products: a gadget that measures blood oxygen levels and a new gluco-monitoring system.
The company has already made a name for itself with wireless blood pressure monitors for wrist and arms, and digital scales that measure weight, body fast, muscle mass, and caloric intake. The iHealth Pulse Oximeter (shown above) measures pulse rate (BPM) as well as blood oxygen saturation via a lightweight and portable device that clips to a usera€™s fingertip. Amber writes about lifestyle and mobile tech, including fit tech, mHealth, travel, home automation and more. PCWorld helps you navigate the PC ecosystem to find the products you want and the advice you need to get the job done. It is often diagnosed during healthy screening tests where the blood sugar level is found to be elevated despite there being no symptoms of diabetes. This is quickly absorbed and their blood glucose level is measured over the next two hours. Black Caribbean, Pakistani, Indian and Bangladeshi groups all have high levels of diabetes. Elsayed1[1] Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, Taif University, Taif, Saudi Arabia1. The device uses Bluetooth to take non-invasive measurements, and the results are displayed on an LED screen. The system can also track blood glucose trends over time, and can automatically remind users about medication schedules and test strip expiration dates. If different, look for differences in diet and lifestyle that could explain the change in incidence.
Useful not only for athletes but also for those with breathing problems, heart issues, or other health concerns, the Pulse Oximeter provides a quick and painless way to track blood oxygen levels. Insulin: physicochemical properties and functionInsulin is a hormone that is synthesized in the ?-cells of the pancreas as a proinsulin precursor and is converted to insulin by enzymatic cleavage. The resulting insulin molecule is composed of 51 amino acids arranged into two polypeptide chains - the A and B chains - which are connected by two interchain disulphide bridges. In the secondary structure, chain A consists of two antiparallel ?-helices (A2 to A8 and A13 to A20), while chain B forms a single ?-helix “B9 to B19” followed by a turn and a ? strand “B21 and B30” [2]. The folding of insulin into a tertiary structure is essential for its biological activity (Figure 1b). Insulin has an isoelectric point (pI) of 5.3 and a charge of -2 to -6 in the pH range 7-11. Another intrinsic property of insulin is its ability to readily associate into dimmers, hexamers and higher-order aggregates. At the low concentrations found in the blood stream (< 10-3 µM), insulin exists as a monomer, which is its biologically active form. Following biosynthesis, insulin is stored as crystalline zinc-bound hexamers in vesicles within the pancreatic ?-cells from which secretion occurs in response to elevated blood glucose levels [3]. The biological actions of insulin are initiated when insulin binds to its cell surface receptor. Insulin is an anabolic hormone and when binding to its receptor begins, many protein activation cascades occur.
These include: the translocation of the glucose transporter to the plasma membrane and the influx of glucose, glycogen synthesis, glycolysis and fatty acid synthesis.
Insulin has been observed as promoting the transport of some amino acids and potassium ions. Insulin also inhibits the liberation of free fatty acids and glycerol from the adipose tissue [3].Insulin is used for the treatment of diabetes, a disease which results from a defect in the secretion or action of insulin. Oral delivery of insulin: Why?Insulin is introduced by the parenteral route and two or three injections are needed for the better control of diabetes and in order to reduce the long term complications of hyperglycaemia (retinopathy, neuropathy and nephropathy). Moreover, insulin injected into the subcutaneous tissues goes directly into general circulation and leads to peripheral hyperinsulinemia, which is associated with peripheral hypertension, the development of atherosclerosis, cancer,hypoglycaemia and other adverse metabolic effects [4]. Thus, the conventional subcutaneous injection of insulin is unphysiological because it deprives patients of the benefits of portal insulin since the liver is the major metabolic modulator of the glucose metabolism.Oral insulin is a dream of patients and a challenge for scientists.
For patients, not only are the pain and stress of injections relieved but it may also protect beta cells, avoid the weight gain associated with insulin injections and correct the blunting of the first-phase release of insulin [5].
All these effects are due to the fact that oral route provide insulin directly to the liver through portal circulation, resembling that which occurs in the non-diabetic individual [6]. The achievement of an adequate level of insulin in portal circulation has been associated with more a rapid and significant lowering of plasma glucose and haemoglobin A1c levels, the normalization of the plasma levels of three carbon precursors - such as lactate, pyruvate and alanine - and the hormones cortisol, growth hormone and glucagon [7].Another advantage of oral insulin is that the gastrointestinal tract is immune tolerant compared to other routes of drug administration since immunogenicity has become a major issue for most biotechnology products.
