Informed consent must be obtained from participants in this experiment (parental consent must be granted for minors). Follow all safety precautions when using the blood glucose monitoring kit and when handling blood, as described in the Procedure. You are probably very familiar with the fact that over time, exercise changes your muscles, your lungs, your bones, and even your mindset; but did you know it has an immediate effect on your body's biochemistry?
Investigate how blood glucose (sugar) levels change with exercise, and how to stabilize those levels during and after exercise.
Fortunately, for most of us, hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia are unlikely to occur because our bodies carefully regulate our blood glucose levels.
This video shows how blood glucose levels change over time for people with and without diabetes (Khan Academy, 2011). Of course, in order to regulate glucose, our bodies need to have some to work with in the first place. Although blood glucose levels stay in a safe range for most people, they do fluctuate over the course of a day based on when, how much, and what you eat. Exercise also either increases or decreases blood glucose levels, depending on the person and other factors (the effects of exercise will be further explained in the next paragraph). This video shows how glucose is normally taken up from the blood by cells, and how problems with this process occur in diabetes. Blood glucose monitoring system and additional test strips and lancets, which are small surgical blades used to obtain a drop of blood. We also do our best to make sure that any listed supplier provides prompt, courteous service.
Proceeds from the affiliate programs help support Science Buddies, a 501(c)(3) public charity. Before participating, discuss the science project (and any exercise routine required) with his or her doctor.
Limit exercise to 1–2 sessions a day (to avoid hypoglycemia) unless the person regularly and safely exercises more frequently than this and takes proper safety precautions. Not exercise within 2 hours of going to sleep (to avoid changes in blood glucose levels while the person is asleep). Before testing how exercise affects a volunteer's blood glucose levels, establish a baseline of blood glucose levels for that person.
Become familiar with the blood glucose monitoring system and how to use it to check a person's blood glucose levels. In your lab notebook, make a data table to record your volunteer's baseline blood glucose measurements.
Right before the volunteer eats either breakfast or lunch, use the blood glucose monitoring system to measure his or her blood glucose levels.
Touch the test strip down onto the drop of blood, allowing the blood to be drawn into the strip. Once you are done taking the measurement, properly dispose of the test strip and have the volunteer wash his or her hands. Two hours after the volunteer started eating the meal, check his or her blood glucose levels again, as you did in step 3, above. Repeat steps 3–4 for the next two days so that you have taken these measurements for three days in a row. If possible, try to also have the volunteer keep his or her diet relatively consistent over the three-day period, before and while you take measurements. How did the person's blood glucose levels change from before eating a meal to after eating a meal? You will now measure the volunteer's blood glucose levels before, during, and after exercising for 20 minutes. Note: A person with diabetes should limit exercise to 1 to 2 sessions a day (to avoid hypoglycemia) (unless the person regularly and safely exercises more frequently than this and takes proper safety precautions).
Choose which exercise activity (or combination of activities) you want your volunteer to do. Figure out when to have the volunteer do the exercise activity (either right before they eat breakfast or lunch, or 2 hours after he or she has started eating the meal). If the volunteer does not have diabetes, and their blood glucose levels are not abnormal, it should be safe to have them exercise at either time. If the volunteer has diabetes, it is recommended that exercise is done after eating a meal to prevent low blood glucose levels (hypoglycemia). In your lab notebook, make a data table to record your volunteer's blood glucose measurements. Right before the volunteer starts the exercise activity, use the blood glucose monitoring system to measure his or her blood glucose levels, as you did in step 3 of the previous section. After the volunteer has finished exercising (for 20 minutes), measure his or her blood glucose levels again, as you did in step 3 of the previous section.
Safety Note: Checking blood glucose levels after exercising is important for a person with diabetes so he or she can prevent low blood glucose levels (hypoglycemia) hours later.
Repeat steps 6–8 for the next two days so that you have taken these exercise-related measurements for three days in a row.
