Methods: Plasma uric acid, urea and creatinine was estimated by Varley’s method, group of 65 sickle cell patients (35 H’h AS, 30 FIb 55) aged between 2-11 years.
Results: The uric acid level was elevated in sickle cell patients as compared with the normal control group. The main factors which influences serum urate concentration are the metabolic production of urate and the way iii which it is excreted by the Kidneys. Sickle cell gene is highly prevalent in southern Iraq arid particularly in Basrah, where its frequency is from 2.5-I 3%9, However studies have shown that the local disease runs a milder course and that there is greater chance for longer survival10. This knowledge cvolved our concern to examine the uric acid, urea and creatinine levels in sickle cell diseased patients and to compare the results with those reported in the literature. The results expressed as mean valuesjSD and range with 95% confidence intervals of total haemoglobin, packed cell volume (PCV), uric acid, urea and creatinine in sickle cell anaemia (homozygote with Hb SS) patients and in sickle cell trait (heterozygote with Hb AS) compared with normal individuals with haemoglobin (Hb AA) are presented in Table 1 and 2 respectively.
The overall levels of urea and ereatininc were signilleantly lower in the sickle cell patients compared with the normal controls (p The levels in the different sex groups are presented in Table 3. The results showed that the uric acid levels were increased while urea and creatinine levels were significantly decreased in the sickle cell group patients as compared with their age and sex-matched controls. Earlier studies on other populations have demonstrated a high prevalence of hyperuricemia in patients with sickle cell disease as shown in table 4. The level of blood urea and creatinine were significantly lower in the overall sickle cell grouped patients compared with the values in controls (p14. In conclusion this study on Iraqi children has shown an increased level of uric acid and a slight decrease in the level of urea and creatinine in patients with sickle cell disease compared with the controls.
This journal is a member of and subscribes to the principles of the Committee on Publication Ethics. ABCD sponsors treatment for those in need regardless of gender, race or creed, helping them to reach their full potential, to live life with dignity and to take their rightful place in their community.
ABCD works through local Palestinian partners, the Bethlehem Arab Society for Rehabilitation (BASR) based in Beit Jala, The Sheepfold in Beit Sahour and two UNWRA Refugee Camps in Jalazone and Nour Shams.
Funding is constantly needed for new projects and to update and refurbish existing facilities. An individual with elevated blood urea nitrogen levels may have a malfunction of the kidneys. Scientists created a working guitar the size of a red blood cell to illustrate the possible uses of nanotechnology. A blood urea nitrogen test, frequently called a BUN test, is used to determine if the kidneys and liver are functioning appropriately. In most cases, the blood test is done if a medical professional suspects an abnormality in the kidneys.
A sample of blood is needed for the test, which is usually considered painless, except for the minor prick of the needle.
Patients are usually made aware of the results of a blood urea nitrogen test as soon as the healthcare professional who ordered it receives the results. Controlling the level of water is linked to getting rid of nitrogenous waste so we'll deal with them both together. The urea is then transported in the blood to the kidney (where it is extracted and excreted via the bladder).
Urea, along with salt, water and glucose, etc., is extracted from the blood in the kidney by a process called ultrafiltration.
Much of what has been filtered out needs to be returned to the blood - they are too precious to lose - so the next process is called selective reabsorption. When the filtrate reaches the proximal convoluted tubule, sodium (Na+) and chloride (Cl−) ions, glucose, amino acids and vitamins move back into the blood. It is easier to understand if you start with the ascending limb (the second part of the loop of Henle).
Na+ and Cl− are actively pumped out of the filtrate in the tube and into the tissue fluid around it. Na+ and Cl−, being at a very high concentration in the tissue fluid, diffuse down the concentration gradient into the descending limb.
By the time the filtrate reaches the bottom of the descending limb the fluid in the loop has lost a lot of water and is very concentrated. As the fluid then goes up the ascending limb, Na+ and Cl− ions are actively pumped out (as was mentioned a few lines ago) so it gets more and more dilute.
Filtrate passing down the descending limb of the loop of Henle is flowing in the opposite direction to fluid in the ascending limb. This is important because yet more water is drawn out of the tube (at this point called the collecting duct) when it passes through the medulla again. Obviously the amount of water reabsorbed is controlled by the quantity of water in the blood.