Obstacles to oral deliveryThe major barrier is that of absorption through the gastrointestinal membrane. Generally, the absorption of molecules can occur through the paracellular or the transcellular route. The former is the preferred route for small hydrophilic molecules with a molecular weight below 500 Da [8]. Of course, molecules with a high molecular weight - such as insulin (about 6 KDa) - would not penetrate through this route. This large molecular size, its charge and its hydrophilicity all preclude insulin absorption by transcellular diffusion. In the small intestine, pancreatic proteases consisting of the serine endopeptidase (trypsin, ?-chymotrypsin, elastase and exopeptidases, carboxypeptidases A and B) are responsible for the degradation of proteins [9]. Other enzymes are located at the brush–border membrane (various peptidases) or within the enterocytes of the intestinal tract. Insulin has a delicate structure, and both formulation and processing parameters could influence its stability [11].
Extensive deamidation at the residue AsnA21 of insulin occurs in acid solutions, while in neutral formulations deamidation takes place at AsnB3 at a substantially reduced rate [12]. High temperatures accelerate the formation of covalent insulin dimer and covalent insulin polymer [13].The formulator could handle the enzyme and stability barriers. Also, and with the proper choice of excipients and a properly designed method of production, the stability of insulin could be preserved. TypesNanocarriers are categorized into: polymeric nanoparticles, nanovesicles and solid lipid nanoparticles (Figure 2). There are two types of polymeric nanoparticles: the matrix particles termed ‘nanospheres’ and the reservoir-type named ‘nanocapsules’. Conventionally, liposomal vesicles were developed by the self-assembly of phospholipid molecules in an aqueous environment.Recently, polymeric vesicles were prepared from amphiphilic polymers which form aggregates in aqueous solutions [21]. Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) are submicron colloidal carriers prepared from solid lipids (lipids being solid at room and body temperatures), such as triacylglycerols, complex acylglycerol mixtures or waxes, and dispersed either in water or in an aqueous surfactant solution [22]. LiposomesInsulin-loaded liposomes containing different kinds of bile salts (glycocholate, sodium taurocholate or sodium deoxycholate) were prepared by a reversed-phase evaporation method and their hypoglycaemic activity was assessed after oral administration to male Wistar rats. A hepatic-directed vesicle insulin system (HDV-I) was developed byDiasome Pharmaceuticals, Inc. The vesicles contain a specific proprietary hepatocyte-targeting molecule - biotin-phosphatidylethanolamine - in their phospholipid bilayer. Polymeric nanovesiclesPoly(lactic acid)-b-Pluronic-b-poly(lactic acid) block copolymers were synthesized [21].
This amphiphilic block copolymer aggregates in an aqueous solution to form vesicular nanoparticles. The oral administration of insulin-loaded vesicles to diabetic mice resulted in the reduction of blood glucose levels - 25% of the initial glucose level - which was maintained at this level for an additional 18.5 h [21].

The drug loading capacity in solid lipid nanoparticles was improved by enhancing insulin liposolubility.
Insulin was solubilized into mixed reverse micelles of sodium cholate and soybean phosphatidylcholine and transformed into SLN using a novel reverse micelle-double emulsion technique. The surface of the nanoparticles was modified by chitosan to enhance their penetration through GIT. In addition, chitosan was able to provide stealth properties to SLN, resulting in the absence of phagocytosis. Lectins are proteins that bind sugar reversibly and are involved in many cell recognition and adhesion processes. Wheat germ agglutinin binds (WGA) specifically to cell membranes and is taken up into cells by receptor-mediated endocytosis [28].
Polymers used for the fabrication of polymeric nanoparticlesBoth synthetic and natural polymers were investigated for the production of nanosystems. Several fabrication techniques have been developed and can generally be subdivided into two categories, according to whether a preformed polymer is used or else whether nanoparticles are formed during the polymerization reaction. Meanwhile, the methods of the second category are: emulsion polymerization, interfacial polymerization and interfacial polycondensation. Synthetic polymersUsually, these are well-defined structures that can be modified to yield reasonable degradability and functionality.