If possible, before the measurements are taken each day, try to also have the volunteer keep his or her diet relatively consistent over the three-day period, and consistent to when you took the original blood glucose measurements.
Calculate the average glucose levels for before exercising, during exercising, and after exercising for the three days. Look at your graph and the average glucose levels you calculated and try to interpret your data.
Did the volunteer's blood glucose levels generally increase, decrease, or stay about the same when they exercised?
You will now investigate how the effects of exercise on blood glucose levels could be managed and lessened, keeping the blood glucose levels more stable. Look at your results from the previous section and figure out whether the blood glucose levels were relatively high or low at any point. For an idea of blood glucose level ranges, see step 6 in the "Creating a Baseline" section, above, and the resources in the Bibliography in the Background section. Make a plan for how to lessen the effects of exercise on the volunteer's blood glucose levels by changing only one of the following three factors: (1) eating food, (2) intensity of exercise, and (3) exercise time. Eating food: If a person's blood glucose levels clearly drop during exercise, then eating a carbohydrate snack may help increase his or her blood glucose levels. Intensity of the exercise and time spent exercising: If a person's blood glucose levels clearly decrease or increase during exercise, then doing a less intense exercise or exercising for less time may help.
Safety note: If your volunteer has diabetes, they should talk to their doctor before doing a more intense, or longer, exercise activity. If you have more than one volunteer, make a plan for each volunteer based on their individual results. Once you have planned how the activity will be changed, repeat steps 4–9 of the "Investigating the Effects of Exercise" section, but this time use your modified activity. If you want, you can make a line graph of the averages from the modified activity and the original activity. You should end up with six lines, with three from the averages of each type of activity tested.
Look at your graphs and the average blood glucose levels you calculated and try to interpret your data.
Did the volunteer's blood glucose levels generally increase, decrease, or stay about the same when he or she exercised? Does it look like your plan helped make the volunteer's blood glucose levels more stable when he or she exercised? Overall, were you able to help lessen the effects of exercise on blood glucose levels by changing the volunteer's exercise routine or having them eat?
Eating food changes our blood glucose levels, and different types of foods may affect it differently. How does eating a certain, defined amount of glucose affect a person's blood glucose levels immediately and over time? Compared to a typical science class, please tell us how much you learned doing this project. My group had problems with making sure we recorded what we ate, our levels, and what time we took the reading. The Ask an Expert Forum is intended to be a place where students can go to find answers to science questions that they have been unable to find using other resources. Who does a diabetic turn to if they have questions or do not understand how to manage their disease?
Ever wondered who plans the school lunch, food for patients at a hospital, or the meals for athletes at the Olympics? You may print and distribute up to 200 copies of this document annually, at no charge, for personal and classroom educational use. Reproduction of material from this website without written permission is strictly prohibited. HbA1c is a term often used in relation to diabetes and this guide explains what HbA1c is, how it's used for diabetes diagnosis and how it differs from blood glucose levels. When glucose sticks to these molecules it forms a glycoslated haemoglobin molecule, also known as A1c and HbA1c. Due to the fact that red blood cells survive for 8-12 weeks before renewal, by measuring HbA1c, an average blood glucose reading can be returned. For people with diabetes, an HbA1c level of 6.5% is considered good control, although some people may prefer their numbers to be closer to that of non-diabetics.
How often HbA1c levels should be taken depends on the person with diabetes and their history of control and treatment objections.
There is little point in having HbA1c checked regularly if you are not making efforts to control your diabetes.


Although HbA1c level alone does not predict diabetes complications, good control is known to lower the risk of complications.
In well-controlled diabetes without a high level of glucose in the blood, a lower level of glycosylated haemoglobin will be returned. In the case of poor control, with more glucose, a higher level of glycosylated haemoglobin will be returned.