The concentration of the blood (water potential) is monitored by osmoreceptors in the hypothalamus. If the concentration is too high impulses are sent to the pituitary gland which then releases more ADH.
Frogs and toads don't have a loop of Henle so these animals are unable to produce concentrated urine. Desert animals have very long loops of Henle so that they can produce extremely concentrated urine so as to lose as little water as possible. Although shark flesh contains high levels of urea and methylamine, any residual toxins that are not washed away when the carcass is cleaned will quickly dissipate when cooked. However, sharks may contain high concentrations of heavy metals, primarily in larger, older individuals. The results were compared with those obtained in a group of 45 age and sex-matched controls with normal haemoglobin (Hb AA).
Erthrocytes contairing mainly haemoglobin “S’ have a short iife span: this is the basus of anaemia1. With this aim in mind, we present in this paper our findings regarding the sickle cell diseased patients and normal controls in Basrah area and discuss our results with those reported previously From other countries and.
Thirty live were diagnosed, as heterozygote carrying Hb AS and 30 homozygote with Hb SS, by cellulose acetate electrophoresis12.
The decrease in urea level may be a consequence of liver dysfunction while the decrease in serum creatinine may be due to reduced muscle mass in these patients. No difference were found whether these patients were diagnosed as heterozygote (HbAS) or honiozygote (HbSS). Uric acid, creatinine and nrea in normal, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase-deficient and HbSS Saudi subjects. Effect of dietary nitrogen on urinary excretion of non-protein nitrogen in adolescent sickle cell patients. Age-adjusted standards for creatinine clearance, Annals of Internal Medicine, 1976:84 567-69.
Generally, this chemical leaves the liver and enters the kidneys where it is expelled from the body through urination.
The patient may be exhibiting symptoms such as frequent urination, pain in the sides, decreased urination, or lower back pain. As with any injection site, there is a minimal risk of infection, although this does not happen often.
High blood urea nitrogen levels may indicate a problem with the kidneys, from an infection, to an abnormal growth, to a disease.
As mentioned before, nitrogenous waste would be toxic if it accumulated so it must be removed from the body. Blood passing the top of the nephron is under high pressure, so fluid is forced through the sieve-like capillaries and into the capsule. Generally they diffuse from the filtrate into the cells lining the proximal convoluted tubule.
This will draw water out of the tube by osmosis, and then the water can be taken away by the blood.
The fluid surrounding the bottom of the loop - in area of the kidney called the medulla - is also very concentrated because of the accumulation of Na+ and Cl− ions. The fluid is increasingly concentrated as it moves down and increasingly dilute as it moves up.
Shark meat is low fat and provides a good source of protein for people living in many parts of the world.
It would he expected that during enthropoiesis increased Synthesis of nucleic acid might occur, thus the destruction of red blood cells lead to increased nucleic acid degradation.
This conclusion is in line with a study investigating the effect of dietary nitrogen on urinary excretion of non-protein nitrogen in sickle cell patients.
Clearance test studies are important to be carried out on these patients as well as with other age groups for the evaluation of their renal function.
Plasma cholesterol and triglycerides level in patients with sickle cell diseases in Basrah.
Nitrogen is produced by urea, a type of chemical waste made from broken down proteins in the liver. Kidneys that are working properly will filter it out effectively, but when there is a problem with the organs, urea will build up in the bloodstream. For people with kidney disease, the test may be performed to detect the extent of kidney damage or to see how well an established treatment is working. For this reason, the presence of creatinine in the blood may also indicate a kidney problem.


This countercurrent flow (or countercurrent multiplier) allows concentrated urine to be produced. Any filtrate not reabsorbed - most of the urea, some water and some salt - is drained into the bladder. The shark meat is delicious, just cut into pieces, add the special powder, then ready to be fried. I also never tried it, although we have some white cartilagineous fishes and I would guess that's similar to shark meat.
It has been validated for durability and all components are easy to maintain and service without the need for special tools.The fluid delivery system with dosing control software is capable of managing multiple injection points and sensors.
Forty five age and sex- matched non-anaemic controls with normal haemoglobin (HbAA) were selected from the same population.
The hyperuricaeniia was caused only if the excretion via kidneys Failed to keep pace with increased production, this often occurred as a result of impaired tubular function due to infarction and hypoxia resulting from sickling7. It was reported that creatinine excretion was lower and this was attributed to smaller physical statue of these patients19. An individual with elevated blood urea nitrogen levels may have a malfunction of the kidneys, while lower levels may indicate a liver abnormality. For instance, individuals on dialysis may be given frequent blood tests to gauge the effectiveness of their treatments. When both a urea nitrogen and a creatinine test are done at the same time, the results will usually be compared for a BUN-to-creatinine ratio. In the event that the injection site starts to rapidly bleed, an individual should apply pressure to the site and seek immediate medical care. Medical providers will typically treat the condition causing the abnormal levels, although there are benign conditions that can cause blood urea nitrogen levels to become unbalanced in either direction.
It does not contain any blood cells or larger proteins, as they are too big to pass out of the capillaries and into the capsule. If the blood is concentrated, more ADH is released; making the walls of the collecting duct more permeable to water so more is reabsorbed back into the blood.
The system can support urea flows up to 120 meters, which enables a wide array of installation options.
As a result of sustained hyperuricemia several sickle cell anaemia cases with gouty arthritis have been reported2,3,8. Airless urea injection provides high dosing accuracy and consistency without the need for designated compressed air.The system’s human machine interface (pictured) can be accessed on the front of the fluid delivery box or remotely via a touch screen tablet. It was suggested that there was an excessive level of uric acid pool due to an increased marrow activity2, and tumover of nucleic acids2.
The haem oglob in concen ti-at ion, phenotype and packed cell volume was measured by routine laboratory methods12. Hyperuricemia develops when urate clearance fall, probably as a result of renal parenchymal damage which has been reported in homozygous sickle cell disease patients16,18.
Since diet and muscle mass were not controlled during this study, further investigation are necessary to study the possihfc contribution of these variables on the level of biochemical parameters. These conditions were associated with many diseases including hemolytic anaemia and certain haemoglobinopathies. The plasma separated from the blood by centrifligation was used, in duplicates, for the estimation of uric acid, urea and creatinine as described by Varley13.
Renal dysfunction in HbSS patients leading to disturbance in the normal ability of the kidney to concentrate urine is well known18,20, which results in an increased concentration of serum creatinine and urea. A decreased excretion of uric acid resulting l’rom impaired tubular function was also suggested2,6,8.
All the results were calculated and presented as the mean±SD and the range with 95% confidence intervals. Therefore it is important to assess the renal function in sickle cell diseased patients and that is by determination of renal clearance of uric acid, urea and creatinine in these patients. The statistical significance of the difference was obtained by student’s “t” test and the difference between the mean with 95% confidence intervals for each parameter in the sickle ceLL diseased patients compared to the mean in normal individuals was estimated. It will be of value to further investigate these patients with clearance studies to determine renal function20,21.



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