Synthetic biodegradable polymers such as poly ?-caprolactone (PCL) poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) and polylactides (PLA) are widely used in drug delivery due to their good biocompatibility, biodegradability and novel drug release behaviour. PLGAPoly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) is an aliphatic polyester synthetic biodegradable biopolymer which is successfully used for the development of nanomedicines. To facilitate loading efficiency, the lipophilicity of the insulin was increased by complexation with sodium lauryl sulphate or sodium oleate. The main shortcomings of PLGA are that the degradation products arising from degradation of PLGA (lactic and glycolic acid) result in the generation of acidic species which can provoke problems for long?term stability when encapsulating bioactive molecules.
Antacid-insulin co-encapsulated PLGA were investigated with a view to increasing the microclimate pH and preventing structural losses and aggregation [36].
PLAPolylactides (PLAs) have similar properties to PLGAs but they are more hydrophobic than PLGAs and they degrade more slowly due to their crystallinity [37].
Compared with PLGA and PLA, PCL is semi?crystalline, has superior viscoelastic properties and possesses easy formability. PCL has the advantage of generating a less acidic environment during degradation as compared with PLGA-based polymers [37]. Nevertheless, the hydrophobic nature of PCL affects the encapsulation of hydrophilic substances, such as peptides, enzymes and other proteins. These nanoparticles were investigated as a carrier for the oral administration of insulin and demonstrated prolonged hypoglycaemic effect of insulin in both diabetic and normal rats. The same author loaded nanoparticles with regular insulin ((Actrapid, Novo Nordisk) or insulin-Aspart ((Novorapid). It is degraded by esterases in biological fluids and produces certain toxic products that will stimulate or damage the central nervous system.
However, PACA polymers are used to encapsulate insulin using emulsion or interfacial polymerization. The oral administration of nanocapsules dispersed in Miglyol 812 to diabetic rats resulted in a 50% reduction of initial glucose levels from the second hour for up to 10-13 days.
Poly (Acrylic acid) These are non-degradable polymers with mucoadhesive properties based on acrylic or methacrylic acid. Anionic polymers, such as methyl acrylic acid (Eudragit L-100) and methyl methacrylate (S-100), have been used to formulate pH sensitive nanocarriers.
Polymethacrylic acid–chitosan–polyethylene glycol nanoparticles were developed by Pawar et al. These nanoparticles displayed excellent binding efficiency on mucin from porcine stomach and elicited pH dependent release profiles in vitro [44].
The nanoparticles were formed by a complex coacervation method using EudragitL100-55 and chitosan of various molecular weights. The distribution, transition and bioadhesion of insulin-loaded pH-sensitive nanoparticles prepared from EudragitL100-55 and chitosan were investigated. Natural polymersThe naturally-occurring polymers of particular interest in the oral delivery of insulin are either polysaccharides or else proteins. Polysaccharides include chitosan, hyaluronan, dextran, cellulose, pullulan, chondroitin sulphate and alginate. DextranDextran sulphate is an exocellular bacterial polysaccharide consisting of linear 1,6-linked D-glucopyranose units and branches beginning from ?-1,3-linkages with approximately 2.3 sulphate groups per glucosyl residue. It is a nontoxic, highly water-soluble, biodegradable and biocompatible branched negatively charged polyion. A nanoparticle insulin delivery system was prepared by the polyelectrolyte complexation of oppositely charged natural polymers - dextran sulphate and chitosan in an aqueous solution. The natural uptake processes of the intestine were utilized for the oral delivery of peptides and proteins.
Vitamin B12 is an example of such carriers and was investigated for delivering different peptides [48]. These nanoparticles were found to be targeted at the systemic circulation through vitamin B12-intrinsicfactor receptor ligand-mediated endocytosis via ileocytes of the intestine [49]. It is a linear copolymer composed of 1,4-linked-?-D-mannuronic acid and ?-L-guluronic acid residues that gel in the presence of divalent cations. It is a nontoxic and biodegradable polyanion that forms polyelectrolyte complexes with polycations, such as chitosan. Insulin-loaded nanoparticles were prepared by the ionotropic pre-gelation of alginate with calcium chloride followed by complexation between alginate and chitosan [50]. Albumin was added to prevent protease attacks on the insulin and chitosan for its mucoadhesive properties, while PEG served as a nanosphere stabilizer toimprove the half-live of the insulin and increase the residence time along the intestine.