Limit yourself to a maximum of 1 serving of fresh local seasonal fruit per day – particularly if you are trying to lose weight. There is a simple turnaround to easy weight control and health by elimination or at least limiting your total Fructose intake to less than 10 grams per day. Many groups including dieticians, weight reduction schemes and some advisory bodies keep pushing the fruit barrow. I have friends who can remember getting a single orange as a child in their Christmas stocking as a special treat. It is better than a lot of refined sugar in food but fruit still has a fair load of fructose. The natural source of sugar is fruit and we are meant at a primitive level to search for that sweetness generally at the end of summer, gorge upon the fruit and elegantly metabolise it to fat for winter storage. The trouble is we now have some form of sugar 3 times a day, 365 days a year and wonder why we are making fat every day along with its metabolic consequences. Most modern fruit has been ‘designed’ for a higher sugar content, lower fibre content , with a thinner skin and greater water content to make it ‘juicy’.
There is nothing ‘natural’ about bananas in Tasmania or stone fruit in Northern Queensland at any time of the year. My issue is not with eating whole fruit as much as it is with the quantity and frequency that we currently take in. Have you noticed that the fruit that falls off your trees in your backyard is rotten within 24-48 hours whereas the ‘Modern’ fruit you buy from the supermarket is still fresh a week to 10 days afterwards? Fruit has been around for billions of years but most of our early exposure as cavemen was around the tropics in Africa 50000 – 60000 years ago. The wild fruits varied in availability, size and taste depending on the tree, soil type and obvious environmental factors. Modern fruit production includes soil management, controlled environments and a variety of chemicals to produce the quantity and consistency required for the modern supermarket. Have you noticed that the fruit that falls off your trees in your backyard is rotten within 24-48 hours whereas the ‘Modern’ fruit you buy from the supermarket  is still fresh a week to 10 days afterwards?
I have nothing against fruit and believe that there is plenty of goodness in fruit but to me, it should be up to ONE piece of LOCAL and SEASONAL fruit per day. Fresh vegetables can provide virtually all of the same nutrients and fibre without the Fructose load.  We just prefer fruit to veggies because we like the sweetness more. Fruit varieties are now being designed with more sugar and less fibre to improve transportability and shelf life. There are about 3 teaspoons of sugar in each banana and orange, a couple in apples, peaches and nectarines, about 1 per strawberry. The regular consumption of nuts most days over 30 years is associated with a lower death rate, lower heart attack and respiratory disease rate as well as a lower cancer rate. They also acknowledge that this group were leaner, less likely to smoke, more likely to exercise, and more likely to use multivitamin supplements and that they also consumed more fruits and vegetables and drank more alcohol. Insulin therapy that helps you control blood sugar from meals is called bolus insulin , meaning it?s released in a burst. Here we are trying to provide healthy ranges of Total cholesterol, HDL-C, LDL-C, and triglyceride. Total cholesterol level is the sum of all lipids in your blood lipoproteins (VLDL, LDL, and HDL). Low-density lipoproteins (LDL) cholesterol is considering as bad cholesterol, but not exactly.
Most labs estimate the concentration of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol using Friedewald formula (not ultracentrifuge).
High-density lipoproteins (HDL) cholesterol is considering as good cholesterol, but not exactly.
Many alternative treatments also available, they are herbal, homeopathy, yoga, acupressure, and reflexology. WellAdvantage™ Biometric screenings and activities are a fun and easy way to “learn your numbers” and gain a better understanding of your health status. Recent studies indicate that nearly 1 in 3 adults in the United States have high blood pressure, many of which don’t even know it.
Adding waist circumference to your biometric screening is now believed to be a much more accurate measure of a future health risk than body fat or BMI alone.
Cholesterol is a waxy substance made by the liver and supplied through your diet in animal and dairy products. High cholesterol can lead to a build-up in your arteries, slowing the delivery of blood and oxygen to and from your heart. HDL or the “good” cholesterol protects against heart disease by removing excess cholesterol and other fats (lipids) from the arteries. Diabetes is a group of diseases marked by high levels of blood glucose due to defects in insulin production, insulin action, or both. Blood pressure is a measure of how hard the blood flows against the walls of your arteries as it moves through the body.
Maintain a healthy weight – The more you weigh, the more blood you need to supply oxygen and nutrients to your tissues. Avoid all tobacco – Not only does smoking tobacco immediately raise your blood pressure temporarily, but the chemicals in tobacco can damage the lining of your artery walls.
Limit salt – Too much sodium in your diet can cause you to retain fluid, which increases blood pressure. Monitor your stress – High levels of stress can lead to a temporary, but dramatic, increase in blood pressure.
Most adults spend more of their waking hours at work than anywhere else which makes it an excellent venue for promoting healthful habits. In a total frat move, the American Chemical Society conducted a study which found that the sugar in tequila has the ability to lower blood glucose levels.
Make no mistake though, a tequila diet might help you melt away the pounds but it will also kill you in the process, if you coolly pack away 20 shots of tequila a day to get ripped.
The manliest cocktail you’ll ever order at a bar, which explains why it was Mad Men’s cocktail of choice.
Most bars stock up on packaged margarita mixes that pack a punch but also shoot up the calorie count of this otherwise easy summer cocktail. Stick to the classic mix of 60 ml of premium vodka and 10 ml of vermouth — shaken, not stirred.
Whisky is already known to have a low cal count compared to other favourite binge spirits like beer; and drinking it straight on the rocks slumps down the calories to as low as 90. The experimental design (including consent forms) must be approved by your fair's Scientific Review Committee (SRC). If somebody who has diabetes wants to participate in this science project, review the safety notes at the beginning of the Procedure before starting. You can see this in the amount of glucose (a type of sugar your body uses for fuel) circulating in your blood. The level of glucose in your blood is regulated by insulin, a hormone made by the pancreas.
This graph shows how a person's blood glucose levels may change over the course of a day, and how eating a meal with lots of sugar (sucrose) can affect blood glucose levels. Levels can decrease because glucose in the blood (and stored glucose) is used up during exercise. It's not as smart as you are, and it may occasionally give humorous, ridiculous, or even annoying results! Note: You will test blood glucose levels at least 24 times, and since a lancet and test strip are needed for each test, you will need at least 24 lancets and 24 test strips that work with the monitoring system.
A baseline is a typical amount that can be used to compare to experimental amounts to see if they are much larger, or smaller, than normal.
Be sure to read through all of the instructions that came with the system before you start using it. After a drop of blood has been touched to the test strip, you can read the test strip results on the blood glucose meter. Big changes in the type of food the volunteer eats could significantly affect his or her blood glucose levels (as shown in Figure 1, in the Background tab), but you are taking measurements over three days to try and account for these fluctuations. So if your volunteer has diabetes, find out his or her schedule for the three days you will be doing exercise testing.
The volunteer will exercise for 20 minutes, so make sure that the exercise planned is not too vigorous for your volunteer.
Include space to record the date, time, and whether the measurements are before or after eating a meal.
Be sure to do it around the same time (right before or after the same meal you decided on in step 3) for each day.
Hint: You may want to refer to the information in the Introduction to help you explain the results.
Based on your results from the previous section, you will pick one of the following factors to explore over three days: (1) eating food, (2) intensity of the exercise, or (3) time spent exercising. Research what factors affect blood glucose levels and then investigate how exactly they affect it using a blood glucose monitoring system. Do some background research into this topic to investigate how blood glucose levels change (over time) when a person eats different foods. How do the results from urinalysis strips compare to the results from a glucose monitoring system?


If you have specific questions about your science fair project or science fair, our team of volunteer scientists can help. Athletic trainers help athletes, and other physically active people, avoid such injuries, while also working to improve their strength and conditioning.