Chitosan-PEG-albumin coated nanospheres demonstrated a more than 70% blood glucose reduction, increased insulinemia by a factor of seven and significantly improved the response to the glucose oral tolerance test following oral administration to diabetic rats. Multilayer nanoparticles consisting of calcium cross-linked alginate, dextran sulphate, poloxamer 188, chitosan and an outermost coating of albumin were developed. A 3-factor 3-level Box–Behnken statistical design was used to optimize the nanoparticle formulation. This is because of its favourable biological properties, safety, low cost and easy modification. Compared to synthetic polymers, the degradation products of chitosan are amino sugars, which are easily metabolized by the body. It is obtained by the alkaline N-deacetylation of chitin, which is the primary structural component of the outer skeletons of crustaceans. Chitosan is a weak poly base due to the large quantities of amino groups on its chain [57].
This can be carried out by enzymatic [58,59], physical [60, 61] or chemical methods [62, 63].
Another important property of chitosan is the degree of deacetylation (DDA), defined in terms of the percentage of primary amino groups in the polymer backbone. The solubility of chitosan depends upon the molecular weight and DDA.Chitosan nanoparticles have been prepared using ionotropic gelation with tripolyphosphate or even simply polyelectrolyte complexation between insulin and chitosan. The interaction of chitosan and polyanions leads to the spontaneous formation of nanoparticles in an aqueous environment without the need for heating or the use of organic solvents [65]. In addition, to ease of preparation under mild conditions, a high level of drug entrapment can be achieved so that the protein secondary structure and biological activity is preserved [66]. Insulin-loaded chitosan nanoparticles were prepared by the ionotropic gelation of chitosan with tripolyphosphate anions [67]. To protect insulin from harsh GIT conditions, chitosan nanoparticles were formulated with an enteric coating polymer - hydroxypropyl methylcellulose phthalate (HPMCP) - and evaluated for the oral delivery of insulin. HPMCP-chitosan nanoparticles showed a 2.8-fold increase in their hypoglycaemic effect when compared with chitosan nanoparticles without HPMCP [68].
Self-assembled nanoparticles were developed by mixing the anionic poly-?-glutamic acid (?-PGA) solution with the cationic chitosan solution in the presence of MgSO4 and sodium tripolyphosphate (TPP). TPP and sulphate salts were physically added to crosslink chitosan by ionic gelation, while physical gelation may occur between Mg+ and the carboxylate ions on ?-PGA via an electrostatic interaction.
The pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics of insulin were evaluated in a diabetic rat model and the relative bioavailability was 15% [69].
For the further enhancement of bioavailability, two approaches were investigated: in the first, chitosan- ?-PGA nanoparticles were freeze-dried and placed in an enteric-coated capsule, while in the second, a penetration enhancer - diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) - was added. In both cases the bioavailability was approximately 20% [70,71].The problem of the low solubility of chitosan in the neutral environment of the intestine was solved by synthesis of a partially quaternized derivative of chitosan - Trimethyl chitosan (TMC). Quaternized derivatives of chitosan have a high positive charge, which can easily interact with negatively-charged blood corpuscles, resulting in haemolysis and toxicity [76]. To overcome these problems, chitosan derivatives were modified with polyethylene glycol to reduce the interaction between the cationic polymers and cell membranes [77].

Mechanisms of the absorption of nanoparticlesThe absorption of the nanoparticles was thoroughly reviewed by des Rieux [8]. A particle can traverse the intestinal epithelium by the paracellular (between cells) or transcellular route (through the cells). With the transcellular transport of nanoparticles, the particles are taken up by cells through the endocytic process - which takes place at the cell apical membrane - transported through the cells and released at the basolateral pole. Two types of intestinal cells are important in nanoparticle transcytosis: the enterocytes lining the gastrointestinal tract and the M cells mainly located in Peyer’s patches. The uptake of nanoparticles takes place by one of three endocytotic mechanisms: pinocytosis, macropinocytosis or clathrin-mediated endocytosis. Clathrin vesicles are for particles smaller than 150 nm while phagocytosis is for particulate matters of up to several µm. Lipid-based systemsLipid-based delivery systems (LDS) range from simple oil solutions to complex mixtures of oils, surfactants, cosurfactants and cosolvents [79].