Is it really good for us or are we just succumbing to fruit and the food industry for their benefit, not ours? It is juiced, concentrated, dried and added to a variety of foods and marketed as ‘natural sugar’. My reading around this topic points to a variety of fruits being competed for by humans, birds, animals and insects.
Once harvested in commercial enterprises it is often coated with chemical to protect the outer skin, then placed in vacuum storage rooms rich in oxygen and then cooled down to a core temperature of about 0 degrees. Fruit when eaten whole has fibre in it which slows the absorption of fructose and is good for the bowel. This is a guide only and especially for those trying to lose weight – ONE piece of LOCAL and SEASONAL fruit per day.
Previously LDL is considering to promotes plaque formation and thus increases heart disease risk. This indirect LDL cholesterol estimation is unreliable, when the triglyceride is high or low. Various treatment options for high cholesterol are dietary, lifestyle changes and medicines. Our fitness and medical professionals will review and can identify possible health risks based on these screening results.
High blood pressure left undetected or untreated can lead to heart attack, stroke, heart failure, and kidney failure. Carrying too much fat around your middle is associated with an increased risk of developing heart disease and diabetes.
It is a vital and necessary part of your body, as it is used to insulate nerves, produce certain hormones, and make cell membranes.
Diabetes can lead to serious complications, but people with diabetes can take steps to control the disease and lower the risk of complications through healthy lifestyle choices.
Individuals with elevated glucose screening results should consult their healthcare provider. BMI does not measure body fat directly but is a screening tool used to identify possible weight problems in adults. If you have too much body fat — especially if a lot of it is in your waist area — you’re at higher risk for health problems.
It is normal for blood pressure to go up and down throughout the day, but if it stays up, you have high blood pressure.
As the volume of blood circulated through your blood vessels increases, so does the pressure on your artery walls. The higher your heart rate, the harder your heart must work with each contraction — and the stronger the force on your arteries. Having more than two or three drinks in a sitting can also temporarily raise your blood pressure, as it may cause your body to release hormones that increase your blood flow and heart rate. If you try to relax by eating more, using tobacco or drinking alcohol, you may only increase problems with high blood pressure. Employees who participate tend to be more productive, have lower health care costs, lower rates of absenteeism and presenteeism, and have fewer workers’ compensation claims. According to the research, agavins, a natural form of non-digestible sugar found in the agave plant acts as a dietary fibre which aid the the GLP-1 hormone that causes the stomach to empty out slower, hence making people feel fuller for longer. Whether you toss it back with (or without) the traditional lime and salt, even the best tequila in the world won’t go down without a fight. A better choice to drown your mid-week blues in would be a concoction of equal parts gin and soda water, with a splash of tonic instead. With fewer calories and carbs, light beers in the market contain about 90-100 calories (350 ml), while ale packs about 69-75 (350 ml) This will keep you around the 100 calorie range. White wine is often a better choice if you’re watching your calorie intake as it typically contains fewer carbohydrates than red, and with fewer calories ranging from 70-100.
Traditionally served in a highball, flared pint or hurricane glass, the size of your drink dictates your calorie intake.
When blood glucose levels rise after eating a meal, the pancreas releases insulin, which causes cells in the body (such as liver, muscle, and fat cells) to take up glucose, removing it from the blood and storing it to use for energy. To prevent blood glucose levels from dropping too much (and causing hypoglycemia), it is sometimes recommended that people with type 1 diabetes have a snack before and while exercising. The volunteer will be exercising for 20 minutes, so make sure to pick an activity that is not too vigorous for your volunteer. To create a baseline of blood glucose levels, you will measure the volunteer's blood glucose levels over three days, twice a day: right before the volunteer eats a meal (which is called the preprandial plasma glucose) and 2 hours after they started eating the meal (called the postprandial plasma glucose).