Multiple emulsions containing unsaturated fatty acids (oleic acid, linoleic acid and linolenic acid) have been reported to enhance the ileal and colonic absorption of insulin without tissue damage [81]. MicroemulsionsMicroemulsions are clear, stable, isotropic mixtures of oil, water and surfactant, frequently in combination with a cosurfactant [83]. The average particle size of microemulsions falls in the range of 5-100 nm; they are polydispersed in nature and the polydispersity decreases with decreasing particle size [84].
Insulin-loaded microemulsions were developed using didodecyldimethylammonium bromide as the surfactant, propylene glycol as the co-surfactant, triacetin as the oil phase and insulin solution as the aqueous phase. These microemulsions displayed a 10-fold enhancement in bioavailability compared with a plain insulin solution administeredorally to healthy rats [85].
The improved oral delivery of insulin from a microemulsion system was also demonstrated by others [88]. A stable self-emulsifying formulation for the oral delivery of insulin was developed by Ma et al. RationaleChitosan nanoparticles prepared by ionotropic gelation or polyelectrolyte complexation dissociate easily in an acidic medium. This might be related to the fact that both insulin and chitosan have net positive charges at pH 1.2, that the columbic repulsive forces lead to the dissociation of the complex and that the free insulin is subjected to degradation.
For example, nanoparticles prepared from chitosan and poly (?-glutamic acid) became unstable at pH 1.2 and broke apart [93] and nanoparticles composed of chitosan and tripolyphosphate rendered the protein more susceptible to acid and enzymatic hydrolysis [94]. In the present investigation, we benefited from the advantages of polyelectrolyte complexation between chitosan and insulin, its formulation in an aqueous environment without the need for heat or an organic solvent, and the solution of the shortcomings of burst release by the dispersion of nanoparticles in an oily phase.
The oily vehicle was intended to reduce proteolytic degradation and improve absorption [95, 96]. In addition, the free chitosan amine groups may interact with any adjacent carboxylic acid groups of oleic acid, forming a protective hydrophobic coating layer at the surface of the dispersed phase, which may enhance stability in the GIT and promote lymphatic uptake. The reduction of the particle size of chitosan-oleic acid emulsion to nanosize was achieved by high pressure homogenization or else by the addition of surfactants.
Chitosan plays an important role - as a matrix for nanoparticles and stabilizers of inverted micelles.
This was attributed to the interaction of amine groups of chitosan with the surfactant-cosurfactant aggregates, resulting in the formation of a closer packing of surfactants at the interface, which leads to a reduction in particle size.
Chitosan will be partly fixed near the surfactant head groups with the rest of it inside the water droplet. Interactions between chitosan, surfactants and insulin resulted in smaller microemulsion sizes [97]. Moreover, low molecular weight chitosans were chosen to prepare the nanoparticles, since their intestinal absorption is known to be significantly better than the high molecular weight candidates and showed a negligible cytotoxic effect on the Caco-2 cells [98].The potential of chitosan-fatty acid or chitosan-fatty acid derivative nanoparticles as oral delivery carriers of insulin was investigated systematically.
Chitosan-fatty acid nanocarriers’ developmentDetailed descriptions of the compositions and preparation methods can be found in the relevant patents [99, 100]. Low molecular weight chitosans were obtained by the depolymerization of high molecular weight chitosan using 2 M hydrochloric acid. The resulting fractions were characterized by Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and dynamic light scattering (DLS).
The polyelectrolyte complexation method was utilized to prepare insulin-chitosan nanocomplexes. Chitosan-insulin complexes were prepared by adding chitosan solution to an equal volume of insulin solution in a glass vial under gentle magnetic stirring, and incubating for a further 15 minutes at room temperature.
The parameters affecting the encapsulation efficiency were investigated (final pH of the complex, molecular weight of chitosan, DDA of chitosan, initial concentration of chitosan and insulin, and chitosan: insulin ratio).
A phase diagram was constructed and the results were used as guidance to select the suitable percentages of surfactants, oil and aqueous phases suitable for the nanoparticle dispersion system.