If there are too many ketones in the blood, it could mean that a person does not have enough insulin to lower his or her blood glucose levels.) The ketone results may affect whether the person can later safely do the exercise activity required for participating in this science project, and whether you may need to find a new volunteer(s) because of this. Base this on the average baseline glucose levels you determined in step 7 (and any ketone data from step 4) of the previous section, as well as any known medical history the person has. If the investigation is being done on a person with diabetes, they should talk to their doctor before doing testing.
Our Experts won't do the work for you, but they will make suggestions, offer guidance, and help you troubleshoot. Should a sports injury occur, athletic trainers help to evaluate the injury, determine the treatment needed, and design a fitness regime to rehabilitate the athlete so he or she is ready to go out and compete again.
Even those smoothies from juice bars are about the same but at least still have the fibre within them.
The concentrated sugar and lower fibre content with additional processing mean to me that Modern fruit is different. This process obviously varies from fruit to fruit and location but a process occurs.  The fruit is then stored in cool rooms and distributed on as required. The concentrated sugar and lower fibre content with additional processing  mean to me that Modern fruit is different.
Other whole fruits (not dried) are not bad and if you eat them with the skin (well washed) then you get the fibre as well. The cholesterol level raises to heal the inflammation, eradicate infection, remove toxins, etc. Your total cholesterol and HDL level will give you a general idea about your overall cholesterol levels. These include high blood pressure, high blood cholesterol, high triglycerides, diabetes, heart disease and stroke.
High blood pressure usually has no symptoms and increases your risk of stroke, heart attack, and kidney disease. Or switch to an even more slimmed-down version; gin (30 ml) and 150 ml diet soda — reducing your calorie intake to a healthy 60. While a standard pour of red comes packed with antioxidants and ellargic acids that delay the growth of fat cells while slowing down the developments of new ones. Who said life was easy?
One of the healthiest vodka cocktails around, this tomato juice-based drink comes packed with a tonne of do-gooder nutrients including lycopene (good for the prostrate), catechin (skin protective), Vitamin A, flavonoid anti-oxidants, Vitamin C and potassium. When the blood glucose levels start falling, the pancreas stops releasing insulin, and the stored glucose is used for energy. However, exercise can also cause blood glucose levels to increase if too much stored glucose gets released when a person exercises and it is not used up while exercising. Some dietitians and nutritionists also work to educate people about good food choices so they can cook and eat their own healthy meals.
No racing down to the supermarket and filling up the SUV with juicy, perishable fruit from another country. Important, you can lower triglyceride by cutting down carbohydrate intakes (switch to low-carb diet). This data identifies the health needs of a company with the goal of implementing a wellness program that best suits the employee and company.
Learn which screening numbers are a potential risk and interventions you can to take to improve your overall health.
Risk factors (such as high blood pressure and cholesterol) combined with diabetes increase one’s risk for heart disease and stroke. The good news is that you can lower your blood pressure by making changes in your lifestyle.
Watch this video to see how blood glucose levels can change over time for different people.
If there is not enough insulin around, the glucose in the blood will not get stored again, and will remain in the blood (which can cause hyperglycemia).
For people with diabetes, this can be addressed by taking an insulin shot after exercising. Once you have a clear idea of the effects of exercise on blood glucose levels, you will try to diminish the changes by eating food, or by changing the intensity of the exercise or the exercise time. There are about 3 teaspoons of sugar in each banana and orange, a couple in apples, peaches and nectarines, about 1 per strawberry or grape. Type 2 diabetes occurs when a person has insulin resistance, which means the person's body does not respond to insulin, or their pancreas does not make enough insulin. Type 2 diabetes is managed by increasing exercise, changing diet, and possibly by taking medications such as insulin.



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Comments

  1. 23.05.2014 at 14:19:45


    A result below 3am drink a cup of juice if to low.

    Author: Student
  2. 23.05.2014 at 13:20:46


    Team to make lifestyle and medication changes.

    Author: Smert_Nik