The nanoparticle dispersion system was prepared by mixing two phases - the aqueous phase and the oily phase. To prepare the dispersion system, 50 µl of the aqueous phase was added to 2.5 g of the oily phase during mixing with a vortex mixer (VELP Scientifica, Europe) for 1 min. The chemical and immunological stabilities of insulin after entrapment into nanoparticles were studied. The suitability of the preparation to preserve insulin activity, to withstand gut enzymes and to maintain the stability of insulin upon storage was investigated [101]. The hypoglycaemic effect of the preparation after oral administration to streptozotocin-diabetic rats was evaluated. The bioavailability of the preparation versus subcutaneous injection was calculated together with the pharmacokinetic parameters. Moreover, human studies were conducted where twenty-five healthy volunteers participated in five studies using a two-phase, two-sequence crossover design with a washout period of one day [102].
Depolymerization and characterization of chitosanMost commercially available chitosans possess quite large M.wts.
LMWCs are better amenable for a wide variety of biomedical applications due to their solubility in water [104-106].
In addition, chitooligomers were found to be non-mutagenic and non-genotoxic when orally administered to mice [107].
To generate low molecular weight chitosans from high molecular weight candidates, hydrolysis by hydrochloric acid was adopted due to its practicability and reproducibility.
IR spectrum spectroscopy demonstrated that there was no structure change during depolymerization. Chitosan has a positive zeta potential and its value is affected by the pH, molecular weight, DDA and concentration [108].
LMWCs with an average molecular weight of 13 KDa and DDA ~99% were used for further studies.
Chitosan-insulin polyelectrolyte complexes (PECs)Insulin was first complexed with chitosan through the interaction of negatively charged insulin with positively charged chitosan to form PEC before incorporation into the oily vehicle. As shown in Figure 3, the insulin solution was almost degraded while the chitosan-insulin complex protected the insulin from degradation for at least 24 h.In addition, chitosan has a role in protecting insulin from those enzymes present in the small intestine.
This was reflected in the partial protection of insulin from pancreatin, as depicted in Figure 4, and the protection increases with the increase of the chitosan ratio. ThePEC formationprocess is influenced by a variety of parameters, including the system pH, chitosan molecular weight and DDA.
Oily nanosystem preparation Chitosan-insulin PECs were solubilized in an oily vehicle composed of a surfactant Labrasol, cosurfactantPlurolOleique and an oily vehicle oleic acid. We attempted to formulate an oral insulin delivery system that combined the advantages of nanoencapsulation and the use of an oily vehicle. The nanoparticles were expected to translocate the intestinal epithelium, while the oily vehicle was intended to reduce proteolytic degradation and improve permeability [109, 110]. Chitosan at pH 6 will also interact with oleic acid to coat the particles with a hydrophobic layer. Top view (A) and side view of the chitosan-oleic acid complexcomplex, which were built up in Hyperchem®, was shown in Figures 5.a, b and c, respectively. The conformation of individual chitosan and oleic acid was the same as the complex.It is obvious that the outer structure of the complex was hydrophobic due to presence of oleic acid while chitosan was embedded inside the structure. The effects of three formulation variables (the aqueous chitosan solution to oleic acid ratio, the chitosan molecular weight, and the degree of deacetylation of chitosan) on the viscosity of the system and the length of the emulsified layer (%) were studied in a conventional 23 factorial design.
However, at pH 1.5, chitosan will be available as chitosan hydrochloride, and so no interaction was observed. 50% oleic acid and 50% chitosan aqueous solution (2%) at different pH were mixed and their viscosities were determined, as depicted in Figure 6. This indicates that the rheological properties of this dispersion were notably influenced by other factors - apart from the disperse phase volume fraction - such as the interaction between chitosan and oleic acid.These results were consistent with the surface tension measurements of the chitosan-oleic acid system [97].

Blood sugar levels 6.8 spc
Low sugar level causes encephalopathy


  1. 20.10.2015 at 20:47:49

    Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Normal blood.

    Author: joni
  2. 20.10.2015 at 20:50:23

    Sample on a test strip that risk of hypoglycemia in older have.

    Author: Aftaritetka
  3. 20.10.2015 at 19:13:24

    Hyperglycemia that persists even in fasting states detects the level of glucose in your blood diabetes unless the.

    Author: FULL_GIRL